Murray Laugesen

Murray Laugesen
Health New Zealand

FNZCPHM

About

105
Publications
23,132
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4,341
Citations

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Background: Combination nicotine replacement therapy shows additive cessation benefits. We aimed to find out the effectiveness of combining nicotine patches with an e-cigarette (with and without nicotine) on six-month smoking abstinence. Methods: We did a pragmatic, three-arm, parallel-group trial in New Zealand in adult smokers who were e-cigar...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Evidence indicates e-cigarettes can help people quit smoking; however, more confirmatory trials are needed. To date, no trials have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of combining nicotine patches with e-cigarettes (with and without nicotine) for smoking cessation. Methods and analysis This study is a pragmatic, three-arm, communi...
Article
Introduction: E-cigarettes have potential to support tobacco cessation or reduction, but how nicotine content affects smokers' subjective perceptions and use of e-cigarettes, rather than tobacco, is unclear. Method: Thirty-five adult daily smokers who had not previously tried e-cigarettes were recruited from two cities in New Zealand in 2016-17....
Article
Can nicotine-containing electronic cigarettes (NECs) help to reducing smoking prevalence for Maori and Pacific Island persons in New Zealand? We compared simulated demand for tobacco cigarettes, reactions to firsttime use of NECs, and the impact of NEC availability on tobacco demand for New Zealand European and Maori/Pacific Island smokers. New Zea...
Article
Aim: We compared changes in tobacco consumption and diet in relation to changes in life expectancy in 1988-1998 in 22 OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Method: Between 1985 and 1995 using regression analysis we estimated differences in tobacco consumption per adult and the differences in the sum of atherogen...
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Introduction: Novel nicotine delivery systems represent an evolving part of the tobacco harm reduction strategy. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of nicotine delivered by P3L, a pulmonary nicotine delivery system, and its effects on smoking urges and craving relief in relation to Nicorette® inhalator were evaluated. Methods: This open-label, asc...
Article
Introduction: Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes might be useful as part of a tobacco control strategy, but relatively little is known about their acceptability as substitutes for regular cigarettes. We compared subjective effects and demand for regular cigarettes and Very Low Nicotine Content (VLNC) cigarettes, and estimated cross-price...
Article
Although smokers have higher rates of delay discounting, the extent to which this depends on smoking habit and nicotine use is unclear. Because personality factors are correlated with both delay discounting and smoking, we assessed the extent to which the effect size for smoking and delay discounting was attenuated by using the primary dimensions o...
Article
Objective: To compare changes in smoking habit and psychological addiction in Māori/Pacific and NZ European smokers in response to two annual excise tax increases from 2012 to 2014. Methods: Smokers from New Zealand cities completed questionnaires at three time points before and after two excise tax increases. Results: There were no significan...
Article
Nicotine electronic cigarettes (NECs) are becoming increasingly popular as a potentially safer alternative to tobacco but little is known regarding their subjective effects, including possible gender differences. Participants were New Zealand smokers with no intention to quit (N=357) and whom had never used an NEC. During an interview in November-D...
Article
To analyse electronic cigarette (EC) brands available in New Zealand for nicotine and toxicant yield ratings. Fourteen EC brands were analysed before and after nicotine exhaustion for nicotine and nine for major toxicants. Concentration of nicotine and aldehydes in vapour was measured and compared with the nicotine and aldehydes in the smoke of a M...
Article
Introduction. Cigarette purchase tasks are used increasingly to measure simulated demand curves for tobacco. However, there is currently limited information about the temporal stability of demand curves obtained from these tasks. Method. We interviewed a sample (N=210) of smokers in New Zealand both before and after a 10% increase in the tobacco ex...
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Full-text available
Introduction. Our goal was to measure the cross-price elasticity of e-cigarettes and simulated demand for tobacco cigarettes both in the presence and absence of e-cigarette availability. Method. A sample of New Zealand smokers (N=210) completed a Cigarette Purchase Task to indicate their demand for tobacco at a range of prices. They sampled an e-ci...
Article
Objective To determine if smokers unmotivated to quit reduce usual cigarette consumption when cigarettes priced according to nicotine content are made available. Methods Randomised, parallel-group, trial (ACTRN12612000914864) undertaken in Wakatipu/Central Otago, New Zealand. Dependent adult daily smokers unmotivated to quit were randomly allocated...
