M.s. Stroebe

M.s. Stroebe
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Psychology

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48
Publications
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1,854
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Publications

Publications (48)
Article
Full-text available
The role of loneliness in the bereavement experience has been reported as substantial, with the death of a close person leaving a considerable void in the life of the bereaved. Yet, there is lack of agreement about its precise role and, notably, whether loneliness should be included as a core symptom for diagnosis of grief complications. The ongoin...
Article
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Background and objectives The Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement holds that bereaved people who respond flexibly to loss-oriented stressors (i.e., relating to the loss; to the deceased person) and restoration-oriented stressors (i.e., secondary to loss; daily-life changes, taking on new roles) adapt better to bereavement. Despite growing...
Article
Full-text available
It has generally been understood that the majority of bereaved people suffer from loneliness to at least a moderate degree, and more so than their non-bereaved counterparts. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic impacted social isolation, loneliness had been closely associated with poor mental health outcomes. In this study we systematically review the...
Article
Counterfactual thoughts, mental simulations about how a situation may have turned out differently (i.e., “if only …, then …”), can reduce mental health after stressful life-events. However, how specific counterfactual thought types relate to post-loss mental health problems is unclear. We hypothesized that self-referenced upward counterfactuals (i....
Article
Prolonged grief disorder, characterized by severe, persistent, and disabling grief, has recently been included in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11). Emotional disturbances are central to such complicated grief responses. Accordingly, emotion regulation is assumed critical in the development, persistence and treatment of compl...
Article
Full-text available
Severe, persistent and disabling grief occurs among a sizable minority experiencing bereavement, with diagnostic manuals newly including complicated grief (CG) disorders. Sleep disturbances/disorders have been established as worsening affective and stress-related conditions. However, the role of sleep difficulties in bereavement and CG has not rece...
Article
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Background: Prior network analyses demonstrated that the death of a loved one potentially precedes specific depression symptoms, primarily loneliness, which in turn links to other depressive symptoms. In this study, we extend prior research by comparing depression symptom network structures following two types of marital disruption: bereavement ver...
Article
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John Bowlby’s attachment theory has made a lasting contribution to scientific understanding of the nature and the impact of close interpersonal bonds, tracing their influence from early childhood through adulthood and into bereavement. The experience of separation and loss featured powerfully in Bowlby’s account of the causes of mental health diffi...
Preprint
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Background Prior network analyses demonstrated that the death of a loved one potentially precedes specific depression symptoms, primarily loneliness, which in turn links to other depressive symptoms. In this study, we extend prior research by comparing depression symptom network structures following two types of marital disruption: bereavement vers...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: Major negative life-events including bereavement can precipitate perceived positive life-changes, termed posttraumatic growth (PTG). While traditionally considered an adaptive phenomenon, it has been suggested that PTG represents a maladaptive coping response similar to cognitive avoidance. To clarify the function of PTG,...
Article
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Objective This study assessed the validity of the Indicator of Bereavement Adaptation Cruse Scotland (IBACS). Designed for use in clinical and non-clinical settings, the IBACS measures severity of grief symptoms and risk of developing complications. Method N = 196 (44 male, 152 female) help-seeking, bereaved Scottish adults participated at two tim...
Article
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Background and objectives: Repetitive thought is a trans-diagnostic risk factor for development of psychopathology. Research on repetitive thought in bereaved individuals has focused primarily on clarifying the role of rumination, repetitive thinking about past negative events and/or negative emotions. While detrimental effects of rumination have...
Article
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The rationale, development, and validation of the Bereavement Guilt Scale (BGS) are described in this article. The BGS was based on a theoretically developed, multidimensional conceptualization of guilt. Part 1 describes the generation of the item pool, derived from in-depth interviews, and review of the scientific literature. Part 2 details statis...
Article
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In 1961, George Engel (1913–1999), founder of the innovative general theory of illness and healing known as the biopsychosocial model, wrote a classic paper entitled " Is Grief a Disease? A Challenge for Medical Research. " This article fuelled debate about the status of grief as a medical condition, with Engel's question frequently taken as the st...
Article
