Muhammad Irfan

Muhammad Irfan
Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar - Pakistan · Professor & Head, Department of Mental Health, Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences

26.33
 · 
MBBS, MCPS (Psych), FCPS (Psych), MS (Mental Health Policy & Services), PhD

About

104
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Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Background Social anxiety is common among adolescents in Pakistan and is associated with low self-esteem. Among the recommended treatments, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is effective, and self-help approaches are encouraged. Aim To determine the effectiveness of culturally adapted CBT-based guided self-help (CACBT-GSH) intervention, using a...
Article
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At the start of 2020, originating from Wuhan city, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started to spread throughout China.1 The World Health Organization has declared this to be a pandemic.2 Both healthcare workers and the general public have been experiencing psychological problems, including anxiety, depression, and stress, as a result of the rap...
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Objective: To find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-perception of medical and dental students. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the medical and dental institutions of Peshawar-Pakistan from November 2018 to June 2019. A convenience sampling technique was used. Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SE...
Article
The preponderance of western psychological concepts are often relied upon to conceptualise health-related phenomena. It is hardly surprising therefore that despite the availability of a number of interventions, studies have concluded that outcomes for minority cultural groups are not as good as for Caucasian people (western Europe and North America...
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ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the frequency of mindfulness and correlate the impact of social support on it in medical and dental students of Peshawar. Methodology: This cross-sectional study conducted from December 2017 to March 2018, included students of medical and dental colleges of Peshawar. Participants were selected by convenience sampli...
Article
Background: Internet gaming, though getting popular, is becoming a risk to physical and psychological health, especially in adolescents, as it contributes to sedentary lifestyle. To gauge the extent of the problem in our setup, we decided to find the frequency of internet gaming disorder in students of Peshawar and identify their motives for playi...
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Western values influence cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as it was primarily developed and practised in the West. As understanding the cultural context has been linked to better therapy outcomes, it has been suggested that CBT might need modification to non-Western clients’ cultural backgrounds. Previously we developed a cost-effective approach...
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Background The waiting room in psychiatric services can provide an ideal setting for offering evidence-based psychological interventions that can be delivered through electronic media. Currently, there is no intervention available that have been developed or tested in mental health. Aims This proof-of-concept study aimed to evaluate a pilot design...
Chapter
p>Given the growing evidence base of psychotherapies for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it is timely to explore their relevance to global mental health. In this chapter, we review the evidence base for psychotherapies used in high-income countries and discuss whether and how these can be extrapolated to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)....
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Background: Biomedical knowledge, though pre-requisite, needs to be supported by other important skills, in order to transform medical education and healthcare delivery. This study was thus planned to analyze the correlation between emotional intelligence (EI) and empathy in medical and dental undergraduate students.. Methods: This cross-section...
Article
Objective: To assess the knowledge and concepts of the patients with schizophrenia about their illness by using a vignette. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, from February to April 2015. One hundred and three patients with schizophrenia were included in the study t...
Article
Abstract Objective: To find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-perception of medical and dental students. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in the medical and dental institutions of Peshawar-Pakistan from November 2018 to June 2019. Convenience sampling technique was used. Schutte Emotional Intelligence S...
Article
Objective: : To investigate personality disorders in medical students appearing for medical school entrance exam. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Peshawar Medical College from August 2015 to May 2016, and comprised all the students who undertook medical school entrance examination of the College. They were asked to fill scree...
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Objective: To explore psychological distress in terms of depression, anxiety, social dysfunction, depressive and somatic symptoms among students appearing for medical school entrance examination. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Peshawar Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from August 2015 to May 2016, and comprised all stude...
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Objective: To estimate the frequency of burnout in medical students of Peshawar and correlate the impact of social support on it. Methodology: The study was conducted by using cross-sectional research design that included students of medical colleges of Peshawar, from January to March 2017. Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) and Social Support Rati...
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Objective: To find out the frequency of body-focused repetitive behaviours (BFRBs) in medical students of Peshawar. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included students from different medical colleges of Peshawar. Habit questionnaire was used to check the common habits; it consists of 11 questions with a simple ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ responses and noti...
