Morton Deutsch

Morton Deutsch
Columbia University | CU · Teachers College

About

113
Publications
39,689
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
20,603
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
September 1963 - present
Columbia University
Position
  • E.LTHORNDIKE PROFESSOR EMERITUS
Description
  • I became a Professor at Teachers Cllege in1963,I forrmed the Center in1986. I became an emeritus professor in 1990.The Center was named after me in 2013
September 1963 - present
Columbia University
Position
  • E.L.THORNDILE PROFESSOR emeritus
Description
  • I became a professor of psychology at Teachers College in1963;I formed the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution in 1986The International Center was named after me in 2013.I became its Director emeritus in1997.
September 1963 - present
Teachers College
Position
  • Professor emeritus of psychology
Description
  • I becamw a Professor at Teachers College in1963;I formed and directed the Center from1986 29 1997 when PETER cOLEMAN BECAME DIRECTOR.tHE cENTER WAS NAMED AFTER ME IN 2013. I became an emeritus professor in1990 but have retained my office and work.

Publications

Publications (113)
Chapter
This chapter describes six different types of injustice. It then considers the relationship between conflict and injustice. Next it considers the implications of the preceding discussion for education and training. KeywordsInjustice-Conflict-Empathy-Forgiveness-Reconciliation
Chapter
This chapter present a theoretical analysis of the relations between types of social relations and types of psychological orientations. Social relations are characterized in terms of five dimensions: cooperation-competition, power distribution, task-oriented versus social-emotional, formal versus informal, and importance. Psychological orientations...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with the difficult question of what our field can contribute to preventing and resolving the sorts of destructive conflicts which are so prevalent in our world today at the interpersonal, intergroup, interethnic, and international levels. In this chapter, I outline an approach to this question. The chapter is divided into...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a framework for thinking about oppression and how to overcome it. It considers the value premise underlying the use of the term “oppression.” It then discusses the nature of oppression, the forms it takes, and what keeps it in place. In its final two sections, it focuses on awakening the sense of injustice and the strategies a...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with the sense of injustice of the victim and the victimizer. In it, I shall consider the conditions necessary for awakening the sense of injustice in these different participants in an unjust relationship. My discussion, for illustrative purposes, will focus on race relations in the United States, one of the major sources...
Chapter
Cooperative and competitive processes result primarily from two basic types of goal interdependence: positive (where the goals are linked in such a way that the amount or probability of a person's goal attainment is positively correlated with the amount or probability of another obtaining his goal) and negative (where the goals are linked in such a...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of Morton Deutsch’s career in doing social psychology as well as important influences on the development of his career. In so doing, he described the origins of modern experiential social psychology and organizational psychology. KeywordsLewin-Group dynamics-Research Center for Human Relations-Bell Laboratories-Te...
Article
This paper presents a personal account of my experience with Kurt Lewin and attempts to characterize why he was such an effective scientific leader. Key points are Lewin's personal leadership style, his approach to theorizing and research, the substantive and methodological innovativeness of the research done by Lewin and his students, his intense...
Article
This paper asks whether or not there is a need, which emerges inescapably during the course of human development, to identify some people as allies and others as enemies. In answering this question, it describes the potential for moral splitting within all of us, and the circumstances that activate this potential.
Article
A formal model that captures the basic processes at work in the development and transformation of intractable conflict is presented. The formal model translates the insights of the Crude Law, which distills the principles underlying a highly diverse set of ideas and research finding into parameters that can be instantiated in computer simulations....
Article
Despite intense research on intractable conflicts their dynamical properties are not well understood, and in many respects they appear paradoxical. The defining characteristic of intractable conflicts is stability and resistance to intervention, yet this stability is maintained by underlying volatile dynamics. The dynamical systems approach provide...
Chapter
IntroductionAt The Beginning …Early Studies of Cooperation and CompetitionField Theory, Conflict, and Cooperation—competitionGame Theory and GamesThemes in Contemporary Social Psychological Research On ConflictEvaluation of Progress in The Social Psychological Study of ConflictReferences
Article
Reviews the book, Kings of Peace, Pawns of War: The Untold Story of Peace-Making by Harriet Martin (see record 2006-12394-000 ). Deutsch notes that the author describes her book as "a collection of narratives about the personal experience of the conflict mediator as he tries to pull the parties from the mind-set of war and face them towards peace"....
Article
