# Moshe VardiRice University · Department of Computer Science

Moshe Vardi

PhD

## About

938

Publications

203,054

Reads

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45,751

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Introduction

Interested in Logic and Computation, see
http://www.cs.rice.edu/~vardi

Additional affiliations

December 1993 - December 2012

August 1985 - August 1995

**IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose**

Position

- Research Staff Member and Department Manager

## Publications

Publications (938)

We study synthesis and verification of probabilistic models and specifications over finite traces. Probabilistic models are formalized in this work as Markov Chains and Markov Decisions Processes. Motivated by the recent attention given to, and importance of, finite-trace specifications in AI, we use linear-temporal logic on finite traces as a spec...

Multi-Robot Task Planning (MR-TP) is the search for a discrete-action plan a team of robots should take to complete a task. The complexity of such problems scales exponentially with the number of robots and task complexity, making them challenging for online solution. To accelerate MR-TP over a system's lifetime, this work looks at combining two re...

We present an on-the-fly synthesis framework for Linear Temporal Logic over finite traces (LTLf) based on top-down deterministic automata construction. Existing approaches rely on constructing a complete Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA) corresponding to the LTLf specification, a process with doubly exponential complexity relative to the formula...

Consider an agent acting to achieve its temporal goal, but with a ``trembling hand". In this case, the agent may mistakenly instruct, with a certain (typically small) probability, actions that are not intended due to faults or imprecision in its action selection mechanism, thereby leading to possible goal failure. We study the trembling-hand proble...

We release the first tool suite implementing MoXI (Model eXchange Interlingua), an intermediate language for symbolic model checking designed to be an international research-community standard and developed by a widespread collaboration under a National Science Foundation (NSF) CISE Community Research Infrastructure initiative. Although we focus he...

Inspired by recent progress in dynamic programming approaches for weighted model counting, we investigate a dynamic-programming approach in the context of boolean realizability and synthesis, which takes a conjunctive-normal-form boolean formula over input and output variables, and aims at synthesizing witness functions for the output variables in...

Long-horizon task planning is important for robot autonomy, especially as a subroutine for frameworks such as Integrated Task and Motion Planning. However, task planning is computationally challenging and struggles to scale to realistic problem settings. We propose to accelerate task planning over an agent's lifetime by integrating abstract strateg...

While the Ising model is most often used to understand physical phenomena, its natural connection to combinatorial reasoning also makes it one of the best models to probe complex systems in science and engineering. We bring a computational lens to the study of Ising models, where our computer-science perspective is twofold: On the one hand, we show...

Many of us got involved in computing because programming was fun. The advantages of computing seemed intuitive to us. We truly believed that computing yields tremendous societal benefits; for example, the life-saving potential of driverless cars is enormous! Recently, however, computer scientists realized that computing is not a game–it is real–and...

Satisfiability and synthesis are two fundamental problems for Linear Temporal Logic, both of which can be solved on the automaton constructed from the input formula. In general, satisfiability is easier than synthesis in both theory and practice, as satisfiability needs only to find a satisfying trace, while synthesis has to find a winning strategy...

In both computing and economics, efficiency is a cherished property. The field of algorithms, for example, focuses almost solely on their efficiency. A major goal of AI research is to increase efficiency by reducing human labor. In economics, the main advantage of the free market is that it promises “economic efficiency.” A major lesson from many r...

The innovations in reactive synthesis from Linear Temporal Logics over finite traces (\(\textsf{LTLf}\)) will be amplified by the ability to verify the correctness of the strategies generated by \(\textsf{LTLf}\) synthesis tools. This motivates our work on \(\textsf{LTLf}\) model checking. \(\textsf{LTLf}\) model checking, however, is not straightf...

In the study of reactive systems, qualitative properties are usually easier to model and analyze than quantitative properties. This is especially true in systems where mutually beneficial cooperation between agents is possible, such as multi-agent systems. The large number of possible payoffs available to agents in reactive systems with quantitativ...

Determining the satisfiability of Boolean constraint-satisfaction problems with different types of constraints, that is hybrid constraints, is a well-studied problem with important applications. We study a new application of hybrid Boolean constraints, which arises in quantum computing. The problem relates to constrained perfect matching in edge-co...

We introduce a method for translating an alternating weak B\"uchi automaton (AWA), which corresponds to a Linear Dynamic Logic (LDL) formula, to an unambiguous B\"uchi automaton (UBA). Our translations generalise constructions for Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), a less expressive specification language than LDL. In classical constructions, LTL formula...

