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Murzy Jhabvala

Murzy Jhabvala
NASA · Instrument Systems and Technology Division

Ph.D

About

207
Publications
17,680
Reads
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4,920
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1974 - present
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Position
  • Chief Engineer, ISTD
Description
  • Conceive, design, fabricate and space qualify a wide range of unique semiconductor devices and UV-to-infrared detectors. Lead instrument development including QWIP camera development, custom focal planes, MEMS based assemblies.
Education
September 1976 - May 1980
University of Maryland, College Park
Field of study
  • Electrical/Semiconductor Engineering
August 1973 - May 1974
Northwestern University
Field of study
  • Biomedical/Electrical engineering
September 1969 - January 1973
University of Rhode Island
Field of study
  • Engineering Science

Publications

Publications (207)
Article
During 2019, an infrared camera, the compact thermal imager (CTI), recorded 15 million images of the Earth from the International Space Station. CTI is based on strained-layer superlattice (SLS) detector technology. The camera covered the spectral range from 3 to 11 µm in two spectral channels, 3.3–5.4 and 7.8–10.7 µm. Individual image frames were...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal response of the surface to solar insolation is a function of the topography and the thermal physical characteristics of the landscape, which include bulk density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and surface albedo and emissivity. Thermal imaging is routinely used to constrain thermal physical properties by characterizing or modeling cha...
Article
Full-text available
The demonstration of a newly developed compact thermal imager (CTI) on the International Space Station (ISS) has provided not only a technology advancement but a rich high-resolution dataset on global clouds, atmospheric and land emissions. This study showed that the free-running CTI instrument could be calibrated to produce scientifically useful r...
Article
A systematic calibration approach is presented to correlate the digital output of an infrared camera and the scene temperature. Aided by the optoelectronic properties of the camera, as few as two experimental data points are needed to establish this correlation. This approach can readily include the effects of atmospheric transmission, scene emissi...
Article
Full-text available
Since the initial experiments nearly 50 years ago, techniques for detecting caves using airborne and spacecraft acquired thermal imagery have improved markedly. These advances are largely due to a combination of higher instrument sensitivity, modern computing systems, and processor intensive analytical techniques. Through applying these advancement...
Data
This dataset is one of many used in the development of the manuscript 'Advancing Cave Detection using Terrain Analysis and Thermal Imagery' by Wynne et al. 2021. Manuscript Abstract: Since the initial experiments nearly 50 years ago, techniques for detecting caves using airborne and spacecraft acquired thermal imagery have improved markedly. These...
Research
As part of a NASA-funded study of diurnal thermal imaging at a Mars analog site, we conducted simultaneous oblique thermal imaging and in situ temperature measurements within two regions of interest on the Pisgah lava field, near Ludlow, California. Both regions of interest contained either cave or cave-like alcoves. Data released in this report wa...
Poster
Full-text available
Caves often support sensitive animal populations ranging from bats to subterranean-adapted invertebrates, salamanders, and fishes. Developing a framework to detect caves using GIS and remote sensing could serve as an invaluable conservation tool. Researchers could systematic identify caves on the landscape, prioritize caves for biological survey du...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the design and testing of the Cryogenic Flex Cable (CFC) delivered for the Near-Infrared Spectro-Photometer (NISP) instrument [1] for the ESA Euclid mission [2, 3]. The Euclid spacecraft is scheduled for launch in the summer of 2022. It will observe ∼ 1/3 of the total sky using a telescope with 1.2m SiC primary mirror, passively cooled...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Compact Lunar Mineralogy Imager (CLuMI) is a MWIR/LWIR hyperspectral imager to identify and characterize lunar materials and ice(s) on surface and walls from 1-5 meters standoff distance. The measurements support the decadal survey priority science goal of dating surface material using spectral imagery to identify stratification and exposed materia...
Article
Full-text available
The compact thermal imager (CTI) is a dual-band, strained-layer-superlattice (SLS) detector–based instrument that was installed on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) in conjunction with the third Robotic Refueling Mission 3 (RRM3) in 2018. The CTI serves as a pathfinder for future thermal infrared capability on Landsat. The CTI i...
Article
Full-text available
High-resolution Airborne Wide-band Camera (HAWC+) is the facility far-infrared imager and polarimeter for SOFIA, NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. It is designed to cover the portion of the infrared spectrum that is completely inaccessible to ground-based observatories and which is essential for studies of astronomical source...
Article
Full-text available
The OSIRIS-REx Visible and Infrared Spectrometer (OVIRS) is a point spectrometer covering the spectral range of 0.4 to 4.3 microns (25,000-2300 cm-1). Its primary purpose is to map the surface composition of the asteroid Bennu, the target asteroid of the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. The information it returns will help guide the selec...
Conference Paper
In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (...
Conference Paper
In support of the European Space Agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne Imaging Systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the Detector Characterization Laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (...
Article
Full-text available