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Full-text available
Background: Tobacco excise taxes are known to be effective in reducing smoking at the population level, but less research has examined how individual smokers respond to changes in tax policy. We ask whether price elasticities for individual smokers, derived from simulated demand curves obtained with a cigarette purchase task (CPT), can predict cha...
Article
Full-text available
The New Zealand (NZ) government has set a goal to reduce smoking prevalence to 5% by 2025. Furthermore, it wants to achieve this for all population groups, even though current smoking prevalences are significantly higher (45%) among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders), Pacific peoples (31%) and those living in the most deprived neighborhoods (38%). D...
Article
Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more eff ective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit.
Article
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can deliver nicotine and mitigate tobacco withdrawal and are used by many smokers to assist quit attempts. We investigated whether e-cigarettes are more effective than nicotine patches at helping smokers to quit. We did this pragmatic randomised-controlled superiority trial in Auckland, New Zealand, between Sept...
Article
Full-text available
Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems [ENDS]) are electrically powered devices generally similar in appearance to a cigarette that deliver a propylene glycol and/or glycerol mist to the airway of users when drawing on the mouthpiece. Nicotine and other substances such as flavourings may be included i...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND Nicotine electronic cigarettes (NECs) were illegal to sell or advertise in New Zealand during 2012, where 17% of adults smoke tobacco cigarettes daily. METHODS Smokers age 18 and over who purchased their own cigarettes were recruited on worksites and by newspaper publicity; 343 were interviewed face to face in four cities and rewarded w...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND In 2011-12, 17% of New Zealand adults age 15 and over smoked daily. Government bans tobacco promotions and indoor smoking in workplaces and hospitality venues, supports a ‘smokefree nation’ goal by 2025, and is increasing tobacco excise 10% annually to 2016 when 20 factory-made (FM) cigarettes will likely cost >$20. METHODS In 2012, 343...
Article
To determine whether adding a low tax category for very-low nicotine content (denicotinised or Denic) cigarettes would facilitate higher excise and reduced consumption of addictive cigarettes (AddictiveCigs, defined as containing =2 mg nicotine per cigarette). Nicotine content was laboratory-tested to classify cigarettes into two tiers for excise....
Article
Aim To determine the combined effect of very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes and usual Quitline care [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and behavioural support] on smoking abstinence, in smokers motivated to quit. Design Single-blind, parallel randomized trial. Setting New Zealand. Participants Smokers who called the Quitline for quitting s...
Article
To determine the effect of offering smokers who want to quit easy access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), a period of familiarization and choice of product on smoking abstinence at 6 months. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. New Zealand. A total of 1410 adult smokers who called the national Quitline for quitting support were randomiz...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and...
Article
Reports an error in "Pulmonary delivery of nicotine pyruvate: Sensory and pharmacokinetic characteristics" by Jed E. Rose, James E. Turner, Thangaraju Murugesan, Frédérique M. Behm and Murray Laugesen (Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2010[Oct], Vol 18[5], 385-394). Some of the descriptors in Table 1 (p. 391) were incorrectly denoted a...
Article
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Current smoking cessation treatments focus on addressing the pharmacological dependence of smokers on nicotine. However, new strategies are needed that address both nicotine dependence and the psychological dependence on cigarettes as the source of nicotine. Evidence from a number of small smoking cessation studies suggests that the use of cigarett...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacokinetic and subjective responses to a prototype nicotine pyruvate (NP) aerosol generation system. In nine healthy adult daily cigarette smokers, plasma nicotine levels and subjective responses were assessed after double-blind administration of 10 inhalations of: NP (10 μg/puff, 20 μg/puff, and 30 μg/puf...
Article
To determine the effectiveness of 2 weeks' pre-cessation nicotine patches and/or gum on smoking abstinence at 6 months. Pragmatic randomized controlled trial. New Zealand. Eleven hundred adult, dependent smokers who called the New Zealand Quitline between March 2006 and May 2007 for support to stop smoking were randomized to 2 weeks of nicotine pat...
Article
To determine effects on craving, user satisfaction, and consumption patterns of two new nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) used for eight hours after overnight tobacco abstinence. In a within-subject, cross-over trial participants were randomly assigned Zonnic nicotine mouth spray (1 mg/spray), Zonnic nicotine lozenge (2.5 mg), Nicorette gum (4 m...
Article
AIM: To phase out sales of cigarettes and of smoking tobacco products in New Zealand by the year 2020. CURRENT SITUATION: 99% of tobacco is smoked as cigarettes. Cigarettes are highly addictive, lethal, and cannot be made safer. Since 1950 commercial cigarettes have prematurely killed over 160,000 New Zealanders. Despite causes-disease warnings on...
