Monte S Buchsbaum

Monte S Buchsbaum
University of California, San Diego | UCSD · Department of Psychiatry

About

627
Publications
35,990
Reads
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36,632
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1992 - January 2009
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Position
  • Professor of Psychiatry
October 1982 - October 1992
University of California, Irvine
Position
  • Professor of Psychiagtry
Description
  • Research on Positron emission tomography, MRI, and EEG
June 1966 - October 1982
National Institute of Mental Health
Position
  • Chief, Section on Clinical Psychophysiology, BPB, DCBR, NIMH
Description
  • Research on EEG mapping and Positron Emission Tomography

Publications

Publications (627)
Article
Background: Diminished uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been observed in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) but little statistical contrast of the regional brain deficits has been undertaken. This study examined prefrontal cortex inter-regional Brodmann area differences to delineate patterns associated with behavioral, neurotransmitter...
Article
Background We investigated the neurocognitive profiles of Early-Onset Schizophrenia (EOS; onset before age 18) and paired unaffected siblings and the little-studied effect of age-of-onset and duration of illness on cognitive performance. Methods 31 EOS probands, and 31 of their siblings, had four cognitive domains assessed: (a) Memory: California...
Article
Reading impairments are prominent trait-like features of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, predictive of overall cognitive functioning and presumably linked to dopaminergic abnormalities. To evaluate this, we used ¹⁸F-fallypride PET in 19 healthy and 21 antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia subjects and correlated dopamine receptor binding potential...
Article
Diminished prefrontal function, dopaminergic abnormalities in the striatum and thalamus, reductions in white matter integrity and frontotemporal gray matter deficits are the most replicated findings in schizophrenia. We used four imaging modalities (¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose and ¹⁸F-fallypride PET, diffusion tensor imaging, structural MRI) in 19 healt...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Autobiographical memory (AM) changes are the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In recent neuroimaging studies, AM changes have been associated with numerous cerebral sites, such as the frontal cortices, the mesial temporal lobe, or the posterior cingulum. Regional glucose uptake in these sites was...
Article
Full-text available
Dopaminergic dysfunction and changes in white matter integrity are among the most replicated findings in schizophrenia. A modulating role of dopamine in myelin formation has been proposed in animal models and healthy human brain, but has not yet been systematically explored in schizophrenia. We used diffusion tensor imaging and ¹⁸F-fallypride posit...
Article
Decreased fractional anisotropy and increased glucose utilization in the white matter have been reported in schizophrenia. These findings may be indicative of an inverse relationship between these measures of white matter integrity and metabolism. We used ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and diffusion-tensor imaging in 19 healthy...
Article
Objectives: Overlapping decreases in extrastriatal dopamine D2/D3-receptor availability and glucose metabolism have been reported in subjects with schizophrenia. It remains unknown whether these findings are physiologically related or coincidental. Methods: To ascertain this, we used two consecutive ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose and ¹⁸F-fallypride positro...
Article
Full-text available
Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used 18fluo...
Article
Full-text available
Trauma-related disorders of affect and cognition (TRACs) are associated with a high degree of diagnostic comorbidity, which may suggest that these disorders share a set of underlying neural mechanisms. TRACs are characterized by aberrations in functional and structural circuits subserving verbal memory and affective anticipation. Yet, it remains un...
Article
Full-text available
Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered ¹⁸fluorodeoxyg...
Article
Full-text available
Background Poor outcome schizophrenia represents a public health challenge and it asks questions about neurodevelopmental mechanisms by its own. The kraepelinian schizophrenia sub-type, defined by Keefe’s criteria (1987), refers to a very poor prognosis sub-group (severe dysfunction in self-care) on the basis of the longitudinal course of the illne...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have been variously characterized as separate nosological entities with overlapping deficits in social cognition or diametrical extremes of a phenotypic continuum. This study aimed to determine how these models apply to comparative morphometric data. MRI scans of the brain were obtained in 49 subjects wit...
