Muhammad Irfan

Muhammad Irfan
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore | UET · Department of Civil Engineering

PhD

About

47
Publications
83,681
Reads
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368
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2014 - September 2014
The University of Tokyo
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2014 - October 2014
The University of Tokyo
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2011 - March 2014
The University of Tokyo
Position
  • PhD
Description
  • Worked on the development of landslide early warning system by means of elastic wave propagation in soil.
Education
April 2011 - March 2014
The University of Tokyo
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering
October 2008 - March 2011
University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore
Field of study
  • Geotechnical Engineering
September 2004 - August 2008

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
The field stress path experienced by a soil element during rain-induced slope failures is reproduced by injecting water in an initially unsaturated specimen under constant total stress conditions. The accumulation of injected moisture near the base of triaxial specimens causes non-uniformity in the specimen leading to progressive failure. A new ide...
Article
Full-text available
An ordinary triaxial apparatus was modified to reproduce field stress path and the failure mechanism during rainfall induced slope failures. In addition, the system was equipped with piezoelectric sensors for the measurement of shear, and compression wave velocities during the water infiltration process. The fundamental construction of axial loadin...
Article
Full-text available
An earthwork design requires to consider the influence of severe climatic conditions on enduring performance of soils treated with chemical additives. This study was focused on investigating the mechanical behavior of a lime and cement-treated cohesive soil under the effects of repeated cycles of wetting and drying. The soil samples were prepared b...
Article
This study aims to determine the relationship between water content, shear deformation, and elastic wave velocity of unsaturated soil slope. The individual influence of volumetric water content and tilt angle on the normalized wave velocity through unsaturated soil was investigated through a series of adjustable slope model tests. The relationship...
Article
Internal instability occurs when the filtrate under the influence of strong seepage forces accompanies the finer fraction from broadly graded granular soils and induces marked changes in its original particle distributions. The changes in particle size distribution may occasionally render the granular filters ineffective in retaining the protected...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to estimate the elastic wave velocity of an unsaturated soil slope, and to verify its applicability. The elastic wave velocity in a silty sand was measured. The individual influence of the volumetric water content and the tilt angle on the normalized wave velocity through unsaturated soil were investigated through a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper encompasses the comparison of seven different techniques to determine coefficient of consolidation (Cv). A relationship between coefficient of consolidation and pre-consolidation pressure (Pc) is also highlighted.
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this paper is to define an elastic wave velocity threshold for rainfall-induced landslide prediction and early warning. To achieve this goal, several key questions need to be addressed, such as what threshold of wave velocity should be employed for issuing early warning? And how such thresholds should be selected? In an attempt to a...
Article
Full-text available
The unchecked and unnoticed disposal of industrial leachates is a common malpractice in developing countries. Untreated effluents from industries drastically deteriorate the soil, altering nearly all of its characteristics. An increase in urbanization has led to construction on these deteriorated lands. In this study, the chemical impact of two ind...
Article
Formany aspects of rock engineering, it is important to measure the in situ stresses, not only under compression but also under tension. Brazilian tests were performed to generate tensile stress in granite samples. The granite was obtained from the Beishan site, a potential high-level radioactive waste repository area in China. In this study, Brazi...
Article
Electrical conductivity of soil can be considered as a proxy of soil physical properties. Due to its non-destructive nature, electrical resistivity method is serving as an attractive tool in geotechnical engineering practice. In this study, the electrical resistivity of phosphate tailings was measured by laboratory tests using two-phase electrode m...
Article
Full-text available
Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the sl...
Article
Full-text available
Landslides are recurring phenomena causing damages to private property, public facilities, and human lives. The need for an affordable instrumentation that can be used to provide an early warning of slope instability to enable the evacuation of vulnerable people, and timely repair andmaintenance ofcritical infrastructure is self-evident. A new emer...
Article
The present means of physical landslide early warning systems make use of moisture sensors or slope deformations sensors. All such sensors are point sensors and are sensitive to variation of physical parameters in the vicinity of sensors only. A large number of sensors are therefore required to cover a wide potential landslide area. An idea to obse...
Article
