# Moritz SchubotzUniversität Konstanz | Uni-Konstanz · Department of Computer and Information Science

Moritz Schubotz

Ph.D. 2017

## About

101

Publications

26,933

Reads

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793

Citations

Introduction

Moritz Schubotz currently works at the Department of Computer and Information Science, Universität Konstanz. Moritz does research in Information Science, Data Mining and Artificial Intelligence. Their current project is 'Math Information Retrieval'.

Additional affiliations

March 2012 - present

Education

October 2007 - September 2011

October 2006 - September 2007

## Publications

Publications (101)

Recent years have witnessed growing consolidation of web operations. For example, the majority of web traffic now originates from a few organizations, and even micro-websites often choose to host on large pre-existing cloud infrastructures. In response to this, the "Decentralized Web" attempts to distribute ownership and operation of web services m...

Small to medium-scale data science experiments often rely on research software developed ad-hoc by individual scientists or small teams. Often there is no time to make the research software fast, reusable, and open access. The consequence is twofold. First, subsequent researchers must spend significant work hours building upon the proposed hypothes...

Digital mathematical libraries assemble the knowledge of years of mathematical research. Numerous disciplines (e.g., physics, engineering, pure and applied mathematics) rely heavily on compendia gathered findings. Likewise, modern research applications rely more and more on computational solutions, which are often calculated and verified by compute...

Digital mathematical libraries assemble the knowledge of years of mathematical research. Numerous disciplines (e.g., physics, engineering, pure and applied mathematics) rely heavily on compendia gathered findings. Likewise, modern research applications rely more and more on computational solutions, which are often calculated and verified by compute...

Identifying cross-language plagiarism is challenging, especially for distant language pairs and sense-for-sense translations. We introduce the new multilingual retrieval model Cross-Language Ontology-Based Similarity Analysis (CL-OSA) for this task. CL-OSA represents documents as entity vectors obtained from the open knowledge graph Wikidata. Oppos...

Documents from Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines usually contain a significant amount of mathematical formulae alongside text. Some Mathematical Information Retrieval (MathIR) systems, e.g., Mathematical Question Answering (MathQA), exploit knowledge from Wikidata. Therefore, the mathematical information needs to...

In scientific publications, citations allow readers to assess the authenticity of the presented information and verify it in the original context. News articles, however, for various reasons do not contain citations and only rarely refer readers to further sources. As a result, readers often cannot assess the authenticity of the presented informati...

We have developed an automated procedure for symbolic and numerical testing of formulae extracted from the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions (DLMF). For the NIST Digital Repository of Mathematical Formulae, we have developed conversion tools from semantic LaTeX to the Computer Algebra System (CAS) Maple which relies on Youssef's part-o...

Document preparation systems like LaTeX offer the ability to render mathematical expressions as one would write these on paper. Using LaTeX, LaTeXML, and tools generated for use in the National Institute of Standards (NIST) Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, semantically enhanced mathematical LaTeX markup (semantic LaTeX) is achieved by usi...

Mathematical formulae carry complex and essential semantic information in a variety of formats. Accessing this information with different systems requires a standardized machine-readable format that is capable of encoding presentational and semantic information. Even though MathML is an official recommendation by W3C and an ISO standard for represe...

Document subject classification is essential for structuring (digital) libraries and allowing readers to search within a specific field. Currently, the classification is typically made by human domain experts. Semi-supervised Machine Learning algorithms can support them by exploiting the labeled data to predict subject classes for unclassified new...

In our experiment, we created a cluster of containers in Docker to evaluate a private IPFS cluster for an academic data store focusing on availability, GET/PUT performance, and storage needs. As sample data, we used PDF files to analyze the data transport in our peer-to-peer network with Wireshark. We found that a bandwidth of at least 100 kbit/s i...