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Aim The aim of this study was to inform thinking around the terminology for ‘schizophrenia’ in different countries. Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate: (1) whether medical students view alternative terminology (psychosis subgroups), derived from vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia, as acceptable and less stigmatisin...
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Objective: To translate and validate the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111), and patients (n=105) with a mean age of 21.8 ±5.6 years. Three bilingual experts, using forward-backwar...
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Objective: To translate and validate the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111) and patients (n=105). Mean age of the sample was 21.8 ±5.6 years. Majority were females [n=1...
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Objective: To translate and validate the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) in Pashto. Methodology: This study was conducted in Peshawar from July 2015 to January 2016 on 216 participants. The participants consisted of two groups; students (n=111) and patients (n=105) with a mean age of 21.8 ±5.6 years. Three...
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Objective: To find out the relationship between mindfulness and bullying behaviour among school children in Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional research was conducted in three private sector schools of Multan from March to August 2015. Two hundred gender- matched students, aged between 8 to 11 years were enrolled for the study. The assessme...
Article
This randomized controlled trial was conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from February to August 2015 to explore beliefs and concepts of patients with schizophrenia about their illness and to find out the effectiveness of structured educational intervention in changing the explanatory models of illness of the pati...
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The current paper provides an overview of the cultural and religious background of Pakistan; the current situation of mental health in Pakistan with special emphasis on cultural adaptation of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in Pakistan. In the context of Sufism- Islamic Mindfulness, it is interesting to note that it has been easy to explain the c...
Article
Objective: To find out the extent of use of essential medicines in the prescriptions and the knowledge of medical practitioners about the national essential medicines list of Pakistan. Methodology: This paper describes two phases of a study focused on national essential medicines list of Pakistan. Conducted at Kuwait Teaching Hospital, Peshawar bet...
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Objective: To find out the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among students of Peshawar Medical College and Peshawar Dental College. Methodology: This Cross sectional study was conducted in Peshawar Medical College and Peshawar Dental College from November 2015 to February 2016. ROME III criteria...
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This paper discusses the provision of mental health services in lower- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) with a view to identifying culture-specific areas that can be improved and generalised within and across different countries and services. The paper highlights the need for prioritisation of mental health services by incorporating local popula...
Conference Paper
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What CAREIF proposes There is an urgent need to review the availability of culturally adapted interventions and available adaptation frameworks. Standardised guidelines including lists or catalogues of resources and some measures of effectiveness and acceptability for different adapted interventions are required. This would not only require a serie...
Chapter
Low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC) have enormous burden of psychotic disorders with prevalence of schizophrenia between 1.4 and 4.6 per 1,000 (Jablensky 2000). While the burden is very heavy, the resources available to treat them are very limited. “For example, per 100,000 population, Psychiatrists working in the mental health sector in the m...
Article
'Some editors are failed writers, but so are most writers.' TS Eliot (1888-1965) Have you ever wondered what medical journal editors do? Most editors in the medical field are unpaid and the work is part of the wider culture of service provided by so many in the medical profession. Together with the editorial board and the publisher, an editor will...
Article
Objectives: To find out the choices of female medical students in selection of their future specialties and to study the factors influencing their decision. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among public & private sector medical colleges of Peshawar including Khyber Medical College (KMC), Rahman Medical College (RMC), Peshawar M...
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Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of general practitioners about diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia and determine their association with clinical exposure to such cases in practice. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in Peshawar from August 2009 to December 2011 at the clinics of general practitioners enrolled wit...
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Objective: To demonstrate the effectiveness of Brief Culturally adapted Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CaCBT) in the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods: This pre and post design study was conducted on out-patients with OCD at Centre for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Fountain House, Lahore, from April 2011 to April 2012. A semi...
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The Death Adjustment Hypothesis (DAH) postulates two key themes. Its first part postulates that death should not be considered the end of existence and the second part emphasizes that the belief in immortal pattern of human existence can only be adopted in a morally rich life with the attitude towards morality and materialism balanced mutually. We...
