Mutlu Cukurova

Mutlu Cukurova
University College London | UCL · UCL Knowledge Lab

University College London

About

118
Publications
27,783
Reads
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1,006
Citations
Citations since 2016
116 Research Items
1002 Citations
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Introduction
I am investigating the potential of analytics and artificial intelligence solutions to support human learning. I am particularly interested in supporting people's ability to learn how to learn and solve complex problems collaboratively. My work aims to address the pressing social-educational challenge of preparing people for a future that will require a great deal more than the routine cognitive skills currently prized by education systems: https://iris.ucl.ac.uk/iris/browse/profile?upi=MCUKU85

Publications

Publications (118)
Preprint
Full-text available
Reflective writing is part of many higher education courses across the globe. It is often considered a challenging task for students as it requires self-regulated learning skills to appropriately plan, timely engage and deeply reflect on learning experiences. Despite an advance in writing analytics and the pervasiveness of human feedback aimed to s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Collaborative problem solving (CPS) enables student groups to complete learning tasks, construct knowledge, and solve problems. Previous research has argued the importance to examine the complexity of CPS, including its multimodality, dynamics, and synergy from the complex adaptive systems perspective. However, there is limited empirical research e...
Article
Full-text available
Data-driven technologies for education, such as artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) systems, learning analytics dashboards, open learner models, and other applications, are often created with an aspiration to help teachers make better, evidence-informed decisions in the classroom. Addressing gender, racial, and other biases inherent to data...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research on learning spaces and their impact on teaching and learning has been a field of inquiry for decades. Yet, technological advances regarding data capture and analysis tools are opening both new opportunities and challenges in this area. This chapter illustrates the potential key role of multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) in advancing lear...
Chapter
There is a growing interest in the research and use of multimodal data in learning analytics. This paper presents a systematic literature review of multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) research to assess (i) the available evidence of impact on learning outcomes in real-world contexts and (ii) explore the extent to which ethical considerations are a...
Chapter
The use of sensors to support learning research and practice is not new, whether in the context of wearable technology, context-aware technology, ubiquitous systems or else. Nevertheless, the proliferation of sensing technology has driven the field of learning technology in the development of tools and methods that can generate and leverage sensor-...
Article
Full-text available
The existing evidence shows that parental engagement is one of the most effective educational interventions. Most parents, carers, and teachers are aware of that and wish to engage with their children’s education. However, most parents are still only peripherally involved through parent–teacher evenings, school activities, or by helping their child...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is little doubt about the significant role the educators play in supporting the collaboration process through monitoring and supporting effective interactions. However, little work explores the educators’ needs and understandings of the analytics generated to measure the process of collaboration in online learning settings. In this chapter, w...
Chapter
This paper reports on research that aims to examine what tutoring practices in an online environment can promote students’ self-regulated learning (SRL). First, we propose a theoretically grounded framework of signifiers that can be used to track tutor-student interactions with respect to SRL. Second, we operationalize the framework using log data...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Whilst digital education is becoming a reality for schools there is a role for CCI research to move beyond researcher-led school engagements to other types of research that support schools and their staff to lead on the appropriation of digital technologies. One way to advance our understanding of this issue is to examine and consolidate reflection...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present the concept of AI Readiness, along with a framework for developing AI Readiness training. ‘AI Readiness’ can be framed as a contextualised way of helping people to understand AI, in particular, data-driven AI. The nature of AI Readiness training is not the same as merely learning about AI. Rather, AI Readiness recognises t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Numerous AI ethics checklists and frameworks have been proposed focusing on different dimensions of ethical AI such as fairness, explainability, and safety. Yet, no such work has been done on developing transparent AI systems for real-world educational scenarios. This paper presents a Transparency Index framework that has been iteratively co-design...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence from various domains underlines the critical role that human factors, and especially trust, play in adopting technology by practitioners. In the case of Artificial Intelligence (AI) powered tools, the issue is even more complex due to practitioners' AI-specific misconceptions, myths, and fears (e.g., mass unemployment and privacy violation...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous AI ethics checklists and frameworks have been proposed focusing on different dimensions of ethical AI such as fairness, explainability, and safety. Yet, no such work has been done on developing transparent AI systems for real-world educational scenarios. This paper presents a Transparency Index framework that has been iteratively co-design...