A study was conducted to investigate the conditions under which the experience of victimization alters one's responses to other victims. Subjects were led to believe they either had been fairly paid for their work on a task (nonvictims) or had been underpaid (victims). Half the subjects believed that the treatment they had received was based upon p...
Article
This essay presents an indication of the major research questions addressed in the literature of social psychology related to conflict resolution, as well as a historical perspective to see what progress has been made in this area. Highlighted at the conclusion of a section on contemporary themes in conflict studies is the author's consideration of...
Article
In this invited address, the author reviews his theoretical and empirical work on cooperation and competition, conflict resolution, and distributive justice. Suggestions are offered regarding the implications and typical effects of this work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Neoadjuvant therapy is a relatively new weapon in the chemotherapeutic arsenal against breast carcinoma. However, there has been concern that preoperative chemotherapy might lead to an increased incidence of complications and delays in postoperative treatment. A retrospective study was performed at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center of all patients with l...
Article
This article is a commentary on Brewster Smith’s outstanding article in this issue of Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. It points to some reasons for optimism as well as hope and it questions the view that "us versus them" thinking is a fundamental human propensity.
Article
William James, the first peace psychologist, would have felt at home in the Psychologists for Social Responsibility as well as the Division of Peace Psychology. He was a most distinguished scholar and also an insistent public voice on issues of war and peace. He was deeply opposed to imperialism and the "war fever" with which it was associated. It...
Article
Presents a group statement criticizing conclusions on racial differences drawn by R. J. Herrnstein and C. Murray (1994) in the book, The Bell Curve. The authors list and dispute the assumptions underlying the conclusions and warn against using the conclusions reached by Herrnstein and Murray in formulating social policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (...
Article
This article starts with a listing of several propositions to which most students of conflict, no matter what their discipline, would assent. Next, there is a discussion of such factors affecting the course of conflict as the orientation to the conflict of the parties involved, their personalities, the issues, and the conflict's social-cultural con...
Article
An Orientation to Conflict Conflict is like sex: it is an important and pervasive aspect of life. It should be enjoyed and should occur with a reasonable degree of frequency, and after a conflict is over the people involved should feel better than they did before. Some psychiatrists and social scientists have given conflict a bad reputation by link...
Article
Outlines a program of what schools can do to encourage the values, attitudes, and knowledge that foster constructive rather than destructive relations, which prepare children to live in a peaceful world. The article describes 4 key components of such programs: cooperative learning, conflict resolution training, the constructive use of controversy i...
Article
This paper consists of 13 chapters that describe a study of the effects of training in conflict resolution and cooperative learning in an alternative high school in New York City. Three of the school's four campuses participated, with Campus A receiving conflict resolution training, Campus C receiving cooperative and Campus B receiving training in...
Article
In recent years, it increasingly has been recognized that schools must change in basic ways if children are to be educated so that they are prepared to live in a peaceful world. This recognition has been expressed in a number of interrelated movements: "cooperative learning,""conflict resolution," and "education for peace." This paper discusses fou...
Article
This paper considers the progress that has been made during the past sixty years or so in the social psychological study of conflict. It begins with a brief description of the influence of the writings of Darwin, Marx, and Freud, of game theory, and of studies of cooperation and competition as they affected the study of conflict. The main body of t...
Article
This document outlines a program for schools to encourage the development of values, attitudes, and knowledge foster constructive interpersonal relationships. Cooperative learning, conflict resolution, structured controversy, and school mediation can form the core of a comprehensive program for educating beyond hate. Cooperative learning includes t...
Article
This paper is concerned with the sense of injustice of the victim and the victimizer. In it we consider the reasons for the differential sensitivity to injustice of the victim and the victimizer and the conditions necessary for awakening the sense of injustice in these different participants in an unjust relationship.
Article
Reviews the book, Psychology and Deterrence by Robert Jervis, Richard Ned Lebow, Janice Gross Stein, Patrick M. Morgan, and Jack L. Snyder (1985). The strategic doctrine of rational deterrence has been the foundation of the military and foreign policies of the US toward the Soviet Union since shortly after the development of nuclear weapons. It is...
Article
This paper presents a review of Deutsch's theoretical and empirical work on cooperation and competition, conflict resolution, and distributive justice. An epilogue discusses the practical implications of the theorizing and research which is presented in the body of the paper.
Article