We report high-resolution observations at mid-infrared wavelengths of a minor solar flare, SOL2014-09-24T17T17:50 (C7.0), using Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) cameras at an auxiliary of the McMath-Pierce telescope. The flare emissions, the first simultaneous observations in two mid-infrared bands at $5\ \mu$m and $8\ \mu$m with white-li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Since Rinker’s [1] groundbreaking work on terrestrial cave detection nearly 50 years ago, our ability to find caves using airborne and spacecraft acquired imagery has improved considerably. Due to superior analytical techniques, improved instrument optics, and high resolution imagery, we have furthered terrestrial cave detection capab...
Article
Full-text available
Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency (QE). To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced in precise specification. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements (DE) and the thickness of the acti...
Article
Resonator-Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency (QE). To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced in precise specification. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements (DE) and the thickness of the acti...
Conference Paper
In the past decade, many modernized Lighter-Than-Air (LTA) aerostat and airship remote sensing systems have been developed, tested, and reported. Various types of deployed LTA systems, either tethered or cruised, near surface or near space altitude, have the distinctive capability for either near-stationary or dynamically-stable flight operations o...
Conference Paper
The quantum efficiency of QWIPs is difficult to predict and optimize. Recently, we have established a quantitative 3- dimensional electromagnetic model for QE computation. In this work, we used this model to design and optimize new detector structures. In one approach, we adjusted the detector volume to resonate strongly with the scattered light fr...
Conference Paper
We applied a recent electromagnetic model to design the resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector (R-QWIP). In this design, we used an array of rings as diffractive elements to diffract normal incident light into parallel propagation and used the pixel volume as a resonator to intensify the diffracted light. With a proper pixel size, the detect...
Conference Paper
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) requires testing of the full optical system in a cryogenic vacuum environment before launch. Challenges with the telescope architecture and the test environment lead to placing removable optical test sources at the Cassegrain intermediate focus of the Telescope. The optical test sources are used to establish th...
Article
Full-text available
The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) on Landsat 8 is the latest thermal sensor in that series of missions. Unlike the previous single channel sensors, TIRS uses two channels to cover the 10-12 micron band. It is also a pushbroom imager; a departure from the previous whiskbroom approach. Nevertheless, the instrument requirements are defined such that...
Article
We applied a recent electromagnetic model to design the resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector (R-QWIP). In this design, we used an array of rings as diffractive elements to diffract normal incident light into parallel propagation and used the pixel volume as a resonator to intensify the diffracted light. With a proper pixel size, the detect...
Chapter
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in the field of thermal infrared remote sensing. Temperature is one of the most important physical environmental variables monitored by earth observing remote sensing systems. Temperature ranges define the boundaries of habitats on our planet. Thermal hazards endanger our resources...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the collection of thermal images by Landsat sensors already on orbit and to introduce a new Landsat thermal sensor. The chapter describes the Landsat 4 and 5 thematic mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) sensors, the calibration of their thermal bands, and the design and prelaunch...
Conference Paper
The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will realize its scientific objectives through high sensitivity linear X-ray polarization measurements in the 2-10 keV band. The GEMS X-ray polarimeters, based on the photoelectric effect, provide a strong polarization response with high quantum efficiency over a broad band-pass by a novel imp...
Article
The quantum efficiency (QE) of a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) is historically difficult to predict and optimize. This difficulty is due to the lack of a quantitative model to calculate QE for a given detector structure. In this paper, we found that by expressing QE in terms of a volumetric integral of the vertical electric field, the...
Article
Rigorous electromagnetic field modeling is applied to calculate the quantum efficiency of various quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) geometries. We found quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for corrugated-QWIPs, grating-coupled QWIPs, and enhanced-QWIPs, and the model explains adequately the spectral lineshapes of the quant...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The development of GaAs quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center began in the late 1980s and has continued ever since. Initial developments produced single element detectors and shortly thereafter in 1990 a 128× 128 element array was developed in collaboration with AT&T Bell Labs and Rockwell Science Center...
Conference Paper
Rigorous electromagnetic field modeling is applied to calculate the quantum efficiency (QE) of various quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) geometries. We found quantitative agreement between theory and experiment for linear grating coupled QWIPs, cross-grating coupled QWIPs, corrugated-QWIPs, and enhanced-QWIPs. Also, the model adequately ex...
Article
We have extended our investigation of corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (FPAs) into the far infrared regime. Specifically, we are developing the detectors for the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) used in the Landsat Data Continuity Mission. To maintain a low dark current, we adopted a low doping density of 0.6×1018 cm-...
