Mulugeta Nega

Genetics, Microbiology, Molecular Biology

24.26

Publications

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    ABSTRACT: In bacteria, extracellular signals are transduced into the cell predominantly by two-component systems (TCSs) comprising a regulatory unit triggered by a specific signal. Some of the TCSs control executing units such as ABC transporters involved in antibiotic resistance. For instance, in Staphylococcus aureus, activation of BraSR leads to upregulation of vraDE expression that encodes an ABC transporter playing a role in bacitracin and nisin resistance. In this study, we showed that the small staphylococcal trans-membrane protein VraH forms together with VraDE a three-component system (3-CS). While the expression of vraH in the absence of vraDE was sufficient to mediate a low level resistance, only this VraDEH entity conferred high-level resistance against daptomycin and gallidermin. In most staphylococcal genomes vraH is located immediately downstream of vraDE forming an operon, while in some species it is localized differently. In an invertebrate infection model VraDEH significantly enhanced S. aureus pathogenicity. In analogy to the TCS connectors, VraH can be regarded as an ABC connector that modulates the activity of ABC transporters involved in antibiotic resistance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins (ECP) is a common physiological feature in bacteria and eukaryotes. However, how these proteins without a typical signal peptide are excreted in bacteria is poorly understood. We studied the excretion pattern of cytoplasmic proteins using two glycolytic model enzymes, aldolase and enolase, and show that their excretion takes place mainly during the exponential growth phase in Staphylococcus aureus very similar to that of Sbi, an IgG binding protein, which is secreted via the Sec-pathway. The amount of excreted enolase is substantial and is comparable to that of Sbi. For localization of the exit site we fused aldolase and enolase with the peptidoglycan-binding motif, LysM, to trap the enzymes at the cell wall. With both immune fluorescence labeling and immunogold localization on electron microscopic thin sections aldolase and enolase were found apart from the cytoplasmic area particularly in the cross wall and at the septal cleft of dividing cells, while the non-excreted Ndh2, a soluble NADH:quinone oxidoreductase, is only seen attached to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. The selectivity, the timing and the localization suggests that ECP is not a result of unspecific cell lysis but is mediated by an as yet unknown mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Molecular Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The investigation of self-resistance in antibiotic producers is important to understand the emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens and to improve antibiotic production. Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antibiotics that mostly target peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The actinomycete Microbispora ATCC PTA-5024 produces the lantibiotic NAI-107, which interferes with peptidoglycan biosynthesis by binding bactoprenol-pyrophosphate-coupled peptidoglycan precursors. In order to understand how Microbispora counteracts the action of its own antibiotic, its peptidoglycan composition was analysed in detail. Microbispora peptidoglycan consists of muropeptides with D-Ala and Gly in similar proportion at the fourth position of the peptide stems and alternative 3-3 cross-links besides the classical 4-3 cross-links. In addition, the NAI-107 biosynthetic gene cluster (mlb) was analysed for the expression of immunity proteins. We show that distinct immunity determinants are encoded in the mlb cluster: the ABC transporter MlbYZ acting cooperatively with the transmembrane protein MlbJ and the lipoprotein MlbQ. NMR structural analysis of MlbQ revealed a hydrophobic surface patch, which is proposed to bind the cognate lantibiotic. This study demonstrates that immunity in Microbispora is not only based on one determinant but on the action of the distinct immunity proteins MlbQ, MlbYZ and MlbJ. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Environmental Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: FemABX peptidyl transferases are involved in non-ribosomal pentaglycine interpeptide bridge biosynthesis. Here we characterized the phenotype of a Staphylococcus carnosus femB deletion mutant, which was affected in growth and showed pleiotropic effects such as enhanced methicillin sensitivity, lysostaphin resistance, cell clustering, and decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking. However, comparative secretome analysis revealed a most striking difference in the massive secretion or release of proteins into the culture supernatant in the femB mutant than the wt. The secreted proteins can be categorized into typical cytosolic proteins and various murein hydrolases. As the transcription of the murein hydrolase genes was up-regulated in the mutant, they most likely represent an adaption response to the life threatening mutation. Even though the transcription of the cytosolic protein genes was unaltered, their high abundance in the supernatant of the mutant is most likely due to membrane leakage triggered by the weakened murein sacculus and enhanced autolysins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Proteomics
