Nachiappan Chockalingam

Nachiappan Chockalingam
Staffordshire University | SU · Faculty of Health Sciences

PhD, CEng, CSci, PFHEA, FIPEM
.

About

590
Publications
102,565
Reads
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3,907
Citations
Introduction
I am a multi & inter disciplinary scientist interested in understanding human form and function. The work that I lead encompasses all aspects of biomechanics, gait analysis and assistive technology. Research grants that I have held from the European Commission, Innovate UK, British Council and various charities focuses on musculoskeletal biomechanics, rehabilitation & assistive devices. I currently lead the Centre for Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Technologies at Staffordshire University.
Additional affiliations
December 2018 - present
Guangzhou Sport University
Position
  • Professor
October 2013 - present
Sri Ramachandra University
Position
  • Professor
January 2012 - present
University of Malta
Position
  • Professor
Education
February 1998 - April 1998
Staffordshire University
Field of study
  • Biomechanics
September 1989 - October 1990
University of Dundee
Field of study
  • Biomedical Engineering Science
August 1985 - July 1989
Annamalai University
Field of study
  • Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering

Publications

Publications (590)
Article
Full-text available
Footwear has been documented as a significant factor in the aetiology of foot pain in the general population. Assessing footwear in a clinical setting continues to be practitioner specific and there is limited guidance to direct advice. Health professionals must have access to clinically appropriate and reliable footwear assessment tools to educate...
Article
Background Total contact casts (TCCs) are used to immobilize and unload the foot and ankle for the rehabilitation of ankle fractures and for the management of diabetic foot complications. The kinematic restrictions imposed by TCCs to the foot and ankle also change knee and hip kinematics, however, these changes have not been quantified before. High...
Article
Full-text available
Existing approaches for automated tracking of fascicle length (FL) and pennation angle (PA) rely on the presence of a single, user-defined fascicle (feature tracking) or on the presence of a specific intensity pattern (feature detection) across all the recorded ultrasound images. These prerequisites are seldom met during large dynamic muscle moveme...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic created a challenge for providing assistive technology (AT) and rehabilitation services, with many service providers implementing telehealth service provision for the first time. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences of people accessing and providing AT and rehabilitation services during the pandemic and t...
Conference Paper
Introduction 3D motion analysis can be a valuable tool to inform the clinical management of children with cerebral palsy (1). While plug-in-gait (PIG) (2) has been the conventionally used model, models with the addition of multi-segment foot models have been developed, e.g., Oxford foot model (OFM) (3) and Rizzoli foot model (RFM) (4). The OFM mode...
Conference Paper
Introduction In comparison to typically developing children, trunk movement and control can be linked to the level of impairment and can be greater in children with cerebral palsy (CP) (1,2). Several kinematic trunk models have been proposed (3,4), with differences in segment definitions based on marker placements affecting the orientation of coord...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a rapid shift to remote consultations. The study aimed to explore the prevalence of telehealth consultations amongst allied health professional (AHP) services in the UK National Health Service (NHS), and the potential impact on health inequities and burden of treatment for patients. Methods Cross-sectio...
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate rigid ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) prescription practices for adult men among UK orthotists. Design: A cross-sectional study using a survey was distributed online to UK orthotists by the British Association of Prosthetists and Orthotists to its members and through social media and orthotic net...
Article
Full-text available
To support the effective use of Shore hardness (SH) in research and clinical practice this study investigates whether SH should be interpreted as a measurement of skin or of bulk tissue biomechanics. A 3D finite element model of the heel and a validated model of a Shore-00 durometer were used to simulate testing for different combinations of stiffn...
Poster
Full-text available
Although various clinical assessment methods can be employed for early detection and monitoring of AIS, there is still a need for simple, validated, non-invasive assessment for monitoring nonsurgical treatment to prevent further deformity progression. Currently, within physical activity interventions, there is a need for greater awareness of the im...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Injectable glucocorticoids are widely used in the management of foot pathology, in particular for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the great toe - hallux limitus/rigidus. Injections can be performed using anatomical (blind) guided methods or performed with needle placement aided by the use diagnostic imaging with ultrasound or fluorosc...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a novel concept for the computerized segmentation of ultrasound images of connective tissue based on movement. Tendons and ligaments are capable of almost frictionless movement relative to their neighbouring tissues making them good candidates for movement-based segmentation. To demonstrate this concept, a central cross section...
Article
Full-text available
This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that repetitive loading to the pain threshold can safely recreate overloading-induced soft tissue damage and that localised tissue stiffening can be a potential marker for injury. This concept was demonstrated here for the soft tissue of the sole of the foot where it was found that repeated loading to the pa...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This prospective cohort study aimed to identify the characteristics of patients with diabetic foot ulcer who are at higher risk of amputation and at increased risk of death. Methods: About 103(M/F:60/43) participants, with active foot ulcer at baseline, participated in this study and followed for 22 years till death or lost to foll...