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This study was conducted to objectively assess whether the medical education environment across Pakistan was at an acceptable standard and to determine factors influencing its perception. The cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2012 at six undergraduate medical institutions across Pakistan. The Dundee Ready Education Environ...
Article
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This study was conducted to elicit the beliefs and perception of patients with schizophrenia about their illness by using Short Explanatory Model Interview (SEMI). This cross sectional study was conducted in the department of psychiatry, Lady Reading Hospital. One hundred and three patients of schizophrenia were included in the study. Short Explana...
Article
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Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were rec...
Article
Evidence for the effectiveness of Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis in Low And Middle Income Countries (LAMIC) is limited. Therefore, brief Culturally adapted CBT for psychosis (CaCBTp) targeted at symptoms of schizophrenia for outpatients plus treatment as usual (TAU) is compared with TAU. A total of 116 participants with schizophrenia were rec...
Article
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Objectives To determine the efficacy of brief Culturally adapted CBT (CaCBT) for depression when added to Treatment As usual (TAU)– delivered by trained therapists using a manual compared with alone TAU. Methods This was an assessor-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. Particpants with a diagnosis of depression, attending psychiatry depa...
Article
This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of brief Culturally adapted CBT(CaCBT) for depression when added to Treatment As usual(TAU) delivered by trained therapists using a manual compared with alone TAU. This was an assessor-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial. Participants with a diagnosis of depression,attending psychiatry de...
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This study was conducted to compare the frequency of postnatal depression in women following Normal Vaginal Delivery and Caesarian Section. A comparative study was conducted in Departments of Obstetrics & Gynecology of Lady Reading Hospital, Khyber Teaching Hospital and Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from November 2009 to January 2010. A total...
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To test the reliability and applicability of Urdu translation of the International personality disorder examination (IPDE) in a psychiatric outpatient population in Pakistan, this study was conducted at the outpatient department of Fatima Memorial Hospital Lahore from April 2012 to March 2013. Patients considered to have a personality disorder by a...
Article
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To test the reliability and applicability of Urdu translation of the International personality disorder examination (IPDE) in a psychiatric outpatient population in Pakistan. This study was conducted at the outpatient department of Fatima Memorial Hospital Lahore from April 2012 to March 2013. Patients considered to have a personality disorder by a...
Article
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To find out prescription patterns of general practitioners in Peshawar, a cross-sectional survey of drug prescriptions was done at six major hospitals and pharmacies of Peshawar between April and May 2011. A total of 1097 prescriptions that included 3640 drugs, were analyzed to assess completeness, average number of drugs, prescription frequency of...
Article
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Objectives: To find out prescription patterns of general practitioners in Peshawar. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of drug prescriptions was done at six major hospitals and pharmacies of Peshawar between April and May 2011. A total of 1097 prescriptions that included 3640 drugs, were analyzed to assess completeness, average number of drugs, presc...
Article
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Primary health care in Pakistan mostly caters for physical aspect with almost complete disregard for mental health. This is in contrast to Declaration of Alma-Ata which reaffirmed the WHO definition of health including mental health as an integral part and urged signatories to incorporate the concept of primary health care in their health systems.
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Background: Schizophrenia is a devastating disorder not only for the patients but also for their caregivers. The caregivers of the patients suffer from psychological distress but receive minimum support from psychiatric services. Objectives were to assess the stress level in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and to determine the associatio...
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Publication ethics is central to academic publishing. Publication ethics is an umbrella term encompassing all ethical issues related to scientific publication, ranging from research misconducts such as duplicate publication and guest authorship to research frauds such as data fabrication and plagiarism. Contrary to the common notion, it is not only...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs of family members towards patients suffering from conversion disorder. The study was carried out in khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan, from Februay to May 2013. A consecutive sample of sixty patients, suffering from conversion disorder was approached for the study. Fam...
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Most people with schizophrenia in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries receive minimal formal care, and there are high rates of non-adherence to medication. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that involves a family member in supervising medication administration - supervised treatment in out-patients for schizophrenia (STOPS) - in...
