Nadine Schibille

Nadine Schibille
French National Centre for Scientific Research | CNRS · IRAMAT Centre Ernest-Babelon

PhD

About

84
Publications
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Introduction
Exploring the production, trade and consumption of glass in the medieval Mediterranean, applying scientific methods, particularly LA-ICP-MS.

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
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Capital of the Abbasid Caliphate between 836 and 892 CE, the palace-city of Samarra offers a precise window into early Islamic art and architecture. Excavations conducted more than 100 years ago are seen as the beginnings of scientific Islamic archaeology, and have yielded an exceptional array of finds including a wealth of glass artefacts. The che...
Article
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Compositional data of archaeological glasses offer an opportunity to trace the movement of materials in the ancient and medieval world. The lack of a comprehensive record of well-dated samples from Egypt, one of the major producers of glass throughout the first millennium CE, has limited the systematic application of a chronological and geographica...
Article
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Significance The Islamic conquest of the Mediterranean has long been associated with fundamental geopolitical and economic transformations that sundered the medieval world from antiquity. An eighth- to ninth-century glass assemblage from Cordoba provides new insights into the processes of technological innovation, adaptation, and dissemination cont...
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Glass mosaic decorations were used throughout the medieval Mediterranean as a powerful medium to convey religious and political agendas, yet we know next to nothing about the source of the materials and the transmission of the necessary technical know-how. Mosaics are generally considered a Byzantine art form, not least due to their prominence in B...
Article
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The Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus built between about 706 and 714/15 CE is the oldest surviving mosque that still preserves large parts of its original architecture and decoration. The origins of the mosaic tesserae have been the subject of debate for more than a thousand years. The earliest sources written two centuries after the construction o...
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This study aims at the characterisation of red and orange glass tesserae from the 4th-century Roman villa of Noheda (Spain). Due to the limited number of analyses available for such ancient materials, many questions remain unanswered about the production processes in the Roman period. Six samples were chosen for their hue variations, including two...
Article
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The composition of archaeological glass reflects the geochemical nature of its raw materials. To determine the origins and distribution of early Islamic glasses from Iran, a set of 169 glass samples from five different sites was analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of 58 elements. The glasses were clas...
Article
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Italy had a prominent role in the Renaissance European glass market, thanks to three centers of production located in Venice, Tuscany, and Liguria. The substantial amount of glass finds excavated in the 16th-century A.D. dumps of the Forum of Caesar is the object of this first interdisciplinary study of glass from Renaissance Rome. The typology rev...
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The reconstruction of the trade routes along which garnets reached Europe in the early Middle Ages demonstrates the persistence of long-distance trade after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. Early medieval garnet jewellery from Italy and the presence of lapidary workshops are important evidence for understanding the dynamics of this commerce bu...
Article
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Base glasses from the eastern Mediterranean which circulated in Rome between the fifth and tenth centuries bear witness to the persistence of long-distance trade after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. LA-ICP-MS data of vessel fragments, mosaic tesserae and indicators of production excavated in the Forum of Caesar identify a substantial amount...
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Analytical data of Roman and early Islamic glass established several primary glass production groups linked to glassmaking centres in the Levant and in Egypt. In contrast, the activities of secondary glass workshops are largely invisible in the compositional fingerprint of first millennium glass. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spect...
Article
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The Great Mosque of Córdoba is the only mediaeval Islamic monument in al-Andalus that still contains some of its original 10th-century glass mosaic decoration, even though they were significantly altered and restored several times in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. By examining analytical, textual, and graphic evidence, this study attempts to re...
Conference Paper
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Tra archeologia e analisi archeometriche: indicatori di produzione e consumo nel centro peninsulare iberico (secoli VII-IX). Il Vetro nel Medioevo - XXI Giornate nazionali di studio del Comitato Nazionale Italiano dell'AIHV, May 2022, Genova, Italy. ⟨hal-03679274⟩. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03679274/
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Excavations in the Roman villa of Aiano yielded twenty glass beads, a pendant, and a glass-recycling furnace, originally interpreted as a bead workshop. This article reassesses the evidence of bead making in light of new data obtained thanks to recent progress in archaeological glass studies. A detailed study of the typology, technology, and chemic...
Article
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Founded in the fifth century on a granite outcrop overlooking the deep valleys of the eastern Massif des Albères and the Roussillon coast, the hilltop settlement of Ultrera/Ultrère was strategically located to dominate the lowlands. Its position on this natural boundary between the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe raises interesting questions a...
Chapter
