Murray Hitzman

Murray Hitzman
Colorado School of Mines · Department of Geology and Geological Engineering

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69
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
The distribution of volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), porphyry-epithermal, Alaska-type ultramafic-mafic complexes, intrusion-related Au, and granitoid Sn-W ore deposits in southwest Alaska supports current metallogenic models linking the formation of these deposit types to the emplacement of different suites of igneous rocks during the evolution...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Halokinesis has been invoked in the Katangan basin to account for the development of megabreccias in the Central African Copperbelt. However, halite and associated cap rocks, common in modern salt structures, have not been recognized to date. Cap rock formation is a multi-step process principally involving halite dissolution and anhydrite concentra...
Conference Paper
Southwest Alaska presents a challenging environment for mineral exploration as the bedrock geology is largely concealed beneath Quaternary sediments. Regional-scale aeromagnetic data provide a continuous set of observations and show contrasting patterns over the igneous rock suites hosting a number of different mineral deposit types in the region....
Conference Paper
The Pajarita Mountain peralkaline syenite complex is a 1200-1100 Ma layered cumulate intrusion that hosts elevated concentrations of HREE, Y, and Zr in silicates of the eudialyte group. The complex, at least 300 m thick, is exposed through an erosional window in Permian sedimentary rocks at the eastern margin of the Rio Grande Rift. This study aims...
Poster
Full-text available
The Ghanzi basin, hosting Cu-Ag deposits of the Kalahari Copperbelt, is one of several Meso- to Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins on the western and northern margins of the Kalahari craton. Initial rifting at approximately 1.1 Ga resulted in emplacement of the Kgwebe Formation bimodal volcanic rocks. Faulting and basin formation resulted in deposit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The carbonate-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the Irish Orefield are stratigraphically and structurally controlled. Ore deposits are restricted to two stratigraphic units of Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian and Visean) age: (1) the Waulsortian Limestone Formation in southern and central Ireland; and (2) the Navan Group of north central Ireland. The Wa...
Article
Full-text available
The Fishtie copper deposit, located in the Central Province of Zambia, contains approximately 55 Mt of 1.04 % Cu at a 0.5 % Cu cut-off in oxide, sulfide, and mixed oxide–sulfide ores. The deposit is hosted in Neoproterozoic diamictites and siltstones of the Grand Conglomérat Formation and overlying Kakontwe Limestone Formation of the lower Nguba Gr...
Article
The Enterprise nickel deposit (40 Mt of 1.07% Ni) is located on the eastern edge of the Kabompo dome in the North-Western Province of Zambia. The deposit area contains basement schists overlain by Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks. Nickel sulfides are hosted within a sequence of quartz-, carbonate-, and carbon-rich metasedimentary rocks that int...
Poster
Full-text available
Bedded and vertically zoned Cu and Cu-Fe sulphide minerals occur as fine disseminations, blebs, and clots within reduced mudstone and siltstone beds at the base of the late Mesoproterozoic D’Kar Formation, host to the Boseto sedimentary rock-hosted copper deposits in northwest Botswana. Framboidal textures of fine disseminated pyrite indicate an ea...
Article
The Kennecott district, Alaska, contained three important copper-(silver) orebodies, Bonanza-Mother Lode, Jumbo, and Erie, and numerous other small occurrences. From 1911 to 1938, the Kennecott Copper Corporation recovered some 1.18 billion pounds (Blbs) of copper and around 9 million ounces (Moz) of silver from these deposits. The host rocks for t...
Article
The Eastern fold belt of the Proterozoic Mount Isa inlier has undergone numerous episodes of deformation, hydrothermal alteration, and iron oxide copper-gold mineralization. The structural and lithological controls on the location and geometry of five iron oxide copper-gold deposits (Starra, Mount Elliott, SWAN, Mount Dore, and Lady Ella) in the Se...
Article
ABSTRACT Aeromagnetic data helped us to understand the 3D distribution of plutonic rocks near the Pebble porphyry copper deposit in southwestern Alaska, USA. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that rocks in the Pebble district are more magnetic than rocks of comparable compositions in the Pike Creek–Stuyahok Hills volcano-plutonic comp...
Article
The El Espino IOCG mining district is characterized by several mineralized bodies the largest of which is the El Espino deposit, which has an estimated geologic resource of 123 Mt at 0.66 % Cu and 0.24 g/t Au. Mineralized bodies are distributed in a 7 × 10 km2 area throughout a 1,000-m vertical section. They range from single veins to stockworks an...