Intense rainfall is the most important landslide trigger. In many mountainous environments of the world, heavy rainfall has caused many landslides and slope failures in a matter of seconds without warning. Therefore, an early warning system can be an effective measure to reduce the damage caused by landslides and slope failures by facilitating the...
Article
Full-text available
Rockfall is a frequent engineering disaster confronted in the capital construction engineering. The key for preventing rock fall is the evaluation of the rockfall trajectory. After extensive analysis, an innovative calculation method of rockfall trajectory, called segmented cycling algorithm, has been proposed in the paper. According to the contact...
Article
Full-text available
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), a commonly used explosive for military and industrial applications, can cause serious environmental pollution. 28-day laboratory pot experiment was carried out applying bioaugmentation using laboratory selected bacterial strains as inoculum, biostimulation with molasses and cabbage leaf extract, and phytoremediation using rye...
Article
Full-text available
In developing countries like Pakistan, raw industrial effluents are usually disposed-off directly into open lands or in water bodies resulting in soil contamination. Leachate formation due to rainfalls in openly dumped solid waste also adds to soil contamination. In this study, engineering behavior of soils contaminated by two industrial effluents,...
Article
Full-text available
A piezoelectric transducer capable of measuring both shear and compression wave velocities in soil simultaneously in triaxial testing conditions is presented. Performance evaluation of disk transducer system showed that the use of low-noise coaxial cables, proper grounding, and high resolution wave recorder can significantly enhance signal quality...
Article
Economical constraints and growing infrastructure developments in hilly areas accentuate the use of weak rockfill material. These soils disintegrate with time due to physical and chemical weathering. The objective of this research was to elucidate the possible mechanisms responsible for negative aging of such granular soils and its effects on their...
Article
In recent years, Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) have emerged as useful materials for structural strengthening and rehabilitation. The main aspire of this research is towards evaluating the efficiency of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in enhancing the shear strength of deep beams. The research work included construction and testing of eigh...
Article
Full-text available
Economical constraints and growing infrastructure developments in hilly areas accentuate the use of weak rockfill material. These soils disintegrate with time due to physical and chemical weathering. The objective of this research was to elucidate the possible mechanisms responsible for negative aging of such granular soils and its effects on their...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid urbanization in Pakistan is creating a shortage of sustainable construction sites with good soil conditions. Attempts have been made to use rice husk ash (RHA) in concrete industry of Pakistan, however, limited literature is available on its potential to improve local soils. This paper presents an experimental study on engineering propert...
Conference Paper
Soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) is the most important relationship in defining the behavior of unsaturated soils. Correlation between SWCC and other soil properties is imperative. The behavior of elastic wave velocities with SWCC is largely unknown because of the absence of any standard apparatus. An ordinary triaxial apparatus, capable of m...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the mineral composition and potential health benefits of Zamzam water. Zamzam water is different from natural water in terms of minerals and radiological features. The miracle of Zamzam is its continuous flow since 2000 BC. The appearance of the Zamzam well led to the foundation of the settlement of the Makah valley. Zamzam wat...
Article
Full-text available
The fundamental construction of disk type p/s composite piezoelectric transducer, which is capable of measuring both shear and compression wave velocities simultaneously in triaxial testing conditions, is discussed. Performance evaluation of wave measurement system was conducted by studying the effects of crosstalk, quality of transmission cables a...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanization and expansion of metropolitans in the developing world is pressing the need of tall structures with multiple basements. In several such projects, open land is available around excavation site and unsupported deep excavations by maintaining appropriate side slopes offer economical solution. In this research, subsoil stratigraphy o...
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanization and expansion of metro-politans in the developing world is pressing the need of tall structures with multiple basements. In several such projects, open land is available around excavation site and unsupported deep excavations by maintaining appropriate side slopes offer economical solution. In this research, subsoil stratigraphy...
Article
Full-text available
An intense earthquake of magnitude 7.6, known as Kashmir Earthquake, jolted northern areas of Pakistan and Pakistan administrated Kashmir on October 8 th , 2005. The affected area has a rugged mountainous terrain with extreme weather conditions and was never exposed to such a serious seismic activity in the recent history. Therefore, the event was...
Article
Full-text available
Probability analysis provides a sound basis for choosing a course of action against the uncertainties involved in the geotechnical exploration. The modern probabilistic techniques have been successfully applied to classical geotechnical engineering problems such as seepage, settlement, bearing capacity, slope stability in the past throughout the wo...