Article
Full-text available
Most people with schizophrenia in low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries receive minimal formal care, and there are high rates of non-adherence to medication. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that involves a family member in supervising medication administration – supervised treatment in out-patients for sc...
Article
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this study was conducted at Department of Neurology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from January 2008 to December 2009 on 43 diagnosed patients of TBM, to find out the association of lateral rectus palsy in patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The diagnosis was made on the basis of history, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological...
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This study was conducted to estimate the direct and indirect cost of depressive disorders in indoor patients. This hospital based descriptive study was carried out on thirty patients admitted consecutively in department of psychiatry Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi from January to July 2000. International Classification of Disease-10 dia...
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Objective: To describe the psychosocial services available at a camp in Mardan District. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jalalah Camp in Mardan District with 10,500 displaced persons from June to August 2009. A questionnaire based on sphere handbook was administered to heads of 128 families using systematic random sampling....
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Under the auspices of the WPA section for publications, the WPA Task Force on publications has been actively involved in promoting editorial capacity in LAMIC countries through workshops. The workshops review selected journals from regions within the LAMIC group. The current workshop focused on Africa and Asia, with selected editors presenting cont...
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This cross-sectional study was conducted at Jalalah Camp in Mardan District with 10,500 displaced persons from June to August 2009 to describe the psychosocial services available at a camp in Mardan District. A questionnaire based on sphere handbook was administered to heads of 128 families using systematic random sampling. Camp administration and...
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Mental health is more than the absence of mental disorders but it has not been given the same importance as physical health in most parts of the world. Pakistan, a lower middle income country, spending only 0.4% of the total health budget on mental health can be quoted as an example. Still, Pakistan is among those 60% of the countries that have a m...
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To evaluate the frequency and risk factors of seizures and epilepsy after ischemic stroke. This prospective observational study was conducted on patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Department of Neurology; Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. These stroke patients were followed up for a total period of 2 years. Initiall...
Article
The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12–17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suff...
Article
The Muslims fast every year during the month of Ramadan. A fasting day can last 12-17 h. The effects of fasting on serum lithium levels and the mood changes in patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder during Ramadan are not well studied. We aimed to compare the serum lithium levels, side effects, toxicity and mental state in patients suff...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to obtain information about the number of patients attended by general practitioners in different stages of schizophrenia; relevant knowledge, diagnostic skills and ongoing practice concerning management of patients suffering from severe mental illness. For this cross sectional survey conducted from May to September 2010, a...
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This study was conducted to determine the usefulness of Schneider's first rank symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients suffering from schizophrenia, admitted to the Psychiatry Ward Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar during the year 2009 were selected by non probability purposive sampling. It was a descriptive study and the diagnosis was made according...
Article
Objectives: To determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients presenting with migraine. Material and Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Psychiatry Outpatient Department of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from 1st February to 31st July 2009. One hundred patients with migraine presenting to Psychiatry outpatient depa...
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This study was carried out to find out the burden of care and associated mental health problems in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and epilepsy. This study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry, Sir Ganga Raam Hospital, Lahore, from January to September 2010. A total of 100 caregivers (50 each) of patients suffering from schizophr...
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Pakistan, half a century after independence, became a member of the group of 60% countries of the world which have a mental health policy, in 1997. The policy covers areas of advocacy, promotion, prevention; treatment and rehabilitation through inter-sectoral collaboration 2. In the same year, a substance abuse policy was also formulated which incl...
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Schizophrenia affects 1% of population worldwide. In spite of its enormous impact, issues as basic as its diagnostic criteria remain ill-defined and controversial. Schneider claimed that in absence of somatic illness, first rank symptoms are pathognomonic of schizophrenia. However this claim has been criticized and first rank symptoms are reported...
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A number of studies have looked at the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in the community in Pakistan over the last two decades. However, a very little information is available on psychiatric morbidity in primary health care. We therefore decided to measure prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their correlates among women from primary he...
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This study was carried out to find out adverse side effects of lithium in bipolar affective disorder patients in the month of Ramadan. This descriptive study was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from September to November 2006. Sixty two subjects were included in the study b...