Preprint
Shore hardness (SH) is a non-invasive, cost-effective measurement of a tissue’s resistance to indentation that can enhance clinical research and practice in areas like skin pathologies or diabetic foot ulceration. Even though the measurement itself is relatively simple, correctly interpreting its outcome is challenging. To support the effective use...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Literature indicates that altered plantar loading in people with diabetes could trigger changes in plantar soft tissue biomechanics which, in turn, could affect the risk for ulceration. To stimulate more research in this area, this study uses in vivo testing to investigate the link between plantar loading and tissue hardness. Methods Tissue h...
Preprint
Full-text available
The primary objective of this study was to develop a method that allows accurate quantification of plantar soft tissue stiffness distribution and homogeneity. The secondary aim of this study is to investigate if the differences in soft tissue stiffness distribution and homogeneity can be detected between ulcerated and non-ulcerated foot. Novel meas...
Article
Purpose To validate a new classification system for bespoke thermoplastic ankle foot orthoses (AFOs). Methods Inter- and intra-observer reliability study. A classification system based on the design and function of AFOs was created. Sixty-three independent observers classified thirty-six photographs of different AFOs, according to the proposed cla...
Article
The primary objective of this study was to develop a method that allows accurate quantification of plantar soft tissue stiffness distribution and homogeneity. The secondary aim of this study was to investigate if the differences in soft tissue stiffness distribution and homogeneity can be detected between ulcerated and non-ulcerated foot. Novel mea...
Article
The current study aimed using a two-experiment musculoskeletal simulation-based approach, measuring ACL biomechanics, knee joint kinematics and lower extremity joint loading to examine the effects of both a prophylactic knee sleeve on 1. a sport specific change of direction movement in female footballers and 2. a single leg landing in male football...
Article
Full-text available
Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a common atraumatic knee pathology in runners, with a complex multifactorial aetiology influenced by sex differences. This retrospective case–control study therefore aimed to evaluate lower limb kinetics and kinematics in symptomatic and control male and female runners using musculoskeletal simulation. Lower extremity b...
Article
Background: Although the awareness, diagnosis, management of the complications associated with diabetes have improved in African countries over the past decade, surveillance activities in Tanzania and anecdotal reports from other African countries have suggested an increased prevalence of Charcot Neuroarthropathy (CN) over the past few years. Aim:...
Article
Full-text available
Background Occupational musculoskeletal injuries are prevalent in healthcare workers and are reported to be profession-specific. There is, however, a paucity of information around the injuries sustained from working as a podiatrist. This paper looks at the incidence of injury from working as a podiatrist, the aggravating factors to sustain these in...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a shift to remote consultations, but telehealth consultation guidelines are lacking or inconsistent. Therefore, a scoping review was performed to chart the information in the articles exploring telehealth for the UK allied health professionals (AHPs) and compare them with the UK AHP professional bodi...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented demand on modern healthcare resources. As such, there has been much research and debate on how to best manage patients with COVID-19. Previous studies have shown the benefits of neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning in the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),1 as seen in COV...
Conference Paper
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on orthotic service provision in the UK; with face to face appointments largely reserved for urgent patients and in-patients, and services going through stages of re-opening to routine patients. Most orthotic services have adopted telehealth appointments to ensure patients could still access orthot...
Experiment Findings
COVID-19 has impacted the National Health Service provision, creating urgency for departments to adapt and adopt new ways of delivering healthcare. The purpose of this service evaluation was to determine the emergence of telehealth in orthotic services across the UK in response to COVID-19. A survey exploring telehealth use was distributed online t...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the most costly complications of diabetes. Damage to the soft tissue structure is one of the primary causes of diabetic foot ulcers and most of the current literature focuses on factors such as neuropathy and excessive load. Although the role of blood supply has been reported in the context of macro-circulation, sof...
Article
Background: COVID-19 has had a significant impact on the National Health Service in the United Kingdom (UK). Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 on orthotic services in the United Kingdom. Study design: Cross sectional survey. Methods: An online survey was distributed to UK orthotists approximately 6 months after...
Article
Full-text available
Modern ventilators are increasingly compact and able to deliver a wide range of ventilator modes and sophisticated monitoring capabilities. However, the global availability of ventilators is woefully short of demand. Data on intensive care units (ICUs), a proxy measure for hospital ventilator capacity in low and middle‐income countries (LMIC's), su...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this study was to identify a prognostic model which can predict the risk of future foot ulcer occurrence in patients with diabetes. Methods: 1810(M/F:1012/798) patients, with no active foot ulcer participated in this study. Data from a set of 28 parameters related to the vascular, neurological and biomechanical were collected from t...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster presented at the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Meeting, April 8th –April 11th, 2018, New York.
