Moreno Di Marco

Moreno Di Marco
Sapienza University of Rome | la sapienza · Department of Biology and Biotechnologies "Charles Darwin" BBCD

PhD

About

129
Publications
79,743
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Introduction
Moreno Di Marco is a Research Fellow at the Dept. of Biology and Biotechnologies of Sapienza University of Rome (Italy). He has a PhD in Ecological Sciences. Lab website: https://www.biodiversitychange.com.
Additional affiliations
February 2019 - present
Sapienza University of Rome
Position
  • Fellow

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Full-text available
Protecting biomass carbon stocks to mitigate climate change has direct implications for biodiversity conservation. Yet, evidence that a positive association exists between carbon density and species richness is contrasting. Here, we test how this association varies (1) across spatial extents and (2) as a function of how strongly carbon and species...
Article
Nations have committed to ambitious conservation targets in response to accelerating rates of global biodiversity loss. Anticipating future impacts is essential to inform policy decisions for achieving these targets, but predictions need to be of sufficiently high spatial resolution to forecast the local effects of global change. As part of the int...
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas (PAs) are a key tool in efforts to safeguard biodiversity against increasing anthropogenic threats. As signatories to the 2011–2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, 196 nations pledged support for expansion in the extent of the global PA estate and the quality of PA management. While this has resulted in substantial increases in PA...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing the rate of global biodiversity loss is a major challenge facing humanity¹, as the consequences of biological annihilation would be irreversible for humankind2–4. Although the ongoing degradation of ecosystems5,6 and the extinction of species that comprise them7,8 are now well-documented, little is known about the role that remaining wilde...
Article
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Ambitious conservation efforts are needed to stop the global biodiversity crisis. In this study, we estimate the minimum land area to secure important biodiversity areas, ecologically intact areas, and optimal locations for representation of species ranges and ecoregions. We discover that at least 64 million square kilometers (44% of terrestrial ar...
Preprint
Area of Habitat (AOH) is ‘the habitat available to a species, that is, habitat within its range’. It complements a geographic range map for a species by showing potential occupancy and reducing commission errors. AOH maps are produced by subtracting areas considered unsuitable for the species from their range map, using information on each species’...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat loss is the leading cause of the global decline in biodiversity, but the influence of human pressure within the matrix surrounding habitat fragments remains poorly understood. Here, we measure the relationship between fragmentation (the degree of fragmentation and the degree of patch isolation), matrix condition (measured as the extent of h...
Article
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species is central in biodiversity conservation, but insufficient resources hamper its long-term growth, updating, and consistency. Models or automated calculations can alleviate those challenges by providing standardised estimates required for assessments, or prioriti...
Article
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To meet the ambitious objectives of biodiversity and climate conventions, the international community requires clarity on how these objectives can be operationalized spatially and how multiple targets can be pursued concurrently. To support goal setting and the implementation of international strategies and action plans, spatial guidance is needed...
Article
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Area of habitat (AOH) is defined by Brooks et al. (2019) as the “habitat available to a species, that is, habitat within its range” and is calculated by subtracting areas of unsuitable land cover and elevation from the range. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Habitats Classification Scheme provides information on species...
Preprint
The exponential growth that has characterised human societies since the industrial revolution has fundamentally modified our surroundings. Examples include rapid increases in agricultural fields, now accounting for 37% of the land surface, as well as increases in urban areas, projected to triple worldwide by 2030. As such, understanding how species...
Article
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The idea that several small, rather than a single large, habitat areas should hold the highest total species richness (the so-called SLOSS debate) brings into question the importance of habitat fragmentation to extinction risk. SLOSS studies are generally addressed over a short time scale, potentially ignoring the long-term dimension of extinction...
Article
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Human activities are altering the structure of ecosystems, compromising the benefits they provide to nature and people. Effective conservation actions and management under ongoing global change rely on a better understanding of socio-ecological patterns and processes across broad spatiotemporal scales. Both macroecology and conservation science con...
Preprint
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Accelerated loss of Earth’s wilderness over the last five decades underscores the urgency for efforts to retain the conservation value of these areas. Assessing how wilderness areas are likely to be impacted by the future environmental change is fundamental to achieving global biodiversity conservation goals. Using scenarios of climate and land-use...
Preprint
Full-text available
Area of Habitat (AOH) is defined as the habitat available to a species, that is, habitat within its range and is produced by subtracting areas of unsuitable land cover and elevation from the range. Habitat associations are documented using the IUCN Habitats Classification Scheme, and unvalidated expert opinion has been used so far to match habitat...
Article
Full-text available
The breadth of a species' climatic niche is an important ecological trait that allows adaptation to climate change, but human activities often reduce realised niche breadth by impacting species distributions. Some life‐history traits, such as dispersal ability and reproductive speed, allow species to cope with both human impact and climate change....