In the context of a comparative review of four recently published books on justice, the author provides an assessment of the current state of the field. He specifically discusses the role of equity theory, the variety of distributive principles, the role of justice in social behaviour, the broadening of perspectives in the field, and some remaining...
Article
I will start with a Jewish proverb and then will come to a Jewish story. First the proverb: an insincere peace is better than a sincere war.
Article
An experimental mediation procedure for the negotiation of divorce settlement agreements was studied through the intensive analysis of nine completed mediation cases. The audio recordings of mediation sessions and postdivorce interviews with both of the former marital partners provided the material on which the analysis is based. Five additional co...
Article
Begins with the unusual assumption that it may be possible to allocate merit, and then raises the question of how merit shall be distributed (i.e., Who merits an increase in merit?). This question is the basis for a discussion of distributive justice in education which focuses on the distribution of symbols of educational merit—grades. The article...
Article
Although clergymen are more likely than psychotherapists to be contacted by people in troubled marriages, little is known about the attitudes of the clergy toward intervention in divorce. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 clergymen highly involved in assisting the divorcing. Respondents viewed divorce as a traumatic experience involving fo...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to examine differences in the experiences of injustice and frustration. Ninety-seven high school students were administered four instruments involving word association, incident description, drawing, and completion of forced choice questionnaire items. The data indicate that the sense of injustice is more social while frustrat...
Article
In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 highly experienced therapists on the criteria of a constructive divorce, the obstacles to achieving such a divorce, and the strategies and tactics of divorce therapy. The primary criterion of a constructive divorce was the successful completion of the process of psychic separation and the protection of the...
Article
Summarizes the views of 21 clergy, 17 lawyers, and 20 psychotherapists on the divorcing process and the role of the professional in assisting the divorcing. There was greater difference of opinion among lawyers than among either therapists or clergy. Six distinctive lawyer orientations toward the lawyer–client relationship and the lawyer's role in...
Article
Conducted a questionnaire study to discover the fundamental dimensions underlying people's perceptions of interpersonal relations. 87 married and unmarried female and male Ss rated 20 of their own interpersonal relations and 25 typical, or role, relations on 25 bipolar scales. A multidimensional scaling analysis of the data revealed 4 dimensions, w...
Article
The perpetual crisis in social psychology has several facets: the unstable balance between the social and the psychological in social psychology; the conflict between the abstract and the concrete; and the chronic gap between our aspirations and our capabilities with regard to solving social problems. A perspective for theorizing is presented which...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to investigate the conditions under which the experience of victimization alters one's responses to other victims. Subjects were led to believe they either had been fairly paid for their work on a task (nonvictims) or had been underpaid (victims). Half the subjects believed that the treatment they had received was based upon p...
Article
The concept of justice is discussed, and the thesis is advanced that “equity” is only one of the many values which may underlie a given system of justice. Hypotheses about the conditions which determine which values will be employed as the basis of distributive justice in a group are proposed, with discussion centered about the values of “equity,”...
Article
It was hypothesized that cooperative behavior would decrease over time in an interaction between cooperatively oriented and competitively oriented persons. Pairs of male undergraduates, in which one S was induced to assume a competitive orientation and the other a cooperative one, played thirty trials of a Prisoner's Dilemma game. Three experimenta...
Article
This paper is a rejoinder to Plon's critique of the social psychology of conflict published in this Journal. The rejoinder reviews the history of American social psychology, the meaning of ‘conflict resolution’, the nature of the dilemma in the Prisoner's Dilemma, and other related matters, which Plon has apparently misconstrued. The rejoinder crit...
Article
Conflict is a natural and inevitable part of our personal and social lives. In this volume Morton Deutsch, the distinguished social psychologist, explores the factors that determine whether the outcome of conflict will be fruitful or destructive. He examines conflict at the intrapsychic, interpersonal, and intergroup levels and formulates meaningfu...
Article
This study investigated the effects of two variables upon interpersonal bargaining: (1) the size of the conflict confronting the Ss (manipulated by varying the length of a one-lane path through which both Ss of a pair had to pass in order to reach their destinations) and (2) the sex of the experimenter (half of the Ss were run by a male and the oth...
Article
Full-text available
Explored the ways different people conceive of nations, the conditions which give rise to different conceptions of nations. Primary attention is focused on a task in which 75 students from 8 countries, but all studying at a university in the United States, gave pairwise ratings of overall similarity with respect to a set of 21 nations. An INDSCAL a...
Article