The innovations in reactive synthesis from {\em Linear Temporal Logics over finite traces} ($\ltlf$) will be amplified by the ability to verify the correctness of the strategies generated by $\ltlf$ synthesis tools. This motivates our work on {\em $\ltlf$ model checking}. $\ltlf$ model checking, however, is not straightforward. The strategies gener...

Robotic task planning is computationally challenging. To reduce planning cost and support lifelong operation, we must leverage prior planning experience. To this end, we address the problem of extracting reusable and generalizable abstract skills from successful plan executions. In previous work, we introduced a supporting framework, allowing us, t...

In the study of reactive systems, qualitative properties are usually easier to model and analyze than quantitative properties. This is especially true in systems where mutually beneficial cooperation between agents is possible, such as multi-agent systems. The large number of possible payoffs available to agents in reactive systems with quantitativ...

Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) synthesis aims at automatically synthesizing a program that complies with desired properties expressed in LTL. Unfortunately it has been proved to be too difficult computationally to perform full LTL synthesis. There have been two success stories with LTL synthesis, both having to do with the form of the specification. T...

Boolean functional synthesis is the process of constructing a Boolean function from a Boolean specification that relates input and output variables. Despite recent developments in synthesis algorithms, Boolean functional synthesis remains a challenging problem even when state-of-the-art techniques are used for decomposing the specification. In this...

Task planning is the problem of finding a discrete sequence of actions to achieve a goal. Unfortunately, task planning in robotic domains is computationally challenging. To address this, in our prior work, we explained how knowledge from a successful task solution can be cached for later use, as an “abstract skill.” Such a skill is represented as a...

As computing becomes more powerful and extends the reach of those who wield it, the imperative grows for computing professionals to make ethical decisions regarding the use of that power. We propose the concept of abstracted power to help computer science students understand how technology may distance them perceptually from consequences of their a...

Reactive synthesis holds the promise of generating automatically a verifiably correct program from a high-level specification. A popular such specification language is Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Unfortunately, synthesizing programs from general LTL formulas, which relies on first constructing a game arena and then solving the game, does not scale...

Determining the satisfiability of Boolean constraint-satisfaction problems with different types of constraints, that is hybrid constraints, is a well-studied problem with important applications. We study here a new application of hybrid Boolean constraints, which arises in quantum computing. The problem relates to constrained perfect matching in ed...

The complementation construction for nondeterministic word automata has numerous applications in formal verification. In particular, the language-containment problem, to which many verification problems are reduced, involves complementation. For automata on finite words, which correspond to safety properties, complementation is typically done by de...

While the Ising model remains essential to understand physical phenomena, its natural connection to combinatorial reasoning makes it also one of the best models to probe complex systems in science and engineering. We bring a computational lens to the study of Ising models, where our computer-science perspective is two-fold: On the one hand, we cons...

Solving realistic robotic task planning problems is computationally demanding. To better exploit the planning effort and reduce the future planning cost, it is important to increase the reusability of successful plans. To this end, we suggest a systematic and automatable approach for plan transfer, by rethinking the plan caching procedure. Specific...

Reactive synthesis holds the promise of generating automatically a verifiably correct program from a high-level specification.
A popular such specification language is Linear Temporal Logic (LTL).
Unfortunately, synthesizing programs from general LTL formulas, which relies on first constructing a game arena and then solving the game, does not scal...

We propose and study the graph-theoretical problem PM-VC: perfect matching under vertex-color constraints on graphs with bi-colored edges. PM-VC is of special interest because of its motivation from quantum-state identification and quantum-experiment design, as well as its rich expressiveness, i.e., PM-VC subsumes many constrained matching problems...

Task planning is the problem of finding a discrete sequence of actions to achieve a goal. Unfortunately, task planning in robotic domains is computationally challenging. To address this, in our prior work, we explained how knowledge from a successful task solution can be cached for later use, as an "abstract skill." Such a skill is represented as a...

The notion of comparison between system runs is fundamental in formal
verification. This concept is implicitly present in the verification of
qualitative systems, and is more pronounced in the verification of quantitative
systems. In this work, we identify a novel mode of comparison in quantitative
systems: the online comparison of the aggregate va...

Synthesis techniques for temporal logic specifications are typically based on exploiting symbolic techniques, as done in model checking. These symbolic techniques typically use backward fixpoint computation. Planning, which can be seen as a specific form of synthesis, is a witness of the success of forward search approaches. In this paper, we devel...