Article
The use of species’ traits in macroecological analyses has gained popularity in the last decade, becoming an important tool to understand global biodiversity patterns. Currently, trait data can be found across a wide variety of data sets included in websites, articles, and books, each one with its own taxonomic classification, set of traits and dat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Habitat loss is the leading cause of global biodiversity decline, but the influence of human pressure within the matrix surrounding habitat fragments remains poorly understood. Here we measure the relationship between fragmentation, matrix condition (measured as the extent of high human footprint levels), and the change in extinction risk of 4,327...
Article
Full-text available
Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity³; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge⁴. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and bi...
Article
Humans have influenced the terrestrial biosphere for millennia, converting much of Earth’s surface to anthropogenic land uses. Nevertheless, there are still some ecosystems that remain free from significant direct human pressure (and as such, considered ‘‘intact’’), thereby providing crucial habitats for imperilled species and maintaining the ecosy...
Article
New Zealand is well known as the “land of birds” with 168 extant native breeding species within an area of 270,000 km². About 40 endemic avian species have gone extinct since human arrival 700 years ago, and a high proportion of the remaining ones are currently threatened with extinction. Here, we compile a retrospective assessment of the extinctio...
Article
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The global network of terrestrial protected areas (PAs) has experienced a fourfold expansion since the 1970s. Yet, there is increasing debate around the role of the global PA estate in covering and sustaining threatened species, with serious ramifications for current PA financing and the setting of post‐2020 global conservation targets. By comparin...
Article
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Understanding changes in species distributions is essential to disentangle the mechanisms that drive their responses to anthropogenic habitat modification. Here we analyse the past (1970s) and current (2017) distribution of 204 species of terrestrial non-volant mammals to identify drivers of recent contraction and expansion in their range. We find...
Preprint
Our ability to map humanity's influence across Earth has evolved, thanks to powerful computing, a network of earth observing satellites, and new bottom-up census and crowd-sourced data. Here, we provide the latest temporally inter-comparable maps of the terrestrial Human Footprint, and assessment of change in human pressure at global, biome, and ec...
Article
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Most of the terrestrial world is experiencing high rates of land conversion despite growth of the global protected area (PA) network. There is a need to assess whether the current global protection targets are achievable across all major ecosystem types and to identify those that need urgent protection. Using recent rates of habitat conversion and...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in reducing deforestation is useful to support decisions on whether to invest in better management of areas already protected or to create new ones. Statistical matching is commonly used to assess this effectiveness, but spatial autocorrelation and regional differences in protection effectivenes...
Article
Degradation and loss of natural habitat is the major driver of the current global biodiversity crisis. Most habitat conservation efforts to date have targeted small areas of highly threatened habitat, but emerging debate suggests that retaining large intact natural systems may be just as important. We reconcile these perspectives by integrating fin...
Preprint
Full-text available
paragraph To meet the ambitious objectives of biodiversity and climate conventions, countries and the international community require clarity on how these objectives can be operationalized spatially, and multiple targets be pursued concurrently ¹ . To support governments and political conventions, spatial guidance is needed to identify which areas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the scientific consensus on the extinction crisis and its anthropogenic origin, the quantification of historical trends and of future scenarios of biodiversity and ecosystem services has been limited, due to the lack of inter-model comparisons and harmonized scenarios. Here, we present a multi-model analysis to assess the impacts of land-us...
Article
Full-text available
The United Nation's Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 calls for reducing species extinctions, as it is increasingly clear that human activities threaten to drive species to decline. Yet despite considerable scientific evidence pointing to the detrimental effects of interacting threats on biodiversity, many species lack information on their...
Preprint
Full-text available
The breadth of a species' climatic niche is an important ecological trait that allows adaptation to climate change, but human activities drive niche erosion. Life-history traits, such as dispersal ability and reproductive speed, instead allow species to cope with climate change. But how do these characteristics act in combination with human pressur...
Data
Supplementary materials: Intense human pressure is widespread across terrestrial vertebrate ranges. This file includes: Tables S1 to S4
Article
Full-text available
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000158.].
Preprint
Degradation and loss of natural habitat is the major driver of the current global biodiversity crisis. Most habitat conservation efforts to date have targeted small areas of highly threatened habitat, but emerging debate suggests retaining large intact natural systems may be just as important. We reconcile these perspectives by integrating fine-res...
Preprint
Full-text available
More ambitious conservation efforts are needed to stop the global degradation of ecosystems and the extinction of the species that comprise them. Here, we estimate the minimum amount of land needed to secure known important sites for biodiversity, Earth's remaining wilderness, and the optimal locations for adequate representation of terrestrial spe...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this Draft Chapter 2.1 of the IBES Global Assesment on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services we explored how global transformation involved key tradeoffs, and inequalities, as growing interactions drove economic growth but also degradation. Accelerations in consumption & interconnection have had tradeoffs.