Explores the phrase, "socially-relevant science," by comparing the social values of 2 earlier studies (a theoretical study of cooperation and competition, and a field study of interracial housing). The demanding intellectual work to get beyond cliches and slogans to a fundamental and usable understanding of the important social problems is stressed...
Article
A two volume discussion of the methodology of research in the social sciences intended as a text for courses in research methods. Topics included in volume 1 include: (1) the research process, (2) selection and formulation of a research problem, (3) research design, general problems of measurement, (4) data collection including observational method...
Article
[book section covering several chapters] "Groupthink" / Irving L. Janis / examines a set of circumstances found in certain types of groups that may lead them to make very poor decisions "The Effect of Threat upon Interpersonal Bargaining" / Morton Deutsch and Robert M. Krauss / examines the effect of threat on interpersonal bargaining "Role o...
Article
Deutsch, Morton (1999). A personal perspective on the development of social psychology in the twentieth century. In Rodriguez, A. and Levine, R. V. (Eds.), Reflections on 100 Years of Experimental Social Psychology, (pp. 1-34) New York, NY: Basic Books. Reflecting on his career as a social psychologist, Morton Deutsch guides us through a remarkable...
Article
29-page PDF chapter in the 2001 publication: Peace, conflict and violence: Peace psychology for the 21st Century by D.J. Christie, R.V. Wagner and D.A. Winter. The chapter argues the fundamental importance of a systemic approace to peace and conflict resolution education. The authors discuss five levels of "school systems through which one can intr...
Article
Full-text available
Recent criticism of research using the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game suggests that previously obtained results may be seen as an artifact of the typical use of "trivial" monetary incentives in the game. Critics propose that PD Ss under imaginary or trivial incentive conditions compete primarily because they become bored with cooperation. Incentive m...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Group Psychology, 1948. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [107]-[109]). by Morton Deutsch. Ph.D.
Article
Full-text available
: Ss played a two-person laboratory game in which they could act altruistically, individualistically, defensively, or aggressively. Ss did not interact with a real person, but 5 programmed strategies were employed to see which was most effective in eliciting cooperation from a non-cooperative S. The strategies were: Turn The Other Cheek - the progr...
Article
PAIRS OF SS PLAYED AN EXPERIMENTAL GAME DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE SOME OF THE DETERMINANTS OF THE TENDENCIES TO ENGAGE IN COOPERATIVE, INDIVIDUALISTIC, AND COMPETITIVE MODES OF BEHAVIOR. RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE ALLOCATION OF EFFORT AMONG THESE ALTERNATIVE MODES IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF THE ALTERNATIVE. IN ADDITION, THERE IS EVIDENC...
Article
REPORTS THE RESULTS OF 2 EXPERIMENTS EMPLOYING A 2-PERSON BARGAINING GAME WITH BILATERAL THREAT. IN THE 1ST, 1/2 THE SS WERE TUTORED IN COMMUNICATING FAIR PROPOSALS, AND 1/2 WERE NOT SO TUTORED. SS ACHIEVED SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER JOINT PAYOFFS WHEN TUTORED. EXP. II VARIED THE TIME PERIOD DURING WHICH PRETRIAL COMMUNICATION WAS PERMITTED: EITHER BEFOR...
Article
The experiment is concerned with comparing compliance to two types of threat: (1) alter threatens to harm ego if ego does not comply with alter's wishes; and, (2) alter threatens to harm a third party if ego does not comply with alter's wishes. It was reasoned that the latter type threat activates social responsibility motives and, consequently, pr...
Article
Circumstances are described in which conflict resolution is likely to occur.
Article
Asymposium that attempts to apply behavioral science to the solution of the world's most critical problem. Harvard Book List (edited) 1964 #443 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
A paper divided into the following sections: (a) The psychological consequences of cooperation and competition, (b) Conditions leading to the initiation of cooperation, and (c) The relationship of trust and cooperation. Individuals who are promotively rather than contriently oriented to one another showed such tendencies as more coordination of eff...
Article
The nature of a bargaining situation is discussed. Two general propositions about the conditions affecting the likelihood of a bargaining agreement are presented. The effects of the availability of threat and of permissive and compulsory communication upon interpersonal bargaining are investigated experimentally in a two-person bargaining game. The...
Article
The effect of threat on the process of bargaining was investigated experimentally by asking Ss to imagine proceeding across a certain route on a map and having various experiences. Threat was seen to affect bargaining detrimentally. In that regard, cooperative ventures were seen to be safer than competitive ones.
Article
Ss played an interprersonal game which, in one position, required them to choose between being trusting or suspicious of another and, in a second position, required them to choose between being trustworthy or untrustworthy toward another. There was a striking tendency for Ss who were trusting to be trustworthy and for Ss who were suspicious to be u...
Article
The theories of Heider, Festinger, and Homans, which predict only for the case in which S evaluates himself positively, must be supplemented by a "cognitive balance effect," i.e., when S evaluates himself negatively, he will tend to view negatively another who esteems him and will tend to esteem those who view him negatively. The "cognitive balance...

Projects

Project (1)