The problem of exact weighted sampling of solutions of Boolean formulas has applications in Bayesian inference, testing, and verification. The state-of-the-art approach to sampling involves carefully decomposing the input formula and compiling a data structure called d-DNNF in the process. Recent work in the closely connected field of model countin...

The problems of verification and realizability are two central themes in the analysis of reactive systems. When multiagent systems are considered, these problems have natural analogues of existence (nonemptiness) of pure-strategy Nash equilibria and verification of pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Recently, this body of work has begun to include fini...

Do agents know each others’ strategies? In multi-process software construction, each process has access to the processes already constructed; but in typical human-robot interactions, a human may not announce its strategy to the robot (indeed, the human may not even know their own strategy). This question has often been overlooked when modeling and...

Reactive synthesis from high-level specifications that combine hard constraints expressed in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) with soft constraints expressed by discounted sum (DS) rewards has applications in planning and reinforcement learning. An existing approach combines techniques from LTL synthesis with optimization for the DS rewards but has fail...

The need to understand the inner workings of opaque Machine Learning models has prompted researchers to devise various types of post-hoc explanations. A large class of such explainers proceed in two phases: first perturb an input instance whose explanation is sought, and then generate an interpretable artifact to explain the prediction of the opaqu...

The determinization of a nondeterministic B\"uchi automaton (NBA) is a fundamental construction of automata theory, with applications to probabilistic verification and reactive synthesis. The standard determinization constructions, such as the ones based on the Safra-Piterman's approach, work on the whole NBA. In this work we propose a divide-and-c...

Solving realistic robotic task planning problems is computationally demanding. To better exploit the planning effort, and reduce the future planning cost, it is important to increase the reusability of successful plans. To this end, we suggest a systematic and automatable approach for plan transfer, by rethinking the plan caching procedure. Specifi...

Reactive synthesis from high-level specifications that combine hard constraints expressed in Linear Temporal Logic LTL with soft constraints expressed by discounted-sum (DS) rewards has applications in planning and reinforcement learning. An existing approach combines techniques from LTL synthesis with optimization for the DS rewards but has failed...

In Bayesian inference, the maximum a posteriori (MAP) problem combines the most probable explanation (MPE) and marginalization (MAR) problems. The counterpart in propositional logic is the exist-random stochastic satisfiability (ER-SSAT) problem, which combines the satisfiability (SAT) and weighted model counting (WMC) problems. Both MAP and ER-SSA...

In Bayesian inference, the most probable explanation (MPE) problem requests a variable instantiation with the highest probability given some evidence. Since a Bayesian network can be encoded as a literal-weighted CNF formula $\varphi$, we study Boolean MPE, a more general problem that requests a model $\tau$ of $\varphi$ with the highest weight, wh...

Boolean MaxSAT, as well as generalized formulations such as Min-MaxSAT and Max-hybrid-SAT, are fundamental optimization problems in Boolean reasoning. Existing methods for MaxSAT have been successful in solving benchmarks in CNF format. They lack, however, the ability to handle hybrid and generalized MaxSAT problems natively. To address this issue,...

The problems of \emph{verification} and \emph{realizability} are two central themes in the analysis of reactive systems. When multiagent systems are considered, these problems have natural analogues of existence (nonemptiness) of pure-strategy Nash equilibria and verification of pure-strategy Nash equilibria. Recently, this body of work has begun t...

Mission-time Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), abbreviated as MLTL, is a bounded variant of Metric Temporal Logic (MTL) over naturals designed to generically specify requirements for mission-based system operation common to aircraft, spacecraft, vehicles, and robots. Despite the utility of MLTL as a specification logic, major gaps remain in analyzing ML...

Motivated by applications in boolean-circuit design, boolean synthesis is the process of synthesizing a boolean function with multiple outputs, given a relation between its inputs and outputs. Previous work has attempted to solve boolean functional synthesis by converting a specification formula into a Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) and quantifying...

The concept of decomposition in computer science and engineering is
considered a fundamental component of computational thinking and is prevalent
in design of algorithms, software construction, hardware design, and more. We
propose a simple and natural formalization of sequential decomposition, in
which a task is decomposed into two sequential sub-...

Why was the world not ready for COVID-19, in spite of many warnings over the past 20 years of the high likelihood of a global pandemic? This chapter argues that the economic goal of efficiency, focused on short-term optimization, has distracted us from resilience, which is focused on long-term optimization. Computing also seems to have generally em...

