Muhammad Khalil Afzal

Muhammad Khalil Afzal
COMSATS University Islamabad | CUI · Department of Computer Science

PhD ( Continue)

About

62
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Wireless sensor networks lead the way to the realization and penetration of the internet of things into daily life. As the sensors and communication devices interconnect things and people more, the quality of service demands become stringent and diverse. Optimizing conflicting quality of service goals is NP-hard. Moreover, the need for the communic...
Article
In recent decade, the applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) have been widely spread out and the market of IoT has been rapidly growing. One of the essential elements in IoT structure is wireless sensor network (WSN) because it provides useful information anywhere and it makes IoT be more necessary technology in people’s daily life. The types...
Article
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Cognition is of paramount importance in modern communication systems for this brings the potential for adaptiveness and self-fine-tuning for dynamic reconfigurability. To achieve this feat, two primary tasks are to identify the influential configurable parameters and availability of comprehensive datasets representative of the real-world scenarios...
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Future generation Internet of Things (IoT) communication infrastructure is expected to pave the path for innovative applications like smart cities, smart grids, smart industries, and smart healthcare. To support these diverse applications, the communication protocols are required to be adaptive and intelligent. At the network layer, an efficient an...
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It is predicted that by 2025, all devices will be connected to the Internet, subsequently causing the number of devices connected with the Internet to rise [...]
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Facilitating citizens with accurate traffic flow prediction increases the quality of life. Roadside sensors and devices are used to capture live streams of huge data and the Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming popular for the deployment of effective Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Traffic flow prediction from the live datastreams require...
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In Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), a large amount of data is shared between vehicles and Road Side Units (RSUs) in real-time. VANETs assist in sharing traffic information effectively and timely to improve traffic efficiency and reliability. However, less storage capability and selfish behavior of the vehicles are important issues that need to b...
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) often suffer from error-prone links when deployed in resource-constrained industrial environments. Reliability is a critical performance requirement of loss-sensitive applications, and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is a key indicator of successful communications. In addition to the improvem...
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Next-generation wireless networks have to be robust and self-sustained. Internet of things (IoT) is reshaping the technological adaptation in the daily life of human beings. IoT applications are highly diverse, and they range from critical applications like smart city, health-based industries, to industrial IoT. Machine learning (ML) techniques are...
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Scalability is a significant issue in system-on-a-chip architectures because of the rapid increase in numerous on-chip resources. Moreover, hybrid processing elements demand diverse communication requirements, which system-on-a-chip architectures are unable to handle gracefully. Network-on-a-chip architectures have been proposed to address the scal...
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In 5G, low latency and high reliability have become the most significant issues in addition to ultra-high throughput and support of massive number of devices. To achieve the goal of low latency, the concept of tactile Internet has been introduced. To reduce the latency, the various techniques, which can be applied to from the physical layer to the...
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Sustainable cities are widely adopting the standards of the Internet of Things (IoT) in almost every domain e.g. Smart Grids (SG) to provide services to a sustainable community. It enables two-way communication to manage the energy resources, where routing protocol has a significant role in communication. The diversification of IoT networks arises...
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Energy consumption is increasing exponentially with the increase in electronic gadgets. Losses occur during generation, transmission, and distribution. The energy demand leads to increase in electricity theft (ET) in distribution side. Data analysis is the process of assessing the data using different analytical and statistical tools to extract use...
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The immense increase in multimedia-on-demand traffic that refers to audio, video, and images, has drastically shifted the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT) from scalar to Multimedia Internet of Things (M-IoT). IoT devices are constrained in terms of energy, computing, size, and storage memory. Delay-sensitive and bandwidth-hungry multimedia ap...
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Over the last decades, load forecasting is used by power companies to balance energy demand and supply. Among the several load forecasting methods, medium-term load forecasting is necessary for grid’s maintenance planning, settings of electricity prices, and harmonizing energy sharing arrangement. The forecasting of the month ahead electrical loads...
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The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Fifth Generation (5G) high-speed communication networks are expected not only to make it necessary to rapidly increase the number of communication nodes and generate large amounts of data but also to change the nature of the network to a more dynamic environment. However, the present network structure...
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In a research community, data sharing is an essential step to gain maximum knowledge from the prior work. Existing data sharing platforms depend on trusted third party (TTP). Due to the involvement of TTP, such systems lack trust, transparency, security, and immutability. To overcome these issues, this paper proposed a blockchain-based secure data...
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The adoption of emerging technological trends and applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the industrial systems is leading towards the development of Industrial IoT (IIoT). IIoT serves as a new vision of IoT in the industrial sector by automating smart objects for sensing, collecting, processing and communicating the real-time events in in...