Ten years ago, the Mathematics Subject Classification MSC 2010 was released, and a corresponding machine-readable Linked Open Data collection was published using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). Now, the new MSC 2020 is out. This paper recaps the last ten years of working on machine-readable MSC data and presents the new machine-rea...

Ten years ago, the Mathematics Subject Classification MSC 2010 was released, and a corresponding machine-readable Linked Open Data collection was published using the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). Now, the new MSC 2020 is out. This paper recaps the last ten years of working on machine-readable MSC data and presents the new machine-rea...

We present zbMATH Open, the most comprehensive collection of reviews and bibliographic metadata of scholarly literature in mathematics. Besides our website https://zbMATH.org which is openly accessible since the beginning of this year, we provide API endpoints to offer our data. The API improves interoperability with others, i.e., digital libraries...

We present procd [pʁoːst], a python implementation for privacy preserving contact discovery. procd is a trustless solution that requires neither plaintext numbers nor hashes of single phone numbers to retrieve contacts. Instead, we transfer hashed combinations of multiple phone numbers, which increases the effort for dictionary attacks.

Mathematical information retrieval (MathIR) applications such as semantic formula search and question answering systems rely on knowledge-bases that link mathematical expressions to their natural language names.
For database population, mathematical formulae need to be annotated and linked to semantic concepts, which is very time-consuming.
In this...

The zbMATH database contains more than 4 million bibliographic entries. We aim to provide easy access to these entries. Therefore, we maintain different index structures, including a formula index. To optimize the findability of the entries in our database, we continuously investigate new approaches to satisfy the information needs of our users. We...

Authors of research papers in the fields of mathematics, and other math-heavy disciplines commonly employ the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) scheme to search for relevant literature. The MSC is a hierarchical alphanumerical classification scheme that allows librarians to specify one or multiple codes for publications. Digital Libraries in...

Scientists increasingly rely on computer algebra systems and digital mathematical libraries to compute, validate, or experiment with mathematical formulae. However, the focus in digital mathematical libraries and scientific documents often lies more on an accurate presentation of the formulae rather than providing uniform access to the semantic inf...

Word embedding, which represents individual words with semantically fixed-length vectors, has made it possible to successfully apply deep learning to natural language processing tasks such as semantic role-modeling, question answering, and machine translation. As math text consists of natural text, as well as math expressions that similarly exhibit...

Authors of research papers in the fields of mathematics, and other math-heavy disciplines commonly employ the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) scheme to search for relevant literature. The MSC is a hierarchical alphanumerical classification scheme that allows librarians to specify one or multiple codes for publications. Digital Libraries in...

Plagiarism detection systems are essential tools for safeguarding academic and educational integrity. However, today's systems require disclosing the full content of the input documents and the document collection to which the input documents are compared. Moreover, the systems are centralized and under the control of individual, typically commerci...

In this paper, we show how selecting and combining encodings of natural and mathematical language affect classification and clustering of documents with mathematical content. We demonstrate this by using sets of documents, sections, and abstracts from the arXiv preprint server that are labeled by their subject class (mathematics, computer science,...

Many digital libraries recommend literature to their users considering the similarity between a query document and their repository. However, they often fail to distinguish what is the relationship that makes two documents alike. In this paper, we model the problem of finding the relationship between two documents as a pairwise document classificat...

This poster summarizes our contributions to Wikimedia's processing pipeline for mathematical formulae. We describe how we have supported the transition from rendering formulae as course-grained PNG images in 2001 to providing modern semantically enriched language-independent MathML formulae in 2020. Additionally, we describe our plans to improve th...

Research on academic integrity has identified online paraphrasing tools as a severe threat to the effectiveness of plagiarism detection systems. To enable the automated identification of machine-paraphrased text, we make three contributions. First, we evaluate the effectiveness of six prominent word embedding models in combination with five classif...

Mathematical notation, i.e., the writing system used to communicate concepts in mathematics, encodes valuable information for a variety of information search and retrieval systems. Yet, mathematical notations remain mostly unutilized by today's systems. In this paper, we present the first in-depth study on the distributions of mathematical notation...