Article
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on board the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a two-channel, push-broom imager that will continue Landsat thermal band measurements of the Earth. The core of the instrument consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays whose data are combined to effectively produce a linear array of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The focal plane assembly for the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) instrument on NASA’s Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) consists of three 512 x 640 GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays. The three arrays are precisely mounted and aligned on a silicon carrier substrate to provide a continuous viewing swath of 1850 pixels in two...
Conference Paper
Rigorous electromagnetic (EM) field modeling is applied to calculate the external quantum efficiency (QE) of various quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) pixel geometries with thinned substrates. We found that for a 24 × 24 × 1.5 mum3 cross-grating QWIP, the QE is peaked at 13.0, 11.0, and 8.4 mum, insensitive to the grating periods. These pe...
Conference Paper
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) on board the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a two-channel, push-broom imager that will continue Landsat thermal band measurements of the Earth. The core of the instrument consists of three Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) arrays whose data are combined to effectively produce a linear array of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), a joint NASA and USGS mission, is scheduled for launch in December, 2012. The LDCM instrument payload will consist of the Operational Land Imager (OLI), provided by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corporation (BATC) under contract to NASA and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), provided by NASA's Goddard Sp...
Article
We have extended our investigation of corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (C-QWIP FPAs) into the far infrared regime. Specifically, we are developing the detectors for the thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) used in the NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission. This mission requires infrared detection cutoff at 12.5μm and FPAs...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) is a QWIP based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) [1]. The TIRS instrument is a dual channel far infrared imager with the two bands centered at 10.8µm and 12.0µm. The focal plane assembly (FPA) consists of three 640x512 GaAs Quantum W...
Conference Paper
We have extended our investigation of corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector focal plane arrays (C-QWIP FPAs) into the far infrared regime. Specifically, we are developing the detectors for the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) used in the Landsat Data Continuity Mission. This mission requires infrared detection cutoff at 12.5 mum and FPAs ope...
Article
Full-text available
The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a QWIP based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) [See Landsat project description at: http://landsathandbook.gsfc.nasa.gov/handbook/handbook_htmls/chapter1/chapter1.html, [1]. The LDCM is planned to be launched in late 2012 and will...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research has shown one example differentiating caves from non-cave anomalies in the Mojave Desert, CA. This work has important implications for detecting caves on the Moon and Mars.
Article
We demonstrated a 256 times 256 voltage-tunable two- color corrugated quantum-well infrared-photodetector focal plane array. The detector operation is based on photocurrent asymmetry in a double-superlattice quantum well structure. By using a broadband corrugated light coupling scheme, we obtained a quantum efficiency of 24% in the mid-wave (MW) ba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We have developed microshutter array systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as multi-object aperture arrays for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument. The instrument will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope, after the Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter ar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The microshutter array (MSA) is a key component in the James Webb Space Telescope Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) instrument. The James Webb Space Telescope is the next generation of a space-borne astronomy platform that is scheduled to be launched in 2013. However, in order to effectively operate the array and meet the severe operational requ...
Conference Paper
The advanced airborne multisensor imaging system (AAMIS) has been developed for a light fixed wing aircraft. It integrates a suite of state-of-the-art electro-optical (EO), thermal, hyperspectral, and Lidar imaging instrument packages for simultaneous active ranging and passive imaging that covers the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum of the visible an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A complex MEMS device, microshutter array system, is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instrument will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter array...
Article
One of the James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) primary science goals is to characterize the epoch of galaxy formation in the universe and observe the first galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This goal requires multi-band imaging and spectroscopic data in the near infrared portion of the spectrum for large numbers of very faint galaxies. Because suc...
Article
A complex MEMS device, microshutter array system, is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for use as an aperture array for a Near-Infrared Spectrometer (NirSpec). The instrument will be carried on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next generation of space telescope after Hubble Space Telescope retires. The microshutter array...