Questions

Questions (6)
Question
As a general concept explained in geotechnical engineering textbooks, shear based bearing capacity is explained to be increasing with foundation width. Since the 'width' component in Terzaghi's Bearing capacity equation increases, hence is the corresponding increase in ultimate bearing capacity in shear. Physical understanding of this phenomenon is also simple that with increase in foundation width length of failure path increases; longer failure path offers greater resistance to failure (i.e., 'unit resistance' multiplied by 'length of failure path' would be larger). A typical figure is shown in the attachment.
The use of Mayerhof or Hansen bearing capacity equations (i.e., by incorporating shape, depth, inclination factors, etc.) however, gives result which are opposite to the trend explained in previous passage. By using Mayerhof or Hansen factors ultimate bearing capacity appears to decrease with foundation width. A close look into the data show that main reason for this decrease are the values of depth factors 'dc' and 'dq' which decrease with foundation width. I have been searching for a physical explanation of this decrease in ultimate bearing capacity with foundation width, but could not find any. I have even gone through original papers Mayerhof (1963) and Hansen (1970) but they are also silent in this regard. Any valuable input in this regard is appreciated.
Question
While performing slope stability analysis for a project we are stuck at the selection of soil parameters to be used for short-term and long-term analysis. The embankment mainly comprises of normally consolidated clay. We intend to use undrained soil parameters (i.e. phi=0, cu>0), and drained soil parameters (i.e. phi>0, cd=0) for assessing the stability of slope under short-term, and long-term conditions respectively. Theoretically, the undrained parameters have to be determined from UU or CU triaxial test while CD test has to be performed for the determination of drained clay parameters.
In our case, only UU triaxial test could be performed and hence we are only available with the undrained clay parameters which in our case are phi=0, and cu=35 kPa. Now is there any guideline through which we can find appropriate soil parameters for the same clay under drained conditions (i.e. any guideline through which we can convert the undrained soil parameters into drained parameters)?
Question
Angle of internal friction of sand is found to decrease with increased overburden pressure (see attached figure). The curved nature of actual Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope (the straight line that we plot for Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope is merely a linear approximation) also indicates the same, i.e. a decrease in friction angle at higher normal stress. 
In physical terms friction angle represents particle interlocking. Greater the interlocking between the particles, larger should be the friction angle and vice versa. At higher normal stress better interlocking is to be expected, which should translate into a higher friction angle but it isn't the case (considering the density remains constant). Particle crushing at high normal stress, might be one reason leading to low friction angle. My question is what are the other physical explanations of the decrease in friction angle at higher normal stress/overburden pressure?
Question
Although there are several correlations available in the literature to predict the properties and behavior of cohesive soils (clays/silts) by standard penetration test (SPT), however at the same time many textbooks mention that the use of SPT values for predicting properties of cohesive soils is not very reliable. What are the factors that influence the SPT values obtained in clays, and decrease their reliability to be used for the prediction of soil properties?
Question
According to classical soil mechanics we generally consider the distribution of stress caused by a uniform surcharge loading, to stay constant along with depth. However, the stress distribution caused by a spread footing is considered to decrease with depth (generally becomes around 10% of contact pressure at 2B and 4B for square and strip footing respectively).
While designing an excavation retaining system with an adjacent building resting on strip footings, a common practice is to consider the building load as surcharge load (i.e. having an earth pressure diagram with constant abscissa). If this assumption is correct, then how is such earth pressure diagram different than earth pressure caused by a uniform surcharge (e.g. overburden extending to infinite extents).
Or in other words, how is the earth pressure on a retaining structure caused by an adjacent strip footing different than the earth pressure on the same retaining structure due to an adjacent surcharge load?

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
To model the technique in our laboratory, check its financial viability for Pakistani soils, in order to commercialize it and introduce this ground improvement technique into the construction industry of Pakistan.
Project
Identify the utilizable local waste Delineate the Physical Properties of wastes and geomaterials Perform experiments to elucidate the geotechnical properties of waste-geomaterial mixes and wastes Propose an engineering application based on experiments and analysis