Article
Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in military personnel and associated with high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). TBI impacts widely-distributed neural patterns, some of which influence affective processing. Better understanding how TBI and PTSD/TBI alters affective neural activity may improve our understanding of como...
Article
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for differe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method for delineation of malingering. Method: A heterogeneous with concern of gender and racial-ethnic identity of 22 healthy volunteers completed the Tombaugh Test of Memory Malingering durin...
Poster
Full-text available
Autism and schizophrenia are considered distinct diagnostic categories but share a number of dimensional symptom phenotypes. The two disorders may also appear together in patients at a higher rate than expected based on population prevalence. Social interaction deficits are one common symptom dimension, a behavioral skill which may be associated wi...
Chapter
Unlike white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue is a heat-generating fat that burns energy and may have beneficial effects on obesity. This chapter reviews computed tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography studies of adipose tissue type, volume, and activation. We present imaging data on a group of insulin-resistant subjects...
Article
Full-text available
We recruited 14 unmedicated patients with Kraepelinian schizophrenia (12 men and 2 women; mean age = 47 years old), 27 non-Kraepelinian patients (21 men and 6 women; mean age = 36.4 years old) and a group of 56 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. FDG positron emission tomography and MRI scans were coregistered for both voxel-by-voxel statistic...
Article
The detection of malingering in cognitive performance is a challenge in clinical and legal environments. Neuroimaging may provide an objective method to determine the source of failure on tests of symptom validity. Participants comprised 45 combat veterans, 31 with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), not seeking medical or legal compensation, who c...
Article
Individuals with mild traumatic brain injury show diminished metabolic activity when studied with positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Since blast injury may not be localized in the same specific anatomical areas in every patient or may be diffuse, significance probability mapping may be vulnerable to false negative...
Research
Full-text available
WE perfomred fMRI scans of abstinent alcoholics versus controls. The subjects underwent an alcohol craving protocol, using smell of alcohol as a priming mechanism, and then projected video scenes of alcohol consumption versus neutral scenes. The subjects reported their subjective sensation of alcohol craving during the scans. Analysis of 10 alcohol...
Article
Harmful use of alcohol is one of the top five risks for burden of disease globally and in Europe; in 2012, 3.3 million net deaths (approximately 6% of all global deaths) were attributable to this risk factor. It is also linked to the development of a wide spectrum of alcohol use disorders, ranging from mild manifestations to a severe disease known...
Article
This study is a method comparison of three region-of-interest (ROI) tracing approaches. fMRI images acquired during an event-related frequency discrimination task were used in this study. Three [(1) manual, (2) semi-automated, (3) automated] approaches were applied to generate the ROI in the caudate nucleus and extract fMRI hemodynamic response (HR...
Article
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown dysfunction in key areas associated with the thalamocortical circuit in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the functional connectivity involving the frontal-thalamic circuitry during a spatial focusing-of-attention task in 18 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 38...
Article
The effects of increased peripheral muscle tension on the average evoked response (AER) recorded from vertex EEG to visual stimuli were studied in 14 normal Ss. The Ss viewed a random series of light flashes of four intensities while: (1) holding two 5-lb weights; (2) relaxing; and (3) doing mental arithmetic. Utilizing all experimental runs, no ef...
Article
Full-text available
The very first microfluidic device used for the production of (18)F-labeled tracers for clinical research is reported along with the first human Positron Emission Tomography scan obtained with a microfluidically produced radiotracer. The system integrates all operations necessary for the transformation of [(18)F]fluoride in irradiated cyclotron tar...
Article
Mounting evidence suggests that white matter abnormalities and altered subcortical-cortical connectivity may be central to the pathology of schizophrenia (SZ). The anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) is an important thalamo-frontal white-matter tract shown to have volume reductions in SZ and to a lesser degree in schizotypal personality di...
Article
Physiological and pharmacological studies indicate that altered brain serotonin (5-HT) activity could contribute to a susceptibility to develop appetitive and behavioral alterations that are characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN). Eight individuals recovered from BN (REC BN) and eight healthy control women were scanned with [11C]DASB and positron e...