Article
Full-text available
One-to-one online tutoring provided by human tutors can improve students’ learning outcomes. However, monitoring the quality of such tutoring is a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a learning analytics approach to monitoring online one-to-one tutoring quality. The approach analyzes teacher behaviours and classifies tutoring sessions...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the ultimate goals of several learning analytics (LA) initiatives is to close the loop and support students’ and teachers’ reflective practices. Although there has been a proliferation of end-user interfaces (often in the form of dashboards), various limitations have already been identified in the literature such as key stakeholders not bein...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evidence from various domains underlines the key role that human factors, and especially, trust, play in the adoption of technology by practitioners. In the case of Artificial Intelligence (AI) driven learning analytics tools, the issue is even more complex due to practitioners’ AI-specific misconceptions, myths, and fears (i.e., mass unemployment...
Preprint
Full-text available
Learning analytics research is increasingly using multimodal data (MMD) streams and complex Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques to support the learning and teaching processes. However, due to the nature of MMD and certain AI techniques used to process them, Multimodal Learning Analytics (MMLA) may present significant ethical challenges. This pa...
Article
Full-text available
The context of a 2.5 year academia-led programme for the educational technology sector in the United Kingdom is used to explore the role of logic models as boundary objects to support the programme objectives. The programme provided educational research training and mentoring to participants from 252 small and medium-sized enterprises to support th...
Chapter
Many universities aim to improve students’ 'learning to learn' (LTL) skills to prepare them for post-academic life. This requires evaluating LTL and integrating it into the university’s curriculum and assessment regimes. Data is essential to provide evidence for the evaluation of LTL, meaning that available data sources must be connected to the typ...
Chapter
Many universities aim to improve students' 'learning to learn' (LTL) skills to prepare them for post-academic life. This requires evaluating LTL and integrating it into the university's curriculum and assessment regimes. Data is essential to provide evidence for the evaluation of LTL, meaning that available data sources must be connected to the typ...
Chapter
Numerous AI ethics checklists and frameworks have been proposed focusing on different dimensions of ethical AI such as fairness, explainability, and safety. Yet, no such work has been done on developing transparent AI systems for real-world educational scenarios. This paper presents a Transparency Index framework that has been iteratively co-design...
Chapter
Full-text available
Several studies have shown a positive relationship between measures of gaze behaviours and the quality of student group collaboration over the past decade. Gaze behaviours, however, are frequently employed to investigate i) students’ online interactions and ii) calculated as cumulative measures of collaboration, rarely providing insights into the a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidence from various domains underlines the key role that human factors, and especially, trust, play in the adoption of technology by practitioners. In the case of Artificial Intelligence (AI) driven learning analytics tools, the issue is even more complex due to practitioners’ AI-specific misconceptions, myths, and fears (i.e., mass unemployment...
Preprint
Full-text available
One-to-one online tutoring provided by human tutors can improve students’ learning outcomes. However, monitoring the quality of such tutoring is a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a learning analytics approach for monitoring online one-to-one tutoring quality. The approach analyses teacher behaviours and classifies tutoring sessions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidence from various domains underlines the key role that human factors, and especially, trust, play in the adoption of AI-based technology by professionals. As AI-based educational technology is increasingly entering K-12 education, it is expected that issues of trust would influence the acceptance of such technology by educators as well, but lit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evidence from various domains underlines the key role that human factors, and especially, trust, play in the adoption of AI-based technology by professionals. As AI-based educational technology is increasingly entering K-12 education, it is expected that issues of trust would influence the acceptance of such technology by educators as well, but lit...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) competence is imperative to academic achievement. For reflective academic writing tasks, which are common for university assessments, this is especially the case since students are often required to plan the task independently to be successful. The purpose of the current study was to examine different reflection behavi...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is little doubt about the significant role the educators play in supporting the collaboration process through monitoring and supporting effective interactions. However, little work explores the educators’ needs and understandings of the analytics generated to measure the process of collaboration in online learning settings. In this chapter, w...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in the research and use of multimodal data in learning analytics. This paper presents a systematic literature review of multimodal learning analytics (MMLA) research to assess i) the available evidence of impact on learning outcomes in real-world contexts and ii) explore the extent to which ethical considerations are add...