Book
Full-text available
This study estimates the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered copper in stratabound deposits within the Neoproterozoic Roan Group of the Katanga Basin in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. The study area encompasses the Central African Copperbelt, the greatest sediment-hosted copper-cobalt province in the world, containing...
Article
Aeromagnetic data are used to better understand the geology and mineral resources near the Late Cretaceous Pebble porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska. The reduced-to-pole (RTP) transformation of regional-scale aeromagnetic data shows that the Pebble deposit is within a cluster of magnetic anomaly highs. Similar to Pebble, the Iliamna,...
Article
Earthquakes attributable to human activities--``induced seismic events''--have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequenc...
Article
The great majority of earthquakes that occur each year around the world have natural causes. A small number of lesser-magnitude seismic events have been related to human activities and are called "induced seismic events" or "induced earthquakes" (NRC, 2012). Of concern are induced events that are large enough to be noticed by the public, typically...
Article
The northern margin of the Helena Embayment contains extensive syngenetic to diagenetic massive pyrite horizons that extend over 25 km along the Volcano Valley-Buttress fault zone and extend up to 8 km basinward (south) within the Mesoproterozoic Newland Formation. The Sheep Creek Cu-Co deposit occurs within a structural block along a bend in the f...
Article
Sedimentary rock-hosted strata-bound copper deposits are widespread in the Kangdian region of the Central Yunnan and southern Sichuan provinces, southwest China. The deposits occur within weakly metamorphosed rocks of the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group and are spatially associated with discordant breccia bodies that...
Article
The Neoproterozoic Roan Group in northern Zambia is host to numerous world class stratiform sediment-hosted Cu ores that occur around the transition from basal continental clastics to an overlying shallow marine succession. The latter can be considered in terms of six sedimentary facies deposited within a mixed clastic and carbonate barred basin ma...
Poster
Full-text available
Boseto sedimentary-rock hosted copper deposits in the southern foreland of the Proterozoic Damara Orogen in northwest Botswana are characterized by copper sulfides hosted predominantly by structural fabrics. Two deposits, Plutus and Zeta, occur on the northwest limbs of anticlines. The ore horizon occurs at a redox boundary between hematitic metasa...
Article
New Re-Os in molybdenite and U-Pb in titanite and zircon age data have been used to discern several discrete alteration, mineralization, and igneous events that occurred in iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits in the Selwyn-Mount Dore corridor of the Proterozoic Mount Isa inlier. Two distinct sodic-calcic alteration events that occurred prior to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The carbonate-hosted zinc-lead deposits of the Irish Orefield are stratigraphically and structurally controlled. Ore deposits are restricted to two stratigraphic units of Lower Carboniferous (Tournaisian and Visean) age: (1) the Waulsortian Limestone Formation in southern and central Ireland; and (2) the Navan Group of north central Ireland. The Wa...
Article
The iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) group of deposits, initially defined following discovery of the giant Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au deposit, lias progressively become too-embracing when associated deposits and potential end members or analogs are included. The broader group includes several low Ti iron oxideassociated deposits that include iron oxide (P-ri...
Article
Sedimentary rock-hosted stratiform copper deposits form by movement of oxidized, copper-bearing fluids across a reduction front that results in the precipitation of copper sulfides. Large-scale production of such oxidized fluids, as well as the formation of mobile hydrocarbons (oil) has probably been common since the formation of the first red beds...
Article
New Re-Os data for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the carbonate-hosted Cu deposit at Ruby Creek (Bornite), Alaska, show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the carbonate-hosted Ruby Creek Cu-(Co) deposit and demonstr...
Article
Full-text available
The costs of metals and other mineral products continues to rise as with the continues industrialization in the developing world but is also said to rebound by the time when the global economy recovers. The main reason for this price increase is with the slowdown of the addition of new supplies through discovery and the inability to expand the prod...
Article
Full-text available
The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province comprises two major orebodies, Sequeirinho and Sossego. Sodic alteration (albite–hematite) and sodic–calcic alteration zones represented by albite, ferro-edenite/hastingsite (up to 3.8 wt.% Cl), actinolite/magnesiohornblende, magnetite, titanite, epidote, and calcite are pre...
Article
Full-text available
The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–E...