Conference Paper
This research investigated the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism rate (rGMR) of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and hemodynamic response of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI in schizophrenia. An auditory prepulse-to-attention task was performed during the FDG uptake and the fMRI scan, a...
Article
The cingulate cortex frequently shows gray matter loss with age as well as gender differences in structure and function, but little is known about whether individual cingulate Brodmann areas show gender-specific patterns of age-related volume decline. This study examined age-related changes, gender differences, and the interaction of age and gender...
Article
Diffusion tensor and structural MRI images were acquired on ninety-six patients with schizophrenia (69 men and 27 women) between the ages of 18 and 79 (mean=39.83, SD=15.16 DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History). The patients reported a mean age of onset of 23 years (range=13-38, SD=6)....
Article
Full-text available
Ventricular enlargement is one of the most consistent abnormal structural brain findings in schizophrenia and has been used to infer brain shrinkage. However, whether ventricular enlargement is related to local overlying cortex and/or adjacent subcortical structures or whether it is related to brain volume change globally has not been assessed. We...
Article
Molecular imaging of dopaminergic parameters has contributed to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, expanding our understanding of pathophysiology, clinical phenomenology and treatment. Our aim in this study was to compare (18)F-fallypride binding potential BP(ND) in a group of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum illness vs. controls, with a...
Article
After an optic neuritis (i.e., acute inflammation of the optic nerve), several patients report visual discomfort although ophthalmologic assessments show a complete recovery. To evaluate if attentional impairment could contribute to these complaints, the present study investigated global and local processing in healthy individuals and patients with...
Article
Pathological gambling (PG) is a disorder classified as an impulse control disorder (DSM-IV) bridging impulsive, compulsive and addictive behaviors. The striatum and thalamus are supposed to be involved in the pathophysiological substrate of these behaviors. An increased relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) in patients with a diagnosis of PG had p...
Article
To compare progressive changes in lateral ventricular size in chronic schizophrenia patients with good and poor outcomes. Several longitudinal studies associated excessive ventricular enlargement with poor outcome early in the course of schizophrenia. Changes in its chronic phase have not been as well ascertained. We used MRI to evaluate progressio...
Article
It has been proposed that schizophrenia results partly from altered brain connectivity. The anterior cingulate cortex in particular has been demonstrated to be affected in schizophrenia, with studies reporting reduced volume, altered neuronal arrangement, decreased anisotropy in diffusion tensor images, and hypometabolism. We used a 3T Siemens scan...
Article
Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NIMH grants P50 MH 66392-01, MH 60023, and MH 56489 to Dr. Buchsbaum and by NARSAD Young Investigator and NIMH MH 077146 awards to Dr. Mitelman.Facts box Functional imaging has shown decreases in resting activity and the amount of activation by cognitive tasks in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cingulate...
Article
Sertindole, a 2nd generation antipsychotic with low movement disorder side effects, was compared with haloperidol in a 6-week crossover study. Fifteen patients with schizophrenia (mean age=42.6, range=22-59, 11 men and 4 women) received sertindole (12-24 mg) or haloperidol (4-16 mg) for 6 weeks and then received a FDG-PET scan and an anatomical MRI...
Article
Decreased callosal size and anisotropy have been described in schizophrenia patients but their longitudinal progression remains poorly understood. We performed diffusion-tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at follow-up four years later in 49 chronic schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy comparison subjects. Schizophreni...
Article
In this study we investigated regional cerebral glucose metabolism abnormalities of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in traumatic brain injury (TBI). PET images of 81 TBI patients and 68 normal controls were acquired and a word list learning task was administered during the uptake period. The TBI group inc...
Article
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often associated with symptoms of impulsive aggression, which poses a threat to patients themselves and to others. Preclinical studies show that orbital frontal cortex (OFC) plays a role in regulating impulsive aggression. Prior work has found OFC dysfunction in BPD. We employed a task to provoke aggressive...