Article
Full-text available
Elevated foot pressure and high temperatures have been proposed as predictive factors for diabetic foot ulceration; however, on their own, their predictive value is still questionable. This pilot study hypothesized that combining these two measurements in a thermo-pressure model could result in a more reliable risk assessment tool for providing ris...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study aimed to achieve an expert consensus on how to define and group footwear interventions for children, with a further focus on the design characteristics and prescription of off-the-shelf stability footwear for children with mobility impairment. Setting A group of multinational professionals, from clinicians to those involved i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Malta is an obesogenic country with low levels of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) reported amongst Maltese children. Schools play a significant cost-effective role in delivering and encouraging physical activity and thus contributing to population health. So far, there were no specific school-based physical activity...
Article
Full-text available
Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) are an integral part of national joint registers in measuring outcomes of operative procedures and improving quality of care. There is lack of literature comparing outcomes of total ankle replacement (TAR) to total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR). The aim of this study was to compa...
Chapter
Vector coding is a data analysis technique that quantifies inter-segmental coordination and coordination variability of human movement. The usual reporting of vector coding time-series data can be difficult to interpret when multiple trials are superimposed on the same figure. This study describes and presents novel data visualisations for displayi...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying areas in the sole of the foot which are routinely overloaded during daily living is extremely important for the management of the diabetic foot. This work showcases the feasibility of reliably detecting overloading using a low-cost non-electronic technique. This technique uses thin-wall structures that change their properties differentl...
Preprint
Full-text available
This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that repetitive loading to the pain threshold can safely recreate overloading-induced soft tissue damage and that localised tissue stiffening can be used as a marker for injury. This concept was demonstrated here for the soft tissue of the sole of the foot where it was found that repeated loading to the pain...
Article
Full-text available
PURPOSE: Firstly, to provide insight into the differences in ankle kinetics, kinematics and lateral ligament strain between males and females during functional sports movements. In addition, this study explores the prophylactic efficacy of different footwear and bracing modalities. METHODS: Experiment 1 examined male and female athletes performing...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Advanced image segmentation techniques like the Chan-Vese (CV) models transform the segmentation problem into a minimization problem which is then solved using the gradient descent (GD) optimization algorithm. This study explores whether the computational efficiency of CV can be improved when GD is replaced by a different optimization metho...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid developments in prosthetics, orthotics and wheelchair technology have increased clinical research and development initiatives worldwide. Testing technology involving human subjects / participants creates ethical concerns that are under-explored and become a critical issue for prosthetists, orthotists, researchers and their clients, especially...
Article
Assessing skin perfusion is an established and reliable method to study impaired lower limb blood flow. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) has been identified as the current gold standard to measure skin perfusion. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a new low-cost imaging technique to assess perfusion. However, it is unclear how results ob...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Cutaneous microcirculatory impairments are associated with skin injury to the foot. Post Occlusive Reactive Hyperemia (PORH) is one of the quick and easy methods to assess microcirculatory function. However, there are variations in the protocols currently used. Hence, this study aimed to systematically investigate the reproducibility o...
Article
Introduction The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the effect of immobilization of the cervical spine using orthotic devices. The review focused on the methodologies of the studies to see if this might be a contributing factor to the lack of available clinical guidelines on spinal immobilization using orthoses. Methods This...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Studies have shown conflicting characteristic thermographic patterns of the feet in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, to date no studies have compared thermographic patterns of patients with RA in remission and healthy controls. Thus this study aimed to investigate whether the thermal characteristics of the feet of...
Article
Full-text available
Background It is estimated that 2% of the global childhood population is living with some form of mobility impairment. Although footwear interventions are proposed to aid ambulation, there appears to be a paucity in the understanding of the effects of therapeutic footwear. This review aims to explore the effectiveness of footwear as an intervention...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Malta is currently facing a childhood obesity epidemic. Almost 40% of primary and 42% of secondary school children are overweight or obese secondary to energy imbalances and increase in sedentary behaviour. Physical inactivity is another risk factor for childhood obesity and hence adult obesity, leading to various physical, psychologica...
Article
Background The paper-grip-test (PGT) involves pulling a small card from underneath the participant’s foot while asking them to grip with their hallux. The PGT is shown to be effective in detecting foot muscle-weakening but its outcome is operator-dependent. To overcome this limitation, an enhanced PGT (EPGT) is proposed that replaces the pass/fail...