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Cheap energy from the utility can be stored during off-peak time in batteries and utilized during on-peak time. However, energy storage more than future demand can degrade the system. The sharing of surplus stored energy within the community can reduce the energy consumption cost. A system of fetching surplus energy from storage systems of smart ho...
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The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) requires to accommodate diverse applications with stringent performance requirements. Delay is one of the key metrics in IoT, particularly, for domains like health-care where critical cases requiring an emergency response, frequently occur. In this paper, we analyze performance data generated using...
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Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly growing and contributing drastically to improve the quality of life. Immense technological innovations and growth is a key factor in IoT advancements. Readily available low cost IoT hardware is essential for continuous adaptation of IoT. Advancements in IoT Operating System (OS) to support these newly developed I...
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The widespread growth of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) and its dependence on the license-exempt Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands have made spectrum resources scarce. IoT can nonetheless get advantage from the Cognitive Radio (CR) technology to resolve the spectrum shortage issue. Since in CR networks the unlicensed Secondary Users (SU...
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The proliferation of mobile devices and the heterogeneous environment of wireless communications have increased the need for additional spectrum for data transmission. It is not possible to altogether allocate a new band to all networks, which is why fully efficient use of the already available spectrum is the demand of the day. Cognitive radio (CR...
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This paper focuses on analytics of an extremely large dataset of smart grid electricity price and load, which is difficult to process with conventional computational models. These data are known as energy big data. The analysis of big data divulges the deeper insights that help experts in the improvement of smart grid’s (SG) operations. Processing...
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and emerging frameworks having a wide range of applications. The underwater sensor deployment is beneficial; however, some factors limit the performance of the network, i.e., less reliability, high end-to-end delay and maximum energy dissipation. The provisioning of the aforementioned factor...
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The key concerns to enhance the lifetime of IoT-enabled Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (IoT-UWSNs) are energy-efficiency and reliable data delivery under constrained resource. Traditional transmission approaches increase the communication overhead, which results in congestion and affect the reliable data delivery. Currently, many routing proto...
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Small-to-medium scale smart buildings are an important part of the Internet of Things (IoT). Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are the major enabler for smart control in such environments. Reliability is among the key performance requirements for many loss-sensitive IoT and WSN applications, while Energy Consumption (EC) remains a primary concern in...
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Internet-of-Things (IoT) enabling technologies such as ZigBee, WiFi, 6LowPAN, RFID, Machine-to-Machine, LTE-Advanced, etc. depend on the license-free Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands for the Internet. The proliferation of IoT devices is not only anticipated to create a huge amount of congestion in the near future, but even now the unli...
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In this paper, we propose an optimized, search based near-optimal mapping heuristic, named as ONMAP for mapping real time embedded application workloads on 2D based on-chip interconnection network platforms. ONMAP exploits NMAP, a well-known and fast nearest neighbor heuristic algorithm by using the modular exact optimization method. The proposed h...
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The integration of the smart grid with the cloud computing environment promises to develop an improved energy-management system for utility and consumers. New applications and services are being developed which generate huge requests to be processed in the cloud. As smart grids can dynamically be operated according to consumer requests (data), so,...
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Presently, the advancements in the electric system, smart meters, and implementation of renewable energy sources (RES) have yielded extensive changes to the current power grid. This technological innovation in the power grid enhances the generation of electricity to meet the demands of industrial, commercial and residential sectors. However, the in...
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With the emergence of the smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In this work, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a home energy management controller (HEMC) as scheduler and a smart meter....
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The Fifth generation (5G) network is projected to support large amount of data traffic and massive number of wireless connections. Different data traffic has different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. 5G mobile network aims to address the limitations of previous cellular standards (i.e., 2G/3G/4G) and be a prospective key enabler for future I...
Article
The Internet of Things (IoT), one of the hottest trends in technology, is transforming our future by interconnecting everything; humans, vehicles, appliances, utilities, infrastructures, street lights, etc., through intelligent connections. For deploying the realization of IoT by 2020, Fifth Generation (5G) wireless communication networks are consi...
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Auction theory has found vital application in cognitive radio to relieve spectrum scarcity by redistributing idle channels to those who value them most. However, countries have been slow to introduce spectrum auctions in the secondary market. This could be in part because a number of substantial conflicts could emerge for leasing the spectrum at th...
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By combining energy efficient micro-controllers, low-power radio transceivers, and sensors as well as actuators in so called smart objects, we are able to connect the digital cyber world with the physical world as in cyber physical systems. In the vision of the Internet of Things, these smart objects should be seamlessly integrated into the traditi...