Article
Full-text available
Learners are expected to stay wakeful and focused while interacting with e-learning platforms. Although wakefulness of learners strongly relates to educational outcomes, detecting drowsy learning behaviors only from log data is not an easy task. In this study, we describe the results of our research to model learners’ wakefulness based on multimoda...
Preprint
Full-text available
Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) competence is an important aspect of online learning. SRL is an internal process, but analytics can offer an externalisation trigger to allow for observable effects on learner behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between students’ SRL competence and their learning engagement behaviours o...
Article
Full-text available
Collaborative problem-solving (CPS) is an essential skill in the workplace in the 21st century, but the assessment and support of the CPS process with scientifically objective evidence are challenging. This research aims to understand in-class CPS interaction by investigating the change of a dyad's cognitive engagement during a mathematics lesson....
Article
Full-text available
Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) competence is an important aspect of online learning. SRL is an internal process, but analytics can offer an externalisation trigger to allow for observable effects on learner behaviours. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between students' SRL competence and their learning engagement behaviours o...
Chapter
This paper explores the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, and the mental models of those who develop or use them. In particular, we consider unsupervised models, as well as the ‘organisational co-learning process’ that creates them, as learning affordances. The co-learning process involves inputs originating both from the h...
Chapter
Full-text available
Remote meetings have become the norm for most students learning synchronously at a distance during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. This has motivated the use of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) solutions to support the teaching and learning practice in these settings. However, the use of such solutions requires new research particularl...
Conference Paper
Remote meetings have become the norm for most students learning synchronously at a distance during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. This has motivated the use of artificial intelligence in education (AIED) solutions to support the teaching and learning practice in these settings. However, the use of such solutions requires new research particularl...
Article
New interactive physical-digital play technologies are shaping the way children play. These technologies refer to digital play technologies that engage children in analogue (non-digital) forms of behaviour, either alone or with others. Current interactive physical-digital play technologies include robots, digital agents, mixed or augmented reality...
Conference Paper
Workshop proposal for CrossMMLA focused on collecting and analysing multimodal data across the physical and the virtual. Under the current global pandemic, cross physical and virtual spaces play a substantial factor and challenge for MMLA, which is focused on collaborative learning in physical spaces. The workshop proposes an asynchronous format th...
Conference Paper
This paper briefly examines the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, the learning affordances that such models offer, and the mental models of those who use them. We consider the unsupervised models as learning affordances. We use a case study involving unsupervised modelling via commonly used methods such as clustering, to ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper briefly examines the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, the learning affordances that such models offer, and the mental models of those who use them. We consider the unsupervised models as learning affordances. We use a case study involving unsupervised modelling via commonly used methods such as clustering, to ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Workshop proposal for CrossMMLA focused on collecting and analysing multimodal data across the physical and the virtual. Under the current global pandemic, cross physical and virtual spaces play a substantial factor and challenge for MMLA, which is focused on collaborative learning in physical spaces. The workshop proposes an asynchronous format th...
Article
Full-text available
While Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research has at its core the desire to support student learning, experience from other AI domains suggest that such ethical intentions are not by themselves sufficient. There is also the need to consider explicitly issues such as fairness, accountability, transparency, bias, autonomy, agency, and in...