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    ABSTRACT: YisP is involved in biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis and has been predicted to produce C30 isoprenoids. We determined the structure of YisP and observed that it adopts the same fold as squalene and dehydrosqualene synthases. However, the first aspartate-rich motif found in essentially all isoprenoid synthases is aspartate poor in YisP and cannot catalyze head-to-head condensation reactions. We find that YisP acts as a phosphatase, catalyzing formation of farnesol from farnesyl diphosphate, and that it is the first phosphatase to adopt the fold seen in the head-to-head prenyl synthases. Farnesol restores biofilm formation in a Δyisp mutant and modifies lipid membrane structure similarly to the virulence factor staphyloxanthin. This work clarifies the role of YisP in biofilm formation and suggests an intriguing possibility that many of the YisP-like homologs found in other bacteria may also have interesting products and functions.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Chemistry & Biology
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    ABSTRACT: Bacterial adhesion on implants is a first step in the development of chronic foreign body associated infections. Finding strategies to minimize bacterial adhesion may contribute to minimize such infections. It is known that surfaces with oligo-ethylene-glycol (EG3OMe) or poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG2k) terminations decrease unspecific protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion. However, little is known about the influence of serum and its components on bacterial adhesion. We therefore prepared two coatings on gold surface with HS-(CH2)11EG3OMe (EG3OMe) and PEG2k-thiol and studied the role of bovine serum albumin (BSA), γ-globulins, and serum on Staphylococcus aureus adhesion. While BSA and lysozyme showed no adherence even when applied at very high concentrations (100 mg/ml), γ-globulins adsorbed already from 10 mg/ml on. The adsorption of γ-globulins was, however, significantly decreased when it was mixed with BSA in a ratio of 3:1, as it is in the serum. Pretreatment of EG3OMe and PEG2k coatings with γ-globulins or serum strongly promoted adherence of S. aureus when resuspended in buffer, suggesting that γ-globulins play a pivotal role in promoting S. aureus adhesion by its IgG binding proteins; the finding that a spa-deletion mutant, lacking the IgG binding protein A, showed decreased adherence corroborated this. Similarly, when S. aureus was pretreated with serum or γ-globulins its adherence was also significantly decreased. Our findings show that particularly γ-globulins bind to the coated surfaces thus mediating adherence of S. aureus via its protein A. As pretreatment of S. aureus with serum or γ-globulins significantly decreased adherence, treatment of patients with γ-globulins before implant surgery might lower the risk of implant-associated infections.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · International Journal of Medical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: The bifunctional major autolysin AtlA of Staphylococcus aureus cleaves the bacterium's peptidoglycan network (PGN) during cell division. Deletion of the enzyme results in large cell clusters with disordered division patterns, indicating that AtlA could be a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. The N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase AmiA cleaves the bond between the carbohydrate and the peptide moieties of PGN. To establish the structural requirements of PGN recognition and the enzymatic mechanism of cleavage, we solved the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of AmiA in complex with a peptidoglycan-derived ligand at 1.55 Å resolution. The peptide stem is clearly visible in the structure, forming extensive contacts with protein residues. Less well-defined electron density and the analysis of surface features indicate likely positions of the carbohydrate backbone and the pentaglycine bridge. Substrate specificity analysis supports the importance of the pentaglycine bridge for fitting into the binding cleft of AmiA-cat. PGN of S. aureus with L-Lysine tethered with D-alanine via a pentaglycine bridge is completely hydrolyzed, while PGN of Bacillus subtilis with meso-DAP directly tethered with D-alanine is not hydrolyzed. An active site mutant, H370A, of AmiA-cat was completely inactive, providing further support for the proposed catalytic mechanism of AmiA. The structure reported here is the first of any bacterial amidase in which both the PGN component and the water molecule that carries out the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the scissile bond are present. Furthermore, it is the first peptidoglycan amidase complex structure of an important human pathogen.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Colonization of the human nose by Staphylococcus aureus in one-third of the population represents a major risk factor for invasive infections. The basis for adaptation of S. aureus to this specific habitat and reasons for the human predisposition to become colonized have remained largely unknown. Human nasal secretions were analyzed by metabolomics and found to contain potential nutrients in rather low amounts. No significant differences were found between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers, indicating that carriage is not associated with individual differences in nutrient supply. A synthetic nasal medium (SNM3) was composed based on the metabolomics data that permits consistent growth of S. aureus isolates. Key genes were expressed in SNM3 in a similar way as in the human nose, indicating that SNM3 represents a suitable surrogate environment for in vitro simulation studies. While the majority of S. aureus strains grew well in SNM3, most of the tested coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) had major problems to multiply in SNM3 supporting the notion that CoNS are less well adapted to the nose and colonize preferentially the human skin. Global gene expression analysis revealed that, during growth in SNM3, S. aureus depends heavily on de novo synthesis of methionine. Accordingly, the methionine-biosynthesis enzyme cysteine-γ-synthase (MetI) was indispensable for growth in SNM3, and the MetI inhibitor DL-propargylglycine inhibited S. aureus growth in SNM3 but not in the presence of methionine. Of note, metI was strongly up-regulated by S. aureus in human noses, and metI mutants were strongly abrogated in their capacity to colonize the noses of cotton rats. These findings indicate that the methionine biosynthetic pathway may include promising antimicrobial targets that have previously remained unrecognized. Hence, exploring the environmental conditions facultative pathogens are exposed to during colonization can be useful for understanding niche adaptation and identifying targets for new antimicrobial strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Author Summary While studying the potential interaction of staphylococci with Gram-negative bacteria, we came across another communication system in a Staphylococcus species group, which consists of closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species that play a role as zoonotic pathogens. We found that these species excrete two small compounds that inhibit both the expression of QS-controlled toxins and other QS-regulated compounds as well as growth in Gram-negative bacteria. The excreted compounds, which we named yayurea A and B, were isolated from S. delphini and structurally characterized. They represent new bacterial products, which quench the QS regulation in a wide spectrum of Gram-negative bacteria by stimulating the LuxN-mediated phosphorylation of LuxU. Furthermore, growth of yayurea A and B producing S. delphini is not suppressed by respiratory toxins when co-cultured with P. aeruginosa. This suggests that the quorum quenchers have a function in self-protection and competitiveness in natural environments shared with Gram-negatives. Here we show one of the rare cases of inter-phylum interference between firmicutes (Gram-positive) and beta-/gammaproteobacteria (Gram-negative).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple mechanisms have been correlated with daptomycin-resistance (DAP-R) in Staphylococcus aureus. However, one common phenotype observed in many DAP-R S. Aureus strains is a thickened cell wall (CW). The first evidence for an impact of CW-linked glycopolymers on this phenotype was recently demonstrated in a single, well-characterized DAP-R methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain. In this isolate the thickened CW phenotype was linked to an increased production and D-alanylation of wall teichoic acids (WTA). In the current report, we extended these observations to methicillin-resistant daptomycin-sensitive/daptomyin-resistant (DAP-S/DAP-R) strain-pairs. These pairs included methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates with and without single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mprF (a genetic locus linked to DAP-R phenotype). We found increased CW dry mass in all DAP-R vs DAP-S isolates. This correlated with an increased expression of the WTA biosynthesis gene tagA, as well as an increased amount of WTA in the DAP-R vs DAP-S isolates. In addition, all DAP-R isolates showed a higher proportion of WTA D-alanylation vs their corresponding DAP-S isolate. We also detected an increased positive surface charge amongst the DAP-R strains (presumably related to the enhanced D-alanylation). In comparing the detailed CW composition of all isolate pairs, substantive differences were only detected in one DAP-S/DAP-R pair. The thickened CW phenotype, together with an increased surface charge most likely contributes to either: i) a charge-dependent repulsion of calcium complexed-DAP; and/or ii) steric-limited access of DAP to the bacterial cell envelope target. Taken together well-defined perturbations of CW structural and functional metrics contribute to the DAP-R phenotype and are common phenotypes in DAP-R S. Aureus isolates, both MSSA and MRSA.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their abilities to form strong biofilms, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are the most frequently isolated pathogens in persistent and chronic implant-associated infections. As biofilm-embedded bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the immune system, they are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, biofilm-active antibiotics are a major challenge. Here we investigated the effect of the lantibiotic gallidermin on two representative biofilm-forming staphylococcal species. Gallidermin inhibits not only the growth of staphylococci in a dose-dependent manner but also efficiently prevents biofilm formation by both species. The effect on biofilm might be due to repression of biofilm-related targets, such as ica (intercellular adhesin) and atl (major autolysin). However, gallidermin's killing activity on 24-h and 5-day-old biofilms was significantly decreased. A subpopulation of 0.1 to 1.0% of cells survived, comprising “persister” cells of an unknown genetic and physiological state. Like many other antibiotics, gallidermin showed only limited activity on cells within mature biofilms.