Article
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To measure the short-term effects of an electronic nicotine delivery device ("e cigarette", ENDD) on desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, acceptability, pharmacokinetic properties and adverse effects. Single blind randomised repeated measures cross-over trial of the Ruyan V8 ENDD. University research centre in Auckland, New Zealand. 40 adult depen...
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Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes have increased in popularity, yet their comparative potential toxicity is uncertain. This study compares smoking of RYO and factory-made (FM) cigarettes on smoking pattern and immediate potential toxicity. At a research clinic, 26 RYO and 22 FM volunteer male cigarette smokers, (addicted and overnight-tobacco-abstinen...
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We compared the effects of a 4-mg oral nicotine pouch (Zonnic pouch), with nicotine chewing gum and placebo pouch, on withdrawal discomfort after overnight tobacco abstinence. We also assessed participants' preferences, satisfaction, and consumption patterns. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way crossover study of 30 adult smokers....
Article
To assess whether smoking declined markedly since 2003, as reported by the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) of 2007. Comparison of daily smoking prevalence from the NZHS, Census, and annual ACNielsen Ltd smoking prevalence survey against tobacco and cigarette volumes released to the domestic market, 1996-2007. From 2003 to 2007, NZHS-reported daily...
Article
To identify the proportion of adult cigarette smokers who have experienced cigarette-caused fires and burns and to describe smoker characteristics associated with increased risk of cigarette-caused fires and burns. Data on cigarette-caused fires and burns were collected in the baseline questionnaire of a randomised trial of a smoking cessation inte...
Article
Individuals have lost full autonomy over their smoking when quitting becomes unpleasant or difficult. We examined autonomy in relation to smoking frequency and lifetime cigarette use. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by three convenience samples of Year 10 students (ages 14-15) in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004 (n=96,156). The Hoo...
Article
The New Zealand 2003 Smoke-free Environments Amendment Act (SEAA) extended existing restrictions on smoking in office and retail workplaces by introducing smoking bans in bars, casinos, members' clubs, restaurants and nearly all other workplaces from 10 December 2004. To evaluate the implementation and outcomes of aspects of the SEAA relating to sm...
Article
As smoking is very common in R-rated films, we sought to determine if viewing R-rated films is associated with adolescent smoking. Three annual cross-sectional surveys conducted of 88,505 Year 10 students of largely European, Maori, Asian or Pacific Islander ethnicity in secondary schools in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004. Outcomes of interest w...
Article
To compare the relative importance on adolescent smoking of the influence from parental smoking and peer smoking. National New Zealand crosssectional survey of 14,936 female and 14,349 male Year 10 students (aged 14 and 15 years) who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2002. Adolescents with both parents smoking had th...
Article
Smokers need new products and policies to escape smoking's risks. And the next generation needs policies that will better protect them from becoming smokers. Low-nitrosamine tobacco snuff (hereafter termed 'snuff') is 20 times less dangerous than cigarette smoking. Its sale as nasal snuff raises the question as to how long cigarettes, including cig...
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To compare relative toxic emissions scores (RTE) of the carbon filter cigarette Marlboro UltraSmooth (MUS), against regular Marlboro, Holiday, and British Columbian brands. MUS cigarettes were purchased in Tampa, Florida; Marlboro regular and Holiday were purchased in Auckland, New Zealand, and all emissions tested by Labstat International Inc, Kit...
Article
To review New Zealand red meat and meat fat supply trends before and after the introduction of the Quality Mark standard. Review of trends in: per capita meat fat supply estimates from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); carcase and meat cut composition reports of knife dissection and chemical analyses; the fate of fat trim; and a Lincoln...
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To compare the emissions toxicity of two manufactured cigarette brands, one with and one without a charcoal filter, in the light of manufacturers' laboratory research findings on the properties of charcoal filters. Emissions of Mild Seven charcoal filter brands, regular (labelled '12 mg tar') and Light (labelled '9 mg tar') purchased in 2004, were...
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To explore the scope for regulating to reduce the toxicity of manufactured cigarettes sold in New Zealand (NZ), based on published toxicant emissions by brand. Internet searches of published cigarette smoke emissions of 13 toxicants chosen on risk assessment principles, for 20 British Columbian, 15 Australian brands, and one NZ brand, Holiday Extra...