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This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to three conditions: EX (N = 18), BA (N = 17), or a wai...
Article
Spousal bereavement can cause a rise in depressive symptoms. This study empirically evaluates 2 competing explanations concerning how this causal effect is brought about: (a) a traditional latent variable explanation, in which loss triggers depression which then leads to symptoms; and (b) a novel network explanation, in which bereavement directly a...
Article
Full-text available
Symptoms of psychopathology are associated with overgeneral memory retrieval. Overgeneral memory is hypothesized to be the result of an emotion regulatory process, dampening emotional reactions associated with retrieval of distressing specific memories. However, higher post-loss symptom severity has been related to higher specificity of loss-relate...
Article
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Rumination, a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement, has often been considered a confrontation process. However, building on research on worry in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and rumination in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), researchers recently developed the Rumination as Avoidance Hypothesis (RAH), which states that rumination aft...
Article
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Rumination is a risk factor in adjustment to bereavement. It is associated with and predicts psychopathology after loss. Yet, the function of rumination in bereavement remains unclear. In the past, researchers often assumed rumination to be a maladaptive confrontation process. However, based on cognitive avoidance theories of worry in generalised a...
Article
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Thirty-four quantitative and 9 qualitative studies are reviewed to indicate current understanding of the nature and impact of guilt in bereavement. This overview suggests that guilt is especially prevalent among some vulnerable subgroups, and it is associated with maladaptive health outcomes. Being male, longer bereavement time, and good end-of lif...
Article
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Scientific research on the impact of the death of a child on parents is reviewed. A major aim is to extend coverage from individual to social – in particular interactive – perspectives. We not only illustrate how such approaches complement each other, but also how different conclusions can be reached when interactive phenomena are examined. Intrape...
Article
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In this article we examine some origins of John Bowlby's attachment theory, a highly influential scientific approach to love and loss in contemporary society. Although some potential influences have been well-documented, others have either received no recognition or have failed to have an impact. We focus specifically on three of Bowlby's predecess...
Article
There is debate whether continuing bonds with a deceased person help or hinder adaptation to bereavement. This longitudinal study examined causal relationships between continuing bonds and symptoms over time. Following attachment theory predictions, suddenness of separation was examined as a moderator. Data were obtained from 60 bereaved spouses at...
Article
Although bereavement is a normal part of life, it is associated with detrimental mental and physical health consequences and is thus an important topic in the context of stress, coping, and health. Research on the relationship between bereavement and physical and mental health is reviewed. Ways that persons cope are likely to interact with diverse...
Article
Comments on the article by Benore and Park (see record 2004-22171-001) on belief in an afterlife, continued attachment, and coping with bereavement. Principles are identified on which a balanced, objective evaluation of the role of religious beliefs in adaptation to bereavement must be judged. Subjective impressions by religious persons that their...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the origin and development of Bowlby's attachment theory and its impact on contemporary bereavement research. Adopting a personal perspective, it outlines the evolution of Bowlby's ideas, their influence on our research and understanding of grief and grieving, and the reciprocal impact of the ideas of bereavement researchers on...
Article
Review of the theoretical and empirical literature on homesickness showed that despite recent advances, scientific understanding of the impact on students of leaving home for college is still limited. Further empirical investigation using standardized measures, structural equation models and including additional mediating/moderating variables is ne...
Article
The loss of a marital partner results in substantial increases in morbidity and mortality among both men and women, but the effects are relatively greater for widowers than for widows in the acute grieving period. Evidence is reviewed, and explanations of the pattern are examined. An interpretation in terms of gender differences in social support (...
Article
Recent research on the phenomena and manifestations of bereavement, as represented in this ABS special issue, has contributed to the understanding of two central, long-standing questions: How do bereaved persons cope with their loss? What is the nature and meaning of normal versus complicated grief? In this review, these themes are linked to histor...
Article
The article challenges the longstanding belief in the importance of “grief work” for adjustment to bereavement (the grief work hypothesis). It examines claims made in theoretical formulations and principles of grief counseling and therapy concerning the necessity of working through loss. Empirical evidence is reviewed, and cross-cultural findings a...

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