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Peptidoglycan (PGN), a component of bacterial cell wall and belonging to "Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns" (MAMP) triggers host reactions contributing to the pathophysiology of infectious disease. Host cell responses to PGN exposure include apoptosis. Bacterial infections may result in activation of blood platelets and thrombocytopenia. The present study explored, whether HPLC-purified fractions of PGNs from Staphylococcus aureus 113 triggers apoptosis of platelets. To this end platelets were exposed to PGN fractions and annexin-V binding determined to depict cell membrane scrambling, DiOC6 fluorescence to estimate depolarization of mitochondrial potential, Fluo-3AM staining for intracellular Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)](i)) and immunofluorescence to quantify protein abundance of active caspase-3. As a result, a 30 min exposure to monomeric fraction (mPGN) (≥50 ng/ml) was followed by annexin-V binding, paralleled by increase of [Ca(2+)](i), mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation and integrin α(IIb)β(3) upregulation. The annexin-V binding was significantly blunted by anti-TLR-2 antibodies, in absence of extracellular Ca(2+), and by pancaspase inhibitor zVAD-FMK (1 μM). In conclusion, PGN triggers apoptosis of platelets in activation-dependent manner, characterized by mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation and cell membrane scrambling.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Apoptosis
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    ABSTRACT: Strains from various staphylococcal species produce bacteriocin peptides, which are thought to play important roles in bacterial competition and offer interesting biotechnological avenues. Many bacteriocins are secreted as inactive prepeptides with subsequent activation by specific proteolytic cleavage. By deletion of the protease gene gdmP in Staphylococcus gallinarum Tü3928, which produces the highly active lanthionine-containing bacteriocin gallidermin (lantibiotic), a strain was created producing inactive pregallidermin. On this basis, a new suicidal mutant selection system in the food-grade bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus was developed. Whereas pregallidermin was inactive against S. carnosus, it exerted potent bactericidal activity toward GdmP-secreting S. carnosus strains. To take advantage of this effect, gdmP was cloned in plasmid vectors used for random transposon mutagenesis or targeted allelic replacement of chromosomal genes. Both mutagenesis strategies rely on rare recombination events, and it has remained difficult and laborious to identify mutants among a vast majority of bacterial clones that still contain the delivery vectors. The gdmP-expressing plasmids pGS1 and pGS2 enabled very fast, easy, and reliable identification of transposon and gene replacement mutants, respectively. Mutant selection in the presence of pregallidermin caused suicidal inactivation of all clones that had retained the plasmids and allowed growth of only plasmid-cured mutants. Efficiency of mutant identification was several magnitudes higher than standard screening for the absence of plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance markers and reached 100% specificity. Thus, the new pregallidermin-based mutant selection system represents a substantial improvement of staphylococcal mutagenesis methodology.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Many microorganisms excrete typical cytoplasmic proteins into the culture supernatant. As none of the classical secretion systems appears to be involved, this type of secretion was referred to as "nonclassical protein secretion." Here, we demonstrate that in Staphylococcus aureus the major autolysin plays a crucial role in release of cytoplasmic proteins. Comparative secretome analysis revealed that in the wild type S. aureus strain, 22 typical cytoplasmic proteins were excreted into the culture supernatant, although in the atl mutant they were significantly decreased. The presence or absence of prophages had little influence on the secretome pattern. In the atl mutant, secondary peptidoglycan hydrolases were increased in the secretome; the corresponding genes were transcriptionally up-regulated suggesting a compensatory mechanism for the atl mutation. Using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a cytoplasmic indicator enzyme, we showed that all clinical isolates tested excreted this protein. In the wall teichoic acid-deficient tagO mutant with its increased autolysis activity, GAPDH was excreted in even higher amounts than in the WT, confirming the importance of autolysis in excretion of cytoplasmic proteins. To answer the question of how discriminatory the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins is, we performed a two-dimensional PAGE of cytoplasmic proteins isolated from WT. Surprisingly, the most abundant proteins in the cytoplasm were not found in the secretome of the WT, suggesting that there exists a selection mechanism in the excretion of cytoplasmic proteins. As the major autolysin binds at the septum site, we assume that the proteins are preferentially released at and during septum formation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
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    Dataset: Figure S1
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    ABSTRACT: HPLC profile of mutanolysin digested PGNpol. Muropeptides were detected at 205 nm. (3.62 MB TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2010
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    Dataset: Figure S4