Article
A complex series of faults occur within transfer zones normal to the WNW-trending rifted northern margin of the Canning basin (Western Australia). These zones controlled basinal fluid flow and the formation of some carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type Zn–Pb deposits along the basin margin during Devonian to Carboniferous rifting. The study area...
Article
Gold Bar is one of several Carlin-type gold mining districts located in the Battle Mountain–Eureka trend, Nevada. It is composed of one main deposit, Gold Bar; five satellite deposits; and four resources that contain 1.6Moz (50t) of gold. All of the deposits and resources occur at the intersection of north-northwest- and northeast-trending high-ang...
Article
The Olympic Dam iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit is currently the world's largest producer of uranium." Other IOCG deposits generally have anomalous, though uneconomic, uranium grades. The fluids that generate IOCG deposits are thought to be saline and highly oxidized and would be capable of leaching and transporting significant uranium. The r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
see Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 37, No. 7, p. 516 https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005AM/finalprogram/abstract_92839.htm
Conference Paper
Full-text available
see Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 36, no. 5, p. 516 (Denver, 2004) https://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2004AM/finalprogram/abstract_74076.htm
Article
The Greens Creek polymetallic massive sulphide deposit is hosted in a typical polyphase deformed lower greenschist facies orogenic setting. The structure of the host rocks is well constrained, exhibiting a series of three superimposed ductile deformations followed by two brittle episodes. The ore is found both in fold hinges where early-formed depo...
Article
The Gold Bar district in the southern Roberts Mountains, 48 kin northwest of Eureka, Nevada, contains one main deposit (Gold Bar), five satellite deposits, and other resources. Approximately 0.5 Moz of gold have been recovered from a resource of 1,639,000 oz of gold in Carlin-type gold deposits in lower plate, miogeoclinical carbonate rocks below t...
Article
Nonsulfide zinc deposits, popularly but incorrectly termed "zinc oxide" deposits, are becoming attractive exploration targets owing to new developments in hydrometallurgy. They are divided into two major geologic types-supergene and hypogene deposits. Supergene deposits are the most common type of nonsulfide zinc deposit and are distributed worldwi...
Article
While many areas of science and technology are receiving increased funding from both industry and government, funding for other areas, especially those related to natural resource production such as mining, is decreasing from all sources. Industrial funding for mining R&D has dramatically declined due to small corporate profit margins; federal fund...
Article
The Lisheen Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, located in County Tipperary in southeast-central Ireland, consists of a group of strata-bound pyritic sulfide lenses containing 22 Mt of ore with an overall grade of 11.5 percent Zn, 1.9 percent Pb, 26 g/t Ag, and 16 percent Fe hosted in Lower Carboniferous (Early Mississippian) carbonate rocks. Sulfide bodies at Lishe...
Article
The Kansanshi copper deposit in the Pan-African Damaran-Lufilian fold belt of northern Zambia consists of high-angle, sheeted quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins with envelopes of disseminated sulfides. These veins cut and replace metamorphosed Katangan sedimentary rocks of Neoproterozoic age. Crosscutting relationships have been used to delineate three...
Article
The Central African Copperbelt in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo is the world's largest sediment-hosted stratiform Cu province. The source for the Cu in sediment-hosted stratiform Cu deposits is generally believed to be thick sections of oxidised siliciclastic sediments (red beds) and volcanic rocks deposited in early rift sequences un...
Article
The Bahcecik prospect is located in the eastern Pontide tectonic province of the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. It is one of the first low sulfidation epithermal systems to be described from this area of Turkey. Gold mineralization occurred within Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary volcanic rocks and is localized along east-trending normal faul...
Article
Carbonate staining has long been utilized with thin sections. Similar techniques are also extremely useful for distinguishing the mineralogy and texture of different carbonate minerals in drill cores. The simplest method for routine staining of whole drill core utilizes a dilute hydrochloric acid solution containing both alizarin red S and potassiu...
Article
Summary Non-sulfide zinc deposits (zinc "oxide" deposits) are becoming favored exploration targets due to new developments in metallurgy allowing for solvent-extraction and electrowinning. While geologic understanding of the genesis of these types of deposits is improving, there has been little work aimed at documenting their geophysical responses....