Many sectors, like finance, medicine, manufacturing, and education, use blockchain applications to profit from the unique bundle of characteristics of this technology. Blockchain technology (BT) promises benefits in trustability, collaboration, organization, identification, credibility, and transparency. In this paper, we conduct an analysis in whi...

In scientific publications, citations allow readers to assess the authenticity of the presented information and verify it in the original context. News articles, however, do not contain citations and only rarely refer readers to further sources. Readers often cannot assess the authenticity of the presented information as its origin is unclear. We p...

Documents from science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) often contain a large number of mathematical formulae alongside text. Semantic search, recommender, and question answering systems require the occurring formula constants and variables (identifiers) to be disambiguated. We present a first implementation of a recommender system t...

Handelte es sich bei dem Beitrag des Präsidenten der Freien Universität Berlin Günther M. Ziegler “Die Bedeutung der Verlage wandelt sich” wieder nur um ein “Loblied auf “Open Access" als Zukunft des wissenschaftlichen Publizierens”? Diesen Vorwurf jedenfalls machte Wolfgang Sander dem Präsidenten in seinem kurzen Kommentar vom 12. Juni 2019. Doch...

Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) is seen as the universal solution to improve the effectiveness of information retrieval (IR) methods. However, while mathematics is a precise and accurate science, it is usually expressed by less accurate and imprecise descriptions. Generally, mathematical documents communicate their knowledge with an ambiguous, cont...

We report on an exploratory analysis of the forms of plagiarism observable in mathematical publications, which we identified by investigating editorial notes from zbMATH. While most cases we encountered were simple copies of earlier work, we also identified several forms of disguised plagiarism. We investigated 11 cases in detail and evaluate how c...

We present an open source math-aware Question Answering System based on Ask Platypus. Our system returns as a single mathematical formula for a natural language question in English or Hindi. This formulae originate from the knowledge-base Wikidata. We translate these formulae to computable data by integrating the calculation engine sympy into our s...

Purpose: Modern mathematicians and scientists of math-related disciplines often use Document Preparation Systems (DPS) to write and Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to calculate mathematical expressions. Usually, they translate the expressions manually between DPS and CAS. This process is time-consuming and error-prone. Our goal is to automate this t...

Identifying academic plagiarism is a pressing task for educational and research institutions, publishers, and funding agencies. Current plagiarism detection systems reliably find instances of copied and moderately reworded text. However, reliably detecting concealed plagiarism, such as strong paraphrases, translations, and the reuse of nontextual c...

Purpose
Modern mathematicians and scientists of math-related disciplines often use Document Preparation Systems (DPS) to write and Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) to calculate mathematical expressions. Usually, they translate the expressions manually between DPS and CAS. This process is time-consuming and error-prone. The purpose of this paper is t...

Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) is seen as the universal solution to improve the effectiveness of information retrieval (IR) methods. However, while mathematics is a precise and accurate science, it is usually expressed by less accurate and imprecise descriptions, contributing to the relative dearth of machine learning applications for IR in this d...

We report on an exploratory analysis of the forms of plagiarism observable in mathematical publications, which we identified by investigating editorial notes from zbMATH. While most cases we encountered were simple copies of earlier work, we also identified several forms of disguised plagiarism. We investigated 11 cases in detail and evaluate how c...

Open science has become a synonym for modern, digital and inclusive science. Inclusion does not stop at open access. Inclusion also requires transparency through open datasets and the right and ability to take part in the knowledge creation process. This implies new challenges for digital libraries. Citizens should be able to contribute data in a c...

In this paper, we describe how to represent mathematical formulae in Content MathML referring to the open knowledge-base Wikidata for the grounding of the semantics.
By doing so, we link identifiers and symbols in MathML to Wikidata items to annotate mathematical identifiers or operators.
In contrast to other mathematical knowledge-bases, which def...