Article
Full-text available
The EDUCAtional Technology Exchange programme (EDUCATE) at UCL Institute of Education provides the context for this paper, which describes the programme’s vision, objectives and key activities, and sets the context for the collection of articles that follow. This university-led programme was underpinned by Luckin’s (2016) golden triangle of evidenc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores the relationship between unsupervised machine learning models, and the mental models of those who develop or use them. In particular, we consider unsupervised models, as well as the ‘organisational co-learning process’ that creates them, as learning affordances. The co-learning process involves inputs originating both from the h...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The COVID-19 crisis has fundamentally transformed the healthcare training and education landscape, resulting in a desperate need for a system-wide exploration of scalable, flexible, user-friendly and resilient solutions that mitigate the long-term impact on the development of a skilled healthcare workforce that can deliver high-quality patient care...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Automatic analysis of students’ collaborative interactions in physi- cal settings is an emerging problem with a wide range of applica- tions in education. However, this problem has been proven to be challenging due to the complex, interdependent and dynamic na- ture of student interactions in real-world contexts. In this paper, we propose a novel f...
Preprint
Full-text available
New physical-digital play technologies are shaping the way children play. These technologies include robots, digital agents, mixed or augmented reality devices, and smart-eye based gaming. Little is known, however, about the ways in which these new play technologies could promote or damage child development. This systematic review was aimed at unde...
Article
Full-text available
Learning outcomes are the result of interactions between intraindividual factors, such as prior knowledge, emotions and motivation; as well as the contextual factors in which the learning takes place (Dumas, McNeish, & Greene, 2020). If any, perhaps only a few Learning Analytics (LA) researchers and practitioners would disagree with this shared und...
Chapter
There is increasing interest in the conceptualization of Self-Regulated learning (SRL) as a dynamic process which unfolds over the course of a learning activity. This is partly because this conceptualization could potentially be operationalized and used as the basis for AI and analytics tools which monitor and scaffold SRL in real-time. However, wh...
Conference Paper
We describe a Research-through-Design (RtD) project that explores the Internet of Things (IoT) as a resource for children's free play outdoors. Based on initial insights from a design ethnography, we developed four RtD prototypes for social play in different scenarios of use outdoors, including congregating on a street or in a park to play physical...
Article
Full-text available
Although collaboration is considered a key 21st-century skill, oftentimes it is only assessed through the outcome measures of individual learners. In this paper, we draw upon collaborative cognitive load theory (CCLT) to explain the process of collaboration in learning from the point of view of the collective, rather than an individual learner. Usi...
Conference Paper
In this study, we describe the results of our research to model collaborative problem-solving (CPS) competence based on analytics generated from video data. We have collected ~500 mins video data from 15 groups of 3 students working to solve design problems collaboratively. Initially, with the help of OpenPose, we automatically generated frequency...
Book
This two-volume set LNAI 12163 and 12164 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 21th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2020, held in Ifrane, Morocco, in July 2020.* The 49 full papers presented together with 66 short, 4 industry & innovation, 4 doctoral consortium, and 4 workshop papers were carefully revie...
Book
This two-volume set LNAI 12163 and 12164 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 21th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2020, held in Ifrane, Morocco, in July 2020.* The 49 full papers presented together with 66 short, 4 industry & innovation, 4 doctoral consortium, and 4 workshop papers were carefully revie...
Conference Paper
There is increasing interest in the conceptualization of Self-Regulated learning (SRL) as a dynamic process which unfolds over the course of a learning activity. This is partly because this conceptualization could potentially be operationalized and used as the basis for AI and analytics tools which monitor and scaffold SRL in real-time. However, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is attracting a great deal of attention and it is important to investigate the public perceptions of AI and their impact on the perceived credibility of research evidence. In the literature, there is evidence that people overweight research evidence when framed in neuroscience findings. In this paper, we present the fin...
Chapter
Composed of insightful essays from top figures in their respective fields, the book also shows how a thorough understanding of this critical discipline all but ensures better decision making when it comes to education.
Article
Full-text available
Interdisciplinary research from the learning sciences has helped us understand a great deal about the way that humans learn, and as a result we now have an improved understanding about how best to teach and train people. This same body of research must now be used to better inform the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies for use...