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Istria and the Kvarner archipelago are strategically located on the main maritime trade routes connecting the eastern Mediterranean with the western provinces of the Byzantine Empire in the late antique period, and with Carolingian Europe in the ninth century. Ecclesiastical and monastic institutions played a significant role in the establishment a...
Article
It has long been assumed that lead glazing technology preceded glassmaking in the Western world and that the technological transfer was from glazes to glass. Here, we present new evidence for the reverse, the indigenous innovation of glassmaking and its transfer to glazes in early Islamic al-Andalus (Spain). Compositional analyses show that Islamic...
Article
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Recent archaeological excavations carried out in the western suburbs of Cordoba (Spain) brought to light numerous fragments of archaeological glass from the caliphal period (929-1031 CE). The typological and compositional analysis by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of 66 fragments enabled the identification o...
Article
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Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA‐ICP‐MS) analyses of loose glass tesserae from the Northwest Quarter of Gerasa/Jerash has enhanced our understanding of the dynamics regulating the production and circulation of glass tesserae in second‐ to eighth‐centuries ce Jordan and the diachronic development of mosaics at the site...
Chapter
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Abstract: Glass from al-Andalus has received little attention from specialized research. Recent progress has shown its interest not only from a formal perspective, but also as an auxiliary source in understanding various aspects of Andalusian society. In this paper, we have compiled in a very synthetic way what we know so far about glass in al-Anda...
Article
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Handheld (portable) X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (pXRF) allows for fast, in situ surface analysis, however, its application in archaeological research requires substantial optimisation. This paper investigates the matrix effects of high lead glass on the experimental results of pXRF in comparison to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass...
Article
Among the finds from Šaqunda is a stained glass (luster) fragment (MIR 051) exhibiting compositional features similar to those of the compositional group Egypt 2, dated from the last quarter of the eighth century to the second half of the ninth century C.E.4 It has an exceptionally low alumina concentration (Al2O3 < 1.5%), a relatively low strontiu...
Article
The materials, painting techniques and conservation state of the enamelled stain glass of the Catalan Modernist workshops operating in Barcelona are studied. It is known for its creativity and artistic value where textured, flashed, coloured and enamelled glasses concur. In the late 19th century, Catalan workshops used a new type of ready-to-be-use...
Article
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A large assemblage (n = 307) of architectural glasses (tesserae and windows) from the early 8th-century Umayyad residential site at Khirbat al-Minya was analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Trace element patterns are essential to establish the provenance of the base glass, while the comparative evaluation of the...
Article
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Migration-period glass beads from Italy are an overlooked source of evidence. This investigation discusses the provenance, economic value and social significance of glass beads from the cemetery of Campo Marchione, northern Italy (c.570 to the end of the seventh century AD). The different chemical compositions and specific forming technologies have...
Article
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Calcium antimonate (in the hexagonal or cubic form) dispersed in the glass matrix is an artificially synthesized phase commonly documented as opacifier for white glasses during the Roman period. Glasses of this type occasionally contain variable amounts of lead oxide. There is no consensus about the origin and role of the lead component in white gl...
Article
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Excavations at the Roman villa of Noheda (Spain) revealed the remains of an exceptionally elaborate fourth-century floor mosaic that contains a surprisingly large number of glass tesserae, representing a broad spectrum of colors. This paper presents the results of the chemical (LA-ICP-MS) and microstructural analyses (SEM-EDS, XRPD) of 420 glass te...
Article
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Ken Dark & Jan Kostenec. 2019. Hagia Sophia in context: an archaeological re-examination of the cathedral of Byzantine Constantinople. Oxford: Oxbow; 978-1-78925-030-5 £55. - Volume 93 Issue 372 - Nadine Schibille
Article
Coloured enamels from the materials used in Modernist workshops from Barcelona were produced and compared to those found in the buildings to explore the reason for the reduced stability of the blue and green enamels. They were made of a lead-zinc borosilicate glass with a low softening point, reasonable stability to corrosion and matching thermal e...
Article
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The transition from the Roman natron-based glass industry to the medieval ash-based tradition in Italy in the latter part of the first millennium CE is still poorly documented. The compositional data of eighteen glass fragments excavated from the Byzantine praetorium in Bari suggest that the development in the southern part of the Peninsula differs...
Article
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Portus Ilicitanus (Picola, Alicante) was the main sea harbour of the Roman Colonia Iulia Ilici Augusta and as such played a crucial role in the supply of fundamental commodities to the Iberian Peninsula. Excavations yielded large quantities of glass in fourth-and early fifth-century contexts. Elemental analysis of 60 samples by laser ablation-induc...
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This study presents the first comprehensive analysis of glass compositions from Visigothic Spain using high resolution laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Major, minor and trace element patterns of 169 well-dated samples from three rural Iberian sites (Congosto, Gózquez and El Pelícano) have brought to light maj...
Article