Article
This paper is part of the special publication No.155, Fractures, fluid flow and mineralization. (eds K.J.W. McCaffrey, L. Lonergan and J.J. Wilkinson). The syndiagenetic Zn-Pb deposits of south-central Ireland, which are hosted by Lower Carboniferous carbonate sediments, occur along generally northeast trending, segmented normal fault arrays which...
Article
The Lower Carboniferous Waulsortian limestone has been affected by late diagenetic, regional burial dolomitization over an area of ˜7000 km2 extending 170 km northeastward from the Hercynian front. The dolostone is composed of two components: (1) a very fine crystalline replacive component, and (2) a coarse-crystalline, baroque component that fills...
Article
Recent work by various authors suggests that Olympic Dam may be part of a larger class of Middle Proterozoic deposits characterized by low-titanium, iron-rich rocks formed in extensional tectonic environments. We refer to this class of deposits informally as Olympic Dam-type deposits. In addition to their common mid-Proterozoic age and tectonic set...
Article
Recent work on the Olympic Dam CuUAuAg deposit, South Australia, the Wernecke Mountain breccias, Yukon, the Kiruna iron ore district, Sweden, and the southeast Missouri iron ore district, and a review of literature on other iron-rich mineral deposits in Proterozoic rocks, suggest that these occurrences constitute a distinct class of ore deposits...
Article
The Ambler district is located along the southern margin of the Brooks Range, Alaska. Mineral exploration since the late 1950s in this remote area has led to the discovery of a number of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits and several carbonate-hosted copper deposits. The district is composed of two geologic terranes. The Ambler terrane consists...

Projects

Projects (4)
Archived project
The Kalahari Copperbelt contains a number of strata-bound copper-silver deposits and prospects with modest grades that are hosted by moderately deformed Meso- to Neoproterozoic (1100 Ma to >750 Ma) metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks that occur within a 1,000-km-long northeast-trending belt that extends from central Namibia to northern Botswana. The belt is divided into three major volcano-sedimentary domains or basins inferred to have formed in a continental back-arc to rift environment that is, in part, temporally related to the ~1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province in southern Africa. From southwest to northeast these are the Sinclair basin in Namibia and the Ghanzi and Chobe basins in Botswana. These basins were inverted during the Pan-African (~600 to ~480 Ma) Damara Orogen that involved continent-continent collision between the Kalahari and Congo cratons. Inversion of sedimentary basins along the leading margins of both these cratons resulted in widespread sedimentary rock-hosted base and precious metal mineralization over a prolonged time period. The Ghanzi basin stretches from the town of Maun in Botswana to the town of Gobabis in eastern Namibia within the Kalahari Desert. The terrane is covered by extensive aeolian cover of the Kalahari Group that varies in thickness from a thin veneer to over 120-meters of unconsolidated sand and minor calcrete; basement inliers that occur as small hills of ~1.1 Ga volcanic rock offer the only exposures of rift-related rocks in the region. Exploration for these deposits has concentrated on the Ghanzi Ridge area where cover is generally less than 10-50 meters. However, exploration in the western part of the basin has targeted mineralized rocks under more than 100 meters of cover. To date, total mineral resources in the Ghanzi Ridge area are in excess of 6.5 million tonnes of contained copper. The extensive cover in the region has limited efforts to understand the regional context of the host rocks. In many sedimentary rock-hosted copper districts around the world, basin-architecture faults are thought to have acted as fluid pathways for oxidized, metal-bearing fluids during early to late diagenesis while reactivation of these faults during basin inversion is thought to have localized syn-kinematic mineralizing fluids. The objective of this study is to outline the tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Ghanzi Basin with emphasis on characterizing the overall basin architecture and any possible roles it may have played in the broader metallogeny of the Kalahari Copperbelt. This study employs a multi-disciplinary approach that utilizes available geologic data from mineral exploration companies to assess the host rocks on a district- to regional-scale, processes and interprets multi-scale geophysical data to aid in deposit- to regional-scale geologic mapping of host rocks and structural elements, conducts U-Pb geochronology studies on the meta-volcanic and meta-sedimentary rocks to place age constraints on basin development, and undertakes radiogenic and stable isotopic studies to understand the timing of diagenetic to epigenetic mineralizing events in the basin. Practically, the research should provide vectors to more prospective areas in the belt. In particular, the work may highlight prospective areas at depth where geochemical datasets and shallow drilling are ineffective (i.e. mineralized horizons concealed by overlying geologic formations).