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The proliferation of Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology and its reliance on the license-free Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands have rendered radio spectrum scarce. The IoT can nevertheless obtain great advantage from Cognitive Radio (CR) technology for efficient use of a spectrum, to be implemented in IEEE 802.11af-based primary netw...
Article
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A smart grid (SG) is a modernized electric grid that enhances the reliability, efficiency, sustainability, and economics of electricity services. Moreover, it plays a vital role in modern energy infrastructure. The core challenge faced by SGs is how to efficiently utilize different kinds of front-end smart devices, such as smart meters and power as...
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This paper presents a model for optimal energy management under the time-of-use (ToU) and critical peak price (CPP) market in a microgrid. The microgrid consists of intermittent dispatchable distributed generators, energy storage systems, and multi-home load demands. The optimal energy management problem is a challenging task due to the inherent st...
Article
Fast rerouting requires that a backup route is already available at each node so that traffic can immediately be shifted on it without new path discovery and convergence time delay. Handling multiple failures with least possible delay, high throughput and least overhead with regard to memory and battery is a real challenge in Wireless Sensor Networ...
Article
Road safety through vehicular control is the prime interest of research in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). Diagnostic analysis of In-vehicle sensors is one of the core concerns for vehicular safety. There is a number of safety applications promising the features needed in vehicular safety. Therefore, this paper designed, developed, and implemen...
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Network-on-Chip (NoC) has appeared to be an impending substitute for the communication paradigm in modern VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) embedded systems. Apart from many design challenges, application mapping on the NoC system is one of the most intractable and challenging optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a hybrid, Branch & Bo...
Article
The goal of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is to provide safety and comfort to travelers, drivers, and pedestrians during their journeys on the roads. To support vehicular communications under dynamic traffic conditions and diverse operating environments, different communications technologies have been implemented and tested. The availability o...
Article
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Vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) is characterized as a highly dynamic wireless network due to the dynamic connectivity of the network nodes. To achieve better connectivity under such dynamic conditions, an optimal transmission strategy is required to direct the information flow between the nodes. Earlier studies on VANET’s overlook the characterist...
Article
Cooperative communications aim to gain spatial diversity from stations cooperating during data transmission without requiring multiple transceiver antennas on the same station. However, performance from cooperative communications highly depends on the relay-selection method. This paper proposes and evaluates a distributed relay-selection method bas...
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Standardization and technology advancements have helped the realization of the Internet of things (IoT). The availability of low-cost IoT devices has also played a key role in furthering IoT research, development, and deployment. IoT operating systems (OSs) provide integration of software and hardware components. The availability of standard protoc...
Article
Internet of things (IoT) constitutes networked devices that can gather and exchange information. The scarcity of the available spectrum used by a large number of devices in IoT is a challenge. Spectrum scarcity changes the whole paradigm of spectrum access in order to increase utilization of the limited resource. Cognitive radio ad hoc sensor netwo...
Article
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have gained much attention in today’s research domain for supporting a wide variety of applications including the multimedia applications. Multimedia applications that are regarded as the quality-ofservice (QoS)-aware, delay sensitive, and bandwidth hungry applications, require enough energy and communication resourc...
Article
The population of cities is increasing day-by-day. According to United Nations, it is estimated that by 2050, 66% of the world’s population will live in cities [item 1) of the Appendix]. This is indicative of a drive to live in more privileged and smarter environments. Therefore, there exists an increased demand for intelligent and sustainable envi...
Article
Multicasting is the transmission of data to a group of nodes identified by a single destination address. Furthermore, multicasting is considered as an appropriate transmission method for multimedia services. Multimedia applications are expected to become more prevalent over mobile ad hoc networks in the near future. Therefore, achieving reliability...
Article
Multicasting is an efficient way of group communications because one sender can transmit data to multiple receivers with only one transmission. Furthermore, multicasting is considered an appropriate transmission method for multimedia services. Multimedia applications are expected to become more prevalent over mobile ad-hoc networks in the near futu...
Conference Paper
Route recovery process of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol has been extensively studied. However, the recovery process still requires long delays and overheads. In this paper, we proposed a link quality aware local recovery protocol for AODV based Ad hoc networks. In the proposed method, when a link is broken, a node detecting a lin...
Conference Paper
Multicastingis an efficient way for group communications because one sender can transmit data to multiple receivers only by one transmission. Multimedia applications are expected to become more prevalent over mobile ad-hoc networks in the near future. Therefore, reliability in multimedia communication is an important task. However, IEEE 802.11 stan...
Article
Mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANET) has been getting the spotlight in the area of the wireless networks because of its flexibility and salability, and developing of many applications with it. As a consequence, MANETs are required to process not only simple data traffics, but also multimedia traffics, which has some constraints on the performances. Howev...