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    ABSTRACT: Nod2 and TLR2-dependent NFκB activation mediated by PGNpol. Reporter assay with NFκB-reporter plasmid (pNFκB-TA-Luc) transfected HEK293 cells. Without any PRR (1), hTLR2 expressing HEK293 (2) and hNod2 expressing HEK293(3). Cells were stimulated with different amounts of PGNpol. PGNpol showed a both Nod2 and TLR2-dependent activity. The data were shown as the mean ± S.D. from three independent experiments. (1.72 MB TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2010
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    Dataset: Figure S3
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    ABSTRACT: PGNpol did not affect TLR4. Confocal images of MK stained with a TLR4-antibody from rabbit (detected by a Cy3-conjugated anti-rabbit antibody [red]). Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). PGN-Bio was detected by a FITC-conjugated anti-biotin antibody (green). The upper panels show the merging images. The lower images show an overlay of fluorescence merge and the host cell acquired in reflection mode of the confocal microscope at 488 nm. (A) PBS control. (B) No TLR4 was detected after stimulation with PGN-Bio. (C) TLR4 was detected after stimulation with LPS in MK. Images of cells shown are representative of the cells observed in each dish and are representative of three experiments. (5.74 MB TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2010
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    Dataset: Figure S2
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    ABSTRACT: Incorporation of PGN-Bio in MK and co-localization with Nod2 and TLR2 is time- and concentration dependent. Confocal images of MK stained intracellularly with a Nod2-antibody (A–C) or a TLR2-antibody (D–F). PGN-Bio from was detected by a FITC-conjugated anti-biotin-antibody (green). The upper panels show the merging images; co-localization events are visualized in yellow. The lower images show an overlay of fluorescence merge and the host cell acquired in reflection mode of the confocal microscope. Wt MK were stimulated with different amounts of PGN-Bio for various time periods. Images of cells shown are representative of the cells observed in each dish and are representative of three experiments. (9.94 MB TIF)
    Preview · Dataset · Oct 2010
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    ABSTRACT: In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from Staphylococcus aureus Δlgt (lacking lipidated prelipoproteins). PGN(pol) was biotinylated (PGN-Bio) for fluorescence monitoring with specific antibodies. Keratinocytes from murine oral epithelium (MK) readily internalized PGN-Bio in an endocytosis-like process. In wt MK, PGN(pol) induced intracellular accumulation of Nod2 and TLR2 and co-localized with Nod2 and TLR2, but not with TLR4. In TLR2-deficient MK Nod2 and in Nod2-deficient MK TLR2 was induced, indicating that PGN(pol) recognition by Nod2 is independent of TLR2 and vice versa. In both mutants IL-6 and IL-1B release was decreased by approximately 50% compared to wt MK, suggesting that the immune responses induced by Nod2 and TLR2 are comparable and that the two receptors act additively in MK. In TLR2-transfected HEK293 cells PGN(pol) induced NFkB-promoter fused luciferase expression. To support the data, co-localization and signaling studies were carried out with SHL-PGN, a lipase protein covalently tethered to PGN-fragments of varying sizes at its C-terminus. SHL-PGN also co-localized with Nod2 or TLR2 and induced their accumulation, while SHL without PGN did not. The results show that staphylococcal PGN not only co-localizes with Nod2 but also with TLR2. PGN is able to stimulate the immune system via both receptors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Innate immune sensing of Staphylococcus aureus unravels basic mechanisms leading to either effective antibacterial immune responses or harmful inflammation. The nature and properties of S. aureus-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) are still not completely understood. We investigated the innate immune sensing of peptidoglycan (PGN) structures and subsequent immune consequences. Macromolecular PGN (PGN(polymer)) preparations activated NF-κB through human Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2), as shown by luciferase reporter assays, and induced murine dendritic cell (DC) maturation and cytokine production. In contrast, PGN(polymer) from lgt-mutant S. aureus failed to stimulate human TLR2, demonstrating that lipoproteins within the macromolecular structures of PGN(polymer), but not PGN itself, activate TLR2. Thus, HPLC-purified monomeric PGN (PGN(monomer)) structures were investigated. Strikingly, PGN(monomer) completely lacked NF-κB activation, lacked TLR2 activity, and failed to functionally activate murine DCs. However, PGN(monomer) in concert with various TLR ligands most effectively stimulated DCs to up-regulate IL-12p70 and IL-23 by ≥3- to 5-fold. Consequently, DCs coactivated by PGN(monomer) markedly up-regulated Th1 and Th17 while suppressing Th2 cell priming. Notably, PGN(monomer) failed to coactivate NOD2(-/-) DCs. This demonstrates that PGN(monomer) is a natural ligand of NOD2, which was previously only demonstrated for synthetic compounds like muramyl dipeptide. Interestingly, murine DCs lacking TLR2 remained mute in response to the combinative immune sensing of S. aureus-derived PAMPs, including PGN(monomer), providing for the first time an explanation of why S. aureus can colonize the nasal mucosa in the absence of inflammation. This is very likely based on the lack of TLR2 expression in mucosal epithelial cells under normal conditions, which determines the unresponsiveness to S. aureus PAMPs.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2010 · The FASEB Journal

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