Article
Superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22) volume is reduced in schizophrenia and to a milder degree in schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), representing a less severe disorder in the schizophrenia spectrum. SPD and Borderline personality disorder (BPD) are severe personality disorders characterized by social and cognitive dysfunction. However, while SP...
Article
We have previously demonstrated that putaminal but not caudate volumes are associated with poor outcome in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Present longitudinal study was designed to investigate progressive differences in striatal volumes among chronic schizophrenia patients with different outcomes and healthy subjects. Structural MRI scans wer...
Article
Neuroimaging with functional and structural techniques has revealed decreases in cortical volume, increases in ventricular size and sulcal width as well as mild decreases in blood flow and glucose metabolic rate in normal aging. In schizophrenia, these changes may occur earlier than in controls and perhaps most prominently in the frontal lobes and...
Article
In this issue a series of outstanding and comprehensive reviews of the progress of electrophysiological biomarkers or endophenotype indicators in psychiatric illnesses is presented. These reviews establish presence of electrophysiological abnormalities in symptom-based diagnoses of schizophrenia, dementia, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and ch...
Article
Findings of white matter pathology as indicated by diffusion tensor anisotropy values in schizophrenia are well established, but the differences in this measure between the onset of the disease and the chronic state are not well known. To investigate the differences between these states in the progression of the disease of schizophrenia we acquired...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have reported continued focal gray matter loss after the clinical onset of schizophrenia. Longitudinal assessments in chronic illness, of white matter in particular, have been less conclusive. We used diffusion-tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging in 16 healthy subjects and 49 chronic schizophrenia patients, subdivided...
Article
Full-text available
The authors aimed to examine central glucocorticoids effects by measuring relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) in the hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the relationship between amygdala and ACC activity. The participants were male combat veterans with and without PTSD, 52 to 81 years old. The authors utilized randomiz...
Chapter
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects cognition, behavior, and functional activities. Because the disease is most common among the elderly, dissociating pathological changes from those that are the result of normal aging is critical. In the current chapter, we discuss how structural magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize morphological...
Article
This study examined the main and interactive effects of age and sex on relative glucose metabolic rate (rGMR) within gray matter of 39 cortical Brodmann areas (BAs) and the cingulate gyrus using (18)FDG-PET during a verbal memory task in 70 healthy normal adults, aged 20-87 years. Women showed significantly greater age-related rGMR decline in left...
Article
We investigated the ability of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) imaging to serially monitor macrophage content in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits (n = 8) by a combination of atherogenic diet and balloon denudation of the aorta. At the end of nine months, the rabbits were randomized...
Article
White matter abnormalities have been detected using diffusion tensor imaging in a variety of locations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. Studies that included first-episode patients report less severe or no abnormalities but more pronounced deficits in chronic patients. Here, we investigated these abnormalities in a very large group of...
Article
Full-text available
Pathological gambling affects 1-3% of the adult population, and has high comorbidity. Although mood stabilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some efficacy in the treatment of this condition, there is little known about how these pharmacological interventions work. Twenty-one patients with pathological gambling, who met lifetime como...
Article
Background: Pathological gambling affects 1-3% of the adult population, and has high comorbidity. Although mood stabilizers and serotonin reuptake inhibitors have shown some efficacy in the treatment of this condition, there is little known about how these pharmacological interventions work. Methods: Twenty-one patients with pathological gamblin...
Article
Full-text available
The thalamus provides a nodal link for multiple functional circuits that are impaired in schizophrenia (SZ). Despite inconsistencies in the literature, a meta analysis suggests that the volume of the thalamus relative to that of the brain is decreased in SZ. Morphometric neuroimaging studies employing deformation, voxel-based and region of interest...
Article
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to a reduction in the amplitude of the startle eyeblink reflex to a strong sensory stimulus, the pulse, when it is preceded shortly by a weak stimulus, the prepulse. PPI is a measure of sens