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For over 100 years taxation has been a common method of revenue collection in New Zealand and the major policy instrument for reducing tobacco use since the comprehensive tobacco control programme began in 19851. Tobacco tax rates have been raised once or twice a year since that time2. A comparison of cigarette prices in relation to income in the y...
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To investigate whether parental smoking and other parental behaviours are risk factors for smoking in 14- and 15-year-old children. National cross-sectional survey of 14 930 female and 14 341 male 4th form students who answered an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire in November 2001. The effect of both parents smoking on the risk of daily sm...
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To compare the burning characteristics of the tobacco and paper of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes, and set a fire safety standard of manufacture to largely reduce the fire risk from discarded cigarettes. (1) Cigarette extinction test of ignition strength: 40 cigarettes per brand, lit and placed on 15 layers of filter paper, in accordance w...
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To test the correlation of per capita A1 beta-casein (A1/capita) and milk protein with: 1) ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality; 2) Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (DM-1) incidence. A1/capita was estimated as the product of per capita cow milk and cream supply and its A1 beta-casein content (A1/beta) (calculated from herd tests and...
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To investigate whether pocket money amount and socio-economic status are risk factors for smoking in 14 and 15 year old children. This was a national cross-sectional survey of 4th form students who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2000. Socio-economic status was determined from the Ministry of Education school socio...
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To estimate the number of deaths attributable to second hand smoke (SHS), to distinguish attributable and potentially avoidable burdens of mortality, and to identify the most important sources of uncertainty in these estimates. A case study approach, using exposure and mortality data for New Zealand. In New Zealand, deaths caused by past exposures...
Article
Surveys of fourth form (Year 10) students reported a 37% increase in daily smoking from 11.6% in 1992 to 15.5% in 1997. We report the results of two further surveys carried out in 1998 and 1999 to determine trends in smoking prevalence among fourth form students. Data from students attending the 72 schools in all four surveys were analysed. The pro...
Article
To compare the New Zealand food supply and trends from 1961 to 1995 with other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, with an emphasis on foods linked with coronary heart disease (CHD). Food and Agricultural Organization per capita food supply statistics for 24 OECD countries were converted to nutritional supply va...
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To review the impact of New Zealand's tobacco control programme from 1985 to 1998 on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption, and to estimate the scope for further reduction. Country case study; interventions, with outcomes ranked internationally across time. New Zealand 1985-98; for 1985-95, 23 OECD countries. Between 1985 and 1998, New Zealand...
Chapter
The Smoke-free Coalition of over 20 national health agencies lobbied Government from mid-1995 to mid-1996, starting six months behind tobacco lobbyists. A weak Smoke-free Environments Amendment Bill was introduced to Parliament in late 1995. The challenge was to get it strengthened.
Chapter
Aim: To estimate mortality due to tobacco use in districts of 10 000 to 1 million population and build local support for tobacco control. Method: The Big Kill Continues (Cancer Society, 1996) is based on numbers of deaths by cause, nationally, for each district and national population by census. The first was multiplied by the national fractions of...
Chapter
In 1996, shopkeepers and adolescents were interviewed, manufacturers’ returns were analysed and the amount of nicotine in cigarettes was tested. In two research contracts and further analyses, it was shown that cigarettes in New Zealand in 1996 contained 40% more nicotine than those in Canada or the United States; the cheapest packs, of 10 cigarett...
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To determine recent changes in cigarette purchasing behaviour of 14- and 15-year-old students in New Zealand. Nationwide cross-sectional surveys of fourth form students in 85 schools in New Zealand by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire collected in November 1992 and in November 1997. Analyses were restricted to 4198 out of 11 824...
Article
To determine trends in the cigarette smoking behaviour of 14- and 15-year-old students in New Zealand. Nationwide cross-sectional surveys of fourth-form students in New Zealand in 85 schools by anonymous self-administered questionnaire in 1992 and 1997. In 1992, 79% of schools and 70% of students responded; in 1997, 88% and 72%, respectively. Respo...
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Aim:To review effectiveness of (1) government policies (2) public health programmes (3) personal health services, in reducing tobacco use. Method:English language search of economic, tobacco control, public health and medical journals for econometric analyses and controlled trials. Results: (1) Econometric evidence for price effects on sales is str...
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Aim. To describe the tobacco control monitoring and information system used in New Zealand 1984-1992. Data sources and method. Obtained at no cost: Excise sales data, household survey data, income and price indices, costliness index, past Census prevalence data. Other agencies Opinion polls, shop signs survey. Purchased: Weekly supermarket sales, s...