Chapter
One of the fundamental aims of authoring tools is to provide teachers with opportunities to configure, modify and generally appropriate the content and pedagogical strategies of intelligent systems. Despite some progress in the field, there is still a need for tools that have low thresholds in terms of the users’ technical expertise. Here, we demon...
Chapter
There are many aspects of tutoring that are associated with social and emotional learning. These are complex processes that involve dynamic combinations of skills, abilities and knowledge. Here, we present the results of our investigation on the particular personal, emotional, and experience traits of tutors who are likely to be successful at socia...
Article
Full-text available
The question: “What is an appropriate role for AI?” is the subject of much discussion and interest. Arguments about whether AI should be a human replacing technology or a human assisting technology frequently take centre stage. Education is no exception when it comes to questions about the role that AI should play, and as with many other profession...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The nature of the appropriate role for AI is a topic of great interest in many disciplines, and Education is no exception. The initial focus of AI in Education research was on attempts to create systems that are as perceptive as human teachers. Therefore, the majority of early research in the field focused on designing autonomous intelligent tutori...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on a design-led study in the UK that aimed to understand barriers to children (aged 5 to 14 years) 'playing out' in their neighbourhood and explore the potential of the Internet of Things (IoT) for supporting children's free play that extends outdoors. The study forms a design ethnography, combining observational fieldwork with design pro...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Creativity is often viewed as a fundamental educational capability. Science can play a role in nurturing creativity. Research suggests that creative pedagogy, including interdisciplinary teaching , can engage students with science. Previous studies into teachers’ attitudes to science and creativity have been largely situated within nati...
Conference Paper
There are many aspects of tutoring that are associated with social and emotional learning. These are complex processes that involve dynamic combinations of skills, abilities and knowledge. Here, we present the results of our investigation on the particular personal, emotional, and experience traits of tutors who are likely to be successful at socia...
Conference Paper
One of the fundamental aims of authoring tools is to provide teachers with opportunities to configure, modify and generally appropriate the content and pedagogical strategies of intelligent systems. Despite some progress in the field, there is still a need for tools that have low thresholds in terms of the users’ technical expertise. Here, we demon...
Article
EDUCATE is a London‐based programme that supports the development of research‐informed educational technology (EdTech), allowing entrepreneurs and start‐ups to create their products and services, and simultaneously grow their companies in a more evidence‐informed manner. The programme partners businesses with researchers who mentor, guide and suppo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Different paradigms of research interpret the social reality in different ways and these differences are not always apparent in technology-enhanced learning research. However, a paradigm’s visibility and its elements’ internal consistency are fundamental to the quality of research. As a philosophical position, a paradigm guides researchers to under...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Different paradigms of research interpret the social reality in different ways and these differences are not always apparent in technology enhanced learning research. However a paradigm’s visibility and its elements’ internal consistency are fundamental to the quality of research. As a philosophical position, a paradigm guides researchers to unders...
Conference Paper
CRISS is a flexible and scalable cloud-based digital learning ecosystem that has the potential to allow the guided acquisition, evaluation and certification of digital competences. This demonstration will highlight some of the key activities under development, their underlying pedagogy and how the platform’s features support the acquisition, assess...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
EDUCATE is a London-based partnership that supports and promotes the use of research-based education technology, allowing entrepreneurs and start-ups to develop their products and services, and grow their companies in an evidence-informed manner. The EDUCATE process connects businesses with researchers who will mentor, guide and support them on the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Teachers need to know what aspects of any proposed innovative practice are supported by evidence and are likely to be effective. However, when there is insufficient time or money to conduct a detailed trial of each proposed innovation, are there other less resource intensive methods that can be used? Here, we present a study conducted with thirty-s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Practice-based learning activities with a focus on Science, Technology, Art, Math and Engineering (STEAM) are providing new opportunities for teaching these subjects. However, we lack widely accepted ways of assessing and monitoring these practices to inform educators and learners and enable the provision of effective support. Here, we report the r...