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This paper presents data obtained by a combined chrono-typological and archaeometric study carried out on an assemblage of glassware and bracelets unearthed at the Ghaznavid Palace of Ghazni, Afghanistan. Pulsating trade and cultural centre located along the Silk Roads, the site of Ghazni has yielded evidence of an uninterrupted archaeological sequ...
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The original version of this article, unfortunately, contained error. An earlier version of Table 2 contained some errors, more specifically in relation to samples K_013, K_018, K_019 and Lz_012. Given in this article is the corrected Table.
Article
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The trade of glass beads has long been assumed to have been under Islamic dominance during the early centuries following the Arab conquest of the Middle East, judged by the prevalence of Islamic beads in the archaeological contexts from Viking Scandinavia to medieval Morocco. This paper explores the impact of the Byzantine-Slavic transition on the...
Article
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Earlier research has shown that several common late antique glass types circulate in Cyprus between the fifth and the seventh century AD, specifically Levantine 1, HLIMT, HIMTa, HIMTb and Egypt 1, HIT, Roman and a plant ash glass. By investigating the glass material from Yeroskipou-Agioi Pente, Maroni-Petrera, and Kalavasos-Kopetra, we aimed to ref...
Article
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This paper discusses the LA-ICP-MS analysis of two well dated glass objects from Cabezo Pardo (Alicante), the first ones to be published in the Iberian Peninsula that date to the early Emiral period. The data characterise the fragments as soda lime silica glasses made using natron as flux. Compositionally, they correspond to two of the most widespr...
Chapter
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The study of glass in Islamic Spain and especially from the Taifa period (11th c.) has received little attention from scholars. The present work reviews the main Arab sources that provide insights into the use and significance of glass in the Taifa of Toledo and contrasts the textual sources with the typological and compositional characteristics of...
Article
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The castle of Gauzón on the north coast of Spain controlled access to the Avilés estuary and was intimately linked to the Asturian monarchy. With the intention of studying the medieval glass trade networks in the kingdom of Asturias and León, the chemical composition of twenty-four glass samples from recent excavations at the castle were determined...
Data
LA-ICP-MS data of glass standards in comparison with published values. (PDF)
Data
LA-ICP-MS data of the ninth-century glass from Samarra (Iraq). (XLSX)
Article
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Naples assumed an important political and economic role within the region of Campania during the late antique period. LA-ICP-MS data of 285 glass tesserae from the catacomb of San Gennaro in Naples confirm that the surge in building activities in the late fourth and early fifth century CE was accompanied by imports of new materials for the producti...
Article
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Prior to the eighteenth century, cobalt was exclusively employed as a colouring agent for vitreous materials, and its use appears to be concurrent with the earliest large-scale production of glass during the Late Bronze Age (LBA). LBA cobalt deposits with a distinctive elemental signature have been identified in the oases of the western Egyptian de...
Article
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Carthage played an important role in maritime exchange networks during the Roman and late antique periods. One hundred ten glass fragments dating to the third to sixth centuries CE from a secondary deposit at the Yasmina Necropolis in Carthage have been analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) to characterise the supply of glass to the city....
Article
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One hundred and forty-one glass fragments from medieval Ciudad de Vascos (Toledo, Spain) were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The glasses fall into three types according to the fluxing agents used: mineral natron, soda-rich plant ash, and a combination of soda ash and lead. The natron glasses can...
Data
LA-ICP-MS data of the glasses from Ciudad de Vascos. (PDF)
Data
LA-ICP-MS data of glass standards in comparison with published values. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary investigation of the mosaics in the main chapel of the Durres amphitheatre, the interpretation and chronological attribution of which have been the subject of debate. Art historical considerations about the mosaic's cultural and artistic affiliations are combined with in situ assessments of...
Article
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El estudio del vidrio antiguo y medieval ha permitido identificar distintos grupos composicionales que son resultado de las características químicas de las materias primas empleadas en su fabricación. Los análisis arqueométricos permiten determinar la procedencia del vidrio, demostrando que el vidrio primario fue producido y comercializado a gran e...
Article
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There is substantial archaeological evidence to suggest that glass mosaics were ubiquitous throughout late antique and Byzantine Asia Minor. However, issues about the manufacture of Byzantine glass tesserae, the diffusion of their technology and the economic implications have been little discussed. This paper presents the results of the analytical...
Article
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The understanding of the glass trade in the first millennium CE relies on the characterisation of well-dated compositional groups and the identification of their primary production sites. 275 Byzantine glass weights from the British Museum and the Bibliothèque nationale de France dating to the sixth and seventh century were analysed by LA-ICP-MS. M...
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The sacred architecture of Byzantium. Art, liturgy and symbolism in early Christian churches. By Nicholas N. Patricios. (Library of Classical Studies, 4.) Pp. xvii + 446 incl. colour frontispiece and 1,120 ills + 20 colour plates. London–New York: I. B. Tauris, 2014. £45. 978 1 78076 291 3 - Volume 66 Issue 2 - Nadine Schibille