Article
Full-text available
Here we provide geographic distribution ranges for 205 species of terrestrial non‐volant mammals in the 1970s. We selected terrestrial non‐volant mammals because they are among the most studied groups, have greater availability of historical distribution data for the 1970s decade, and also show the largest range contractions compared to other taxon...
Article
Full-text available
With much of Earth's surface already heavily impacted by humans, there is a need to understand where restoration is required to achieve global conservation goals. Here, we show that at least 1.9 million km2 of land, spanning 190 (27%) terrestrial ecoregions and 114 countries, needs restoration to achieve the current 17% global protected area target...
Article
Full-text available
Author summary The biggest drivers of global biodiversity loss are hunting, harvesting, and the conversion of natural habitats for agriculture, urbanisation, and other industrial activity. However, our understanding of where these ‘threats’ actually impact sensitive species is extremely limited across Earth. Here, we map the distribution of threats...
Data
Impact hotspots of individual human pressures on all threatened terrestrial vertebrates (n = 5,457), mammals (n = 1,277), birds (n = 2,120), and amphibians (n = 2,060). Scale represents the number of species impacted by the threat in a grid cell. Hotspots of impact are in dark red. Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection...
Data
Threatened species richness for all taxa (n = 5,457), mammals (n = 1,277), birds (n = 2,120), and amphibians (n = 2,060). Areas of high human richness are red. Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection. The data underlying this figure are freely available [31] (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.897391). (TIF)
Data
Major classes and subclasses of threats to biodiversity, as classified in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the corresponding spatially explicit human pressure variable from the updated Human Footprint dataset and a brief description of how it was created, along with justifications for linking spatially explicit pressures to threats. IUCN, I...
Data
The average number of species impacted by threats per grid cell, and unimpacted by threats per grid cell, in each of Earth’s ecoregions. (DOCX)
Data
Weights assigned to individual pressures in the Human Footprint and threshold scheme used to convert pressures into binary scores (present or absent) for impact analyses. (DOCX)
Data
The percentage of species in a grid cell impacted by a threat (and inversely, the number of unimpacted species for whom it is a refuge) for (A) birds (n = 2,120), (B) mammals (n = 1,277), and (C) amphibians (n = 2,060). Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection. The data underlying this figure are freely available [31] (do...
Data
The eight mapped human pressures, the number of sensitive species they impact, the area in which these impacts are occurring, and the proportion of Earth’s terrestrial area where these impacts are occurring. (DOCX)
Data
Database containing information on the area and proportion of a threatened vertebrate species’ range that is impacted by threats, including the data underpinning Fig 2. (XLSX)
Data
Impact hotspots of individual human pressures on all threatened terrestrial vertebrates (n = 5,457), mammals (n = 1,277), birds (n = 2,120), and amphibians (n = 2,060). Scale indicates the number of species impacted by the threat in a grid cell. Hotspots of impact are dark red. Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection. Th...
Data
Cumulative human impacts on all threatened terrestrial birds (n = 2,120), mammals (n = 1,277), and amphibians (n = 2,060). Scale indicates the number of species in a grid cell impacted by at least one threat. Areas of high human impact (hotspots) are red. Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection. The data underlying this...
Data
Coolspots of refugia for all threatened terrestrial mammals (n = 1,277), birds (n = 2,120), and amphibians (n = 2,060). Scale indicates the number of species not impacted by any threats in a grid cell. Coolspots of refugia are blue. Maps use a 30 km × 30 km grid and a Mollweide equal area projection. The data underlying this figure are freely avail...
Data
The top ten countries with the most impacted and unimpacted species on average. (DOCX)
Data
The average number of species impacted and unimpacted by threats per grid cell, and the proportion of species impacted by threats, in each of Earth’s biomes. (DOCX)
Article
Conservation organisations and governments often use charismatic megafauna as surrogates to represent broader biodiversity. While these species are primarily selected as “flagships” for marketing campaigns, it is important to evaluate their surrogacy potential, i.e., the extent to which their protection benefits other biodiversity elements. Four ch...
Article
Full-text available
Systematic conservation planning and Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) are the two most widely used approaches for identifying important sites for biodiversity. However, there is limited advice for conservation policy makers and practitioners on when and how they should be combined. Here we provide such guidance, using insights from the recently develo...
Article
Full-text available
To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts o...
Article
Full-text available
Predicting how species respond to human pressure is essential to anticipate their decline and identify appropriate conservation strategies. Both human pressure and extinction risk change over time, but their inter-relationship is rarely considered in extinction risk modelling. Here we measure the relationship between the change in terrestrial human...
Article
Full-text available
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development calls for urgent actions to reduce global biodiversity loss. Here, we synthesize >44,000 articles published in the past decade to assess the research focus on global drivers of loss. Relative research efforts on different drivers are not well aligned with their assessed impact, and multiple...
Article
Full-text available
To support the assessments of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), the IPBES Expert Group on Scenarios and Models is carrying out an intercomparison of biodiversity and ecosystem services models using harmonized scenarios (BES-SIM). The goals of BES-SIM are (1) to project the global impacts o...