The determinization of a nondeterministic Büchi automaton (NBA) is a fundamental construction of automata theory, with applications to probabilistic verification and reactive synthesis. The standard determinization constructions, such as the ones based on the Safra-Piterman’s approach, work on the whole NBA. In this work we propose a divide-and-con...

We revisit congruence relations for Büchi automata, which play a central role in automata-based formal verification. The size of the classical congruence relation is in 3O(n2), where n is the number of states of the given Büchi automaton. We present improved congruence relations that can be exponentially coarser than the classical one. We further g...

Linear Temporal Logic (LTL), proposed by Pnueli in 1977 for reasoning about ongoing programs, was defined over infinite traces. The motivation for this was the desire to model arbitrarily long computations. While this approach has been highly successful in the context of model checking, it has been less successful in the context of reactive synthes...

In this work, we exploit the power of \emph{finite ambiguity} for the complementation problem of B\"uchi automata by using reduced run directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) over infinite words, in which each vertex has at most one predecessor; these reduced run DAGs have only a finite number of infinite runs, thus obtaining the finite ambiguity in B\"uchi...

Temporal logics are widely used by the Formal Methods and AI communities. Linear Temporal Logic is a popular temporal logic and is valued for its ease of use as well as its balance between expressiveness and complexity. LTL is equivalent in expressiveness to Monadic First-Order Logic and satisfiability for LTL is PSPACE-complete. Linear Dynamic Log...

We consider the problem of synthesizing good-enough (GE)-strategies for linear temporal logic (LTL) over finite traces or LTLf for short. The problem of synthesizing GE-strategies for an LTL formula φ over infinite traces reduces to the problem of synthesizing winning strategies for the formula (∃Oφ)⇒φ where O is the set of propositions controlled...

In the Adapter Design Pattern , a programmer implements a Target interface by constructing an Adapter that accesses an existing Adaptee code. In this work, we present a reactive synthesis interpretation to the adapter design pattern, wherein an algorithm takes an Adaptee and a Target transducers, and the aim is to synthesize an Adapter transducer t...

Recent work in weighted model counting proposed a unifying framework for dynamic-programming algorithms. The core of this framework is a project-join tree: an execution plan that specifies how Boolean variables are eliminated. We adapt this framework to compute exact literal-weighted projected model counts of propositional formulas in conjunctive n...

The Boolean SATisfiability problem (SAT) is of central importance in computer science. Although SAT is known to be NP-complete, progress on the engineering side—especially that of Conflict-Driven Clause Learning (CDCL) and Local Search SAT solvers—has been remarkable. Yet, while SAT solvers, aimed at solving industrial-scale benchmarks in Conjuncti...

In the \emph{Adapter Design Pattern}, a programmer implements a \emph{Target} interface by constructing an \emph{Adapter} that accesses an existing \emph{Adaptee} code. In this work, we present a reactive synthesis interpretation to the adapter design pattern, wherein an algorithm takes an \emph{Adaptee} and a \emph{Target} transducers, and the aim...

In this talk I will review 50 years of research on the design-synthesis problem and show how the automata-theoretic approach can be used to solve it.

Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) synthesis aims at automatically synthesizing a program that complies with desired properties expressed in LTL. Unfortunately it has been proved to be too difficult computationally to perform full LTL synthesis. There have been two success stories with LTL synthesis, both having to do with the form of the specification. T...

We explore the potential of continuous local search (CLS) in SAT solving by proposing a novel approach for finding a solution of a hybrid system of Boolean constraints. The algorithm is based on CLS combined with belief propagation on binary decision diagrams (BDDs). Our framework accepts all Boolean constraints that admit compact BDDs, including s...

We present a new synthesis framework based on the on-the-fly DFA construction for LTL over finite traces (LTLf ). Extant approaches rely heavily on the construction of the complete DFA w.r.t. the input LTLf formula, whose size can be doubly exponential to the size of the formula in the worst case. Under those approaches, the synthesis cannot be con...

We revisit here congruence relations for B\"uchi automata, which play a central role in the automata-based verification. The size of the classical congruence relation is in $3^{\mathcal{O}(n^2)}$, where $n$ is the number of states of a given B\"uchi automaton $\mathcal{A}$. Here we present improved congruence relations that can be exponentially mor...

Several problems in planning and reactive synthesis can be reduced to the analysis of two-player quantitative graph games. Optimization is one form of analysis. We argue that in many cases it may be better to replace the optimization problem with the satisficing problem , where instead of searching for optimal solutions, the goal is to search for s...