Monika Böhm

Monika Böhm
Indianapolis Zoo · Global Center for Species Survival

About

104
Publications
85,596
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6,509
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2009 - present
Zoological Society of London
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
The Red List of Threatened Species, published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), is a crucial tool for conservation decision-making. However, despite substantial effort, numerous species remain unassessed or have insufficient data available to be assigned a Red List extinction risk category. Moreover, the Red Listing proc...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fantastic Freshwater: 50 landmark species for conservation is a collaboration between more than 70 conservationists and 21 IUCN SSC Specialist Groups and Red List Authorities. It highlights wonder of - and threats to - freshwater wildlife, including five species from each of the major 10 taxonomic groups.
Preprint
Full-text available
The global biodiversity crisis threatens the natural world and its capacity to provide benefits to humans into the future. The conservation of evolutionary history, captured by the measure phylogenetic diversity (PD), is linked to the maintenance of these benefits and future options. The Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) metric...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been o...
Article
Full-text available
Comprehensive assessments of species’ extinction risks have documented the extinction crisis and underpinned strategies for reducing those risks. Global assessments reveal that, among tetrapods, 40.7% of amphibians, 25.4% of mammals and 13.6% of birds are threatened with extinction. Because global assessments have been lacking, reptiles have been o...
Article
Full-text available
threatened with extinction, resulting in a sampled RLI of 0.914 for all species, 0.968 in marine and 0.862 in freshwater ecosystems. Our sample showed fishing as the principal threat for marine species, and pollution by agricultural and forestry effluents for freshwater fishes. The sampled list provides a robust representation for tracking trends i...
Article
Full-text available
Global biodiversitytargets require us to identify species at risk of extinction and quantify status and trends of biodiversity. The Red List Index (RLI) tracks trends in the conservation status of entire species groups over time by monitoring changes in categories assigned to species. Here, we calculate this index for the world’s fishes in 2010, us...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Red List of Threatened Species, published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), is a crucial tool for conservation decision making. However, despite substantial effort, numerous species remain unassessed, or have insufficient data available to be assigned a Red List threat category. Moreover, the Red Listing process is s...
Article
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species is central in biodiversity conservation, but insufficient resources hamper its long-term growth, updating, and consistency. Models or automated calculations can alleviate those challenges by providing standardised estimates required for assessments, or prioriti...
Article
Full-text available
With the accelerating development of direct and indirect anthropogenic threats, including climate change and pollution as well as extractive industries such as deep-sea mining, there is an urgent need for simple but effective solutions to identify conservation priorities for deep-sea species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrothermal vents are rare deep‐sea oases that house faunal assemblages with a similar density of life as coral reefs. Only approximately 600 of these hotspots are known worldwide, most only one‐third of a football field in size. With advancing development of the deep‐sea mining industry, there is an urgent need to protect these unique, insular ec...
Article
Full-text available
With the biodiversity crisis continuing unchecked, we need to establish levels and drivers of extinction risk, and reassessments over time, to effectively allocate conservation resources and track progress towards global conservation targets. Given that threat appears particularly high in freshwaters, we assessed the extinction risk of 1428 randoml...
Article
Full-text available
The Short-tailed ground agama or Hardwicke’s bloodsucker Calotes minor (Hardwicke & Gray, 1827) is known to occur in the Indian subcontinent and is largely confined to arid to semiarid environments, such as hard barren desert and abandoned fields. The precise distribution of this species is largely unknown to date, with few locality records spread...
Article
Aim: Identification of particular traits that predispose species to elevated extinction risk is an important component of proactive conservation. We capitalise on a recent strategic extinction risk assessment of all Australian squamate reptiles to identify intrinsic life history traits and extrinsic threats that correlate with extinction risk. We f...
Article
Full-text available
The Convention on Biological Diversity’s post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will probably include a goal to stabilize and restore the status of species. Its delivery would be facilitated by making the actions required to halt and reverse species loss spatially explicit. Here, we develop a species threat abatement and restoration (STAR) metric...
Article
Our knowledge of the conservation status of reptiles, the most diverse class of terrestrial vertebrates, has improved dramatically over the past decade, but still lags behind that of the other tetrapod groups. Here, we conduct the first comprehensive evaluation (~92% of the world's ~1714 described species) of the conservation 1 Joint senior authors...
Article
Full-text available
Cities currently harbour more than half of the world's human population and continued urban expansion replaces natural landscapes and increases habitat fragmentation. The impacts of urbanisation on biodiversity have been extensively studied in some parts of the world, but there is limited information from South Asia, despite the rapid expansion of...
Article
Full-text available
The International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species (RLS) is the key global tool for objective, repeatable assessment of species’ extinction risk status and plays an essential role in tracking biodiversity loss and guiding conservation action. Satellite remote sensing (SRS) data sets on global ecosystem distributions a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global biodiversity targets require us to identify species at risk of extinction and quantify status and trends of biodiversity. The Red List Index (RLI) tracks trends in the conservation status of entire species groups over time by monitoring changes in categories assigned to species. Here, we calculate this index for the world’s fishes in 2010, u...
Preprint
Full-text available
Unsustainable exploitation of wild species represents a serious threat to biodiversity and to the livelihoods of local communities and indigenous peoples. However, managed, sustainable use has the potential to forestall extinctions, aid recovery, and meet human needs. Here, we infer current prevalence of unsustainable and sustainable biological res...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring progress towards international biodiversity targets requires robust knowledge of the conservation status of species, which is provided by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, data and capacity are lacking for most hyperdiverse groups such as invertebrates, plants and fungi, particularly in megadiverse or high‐endemism regions...
Article
Full-text available
Phylogenetic diversity measures are increasingly used in conservation planning to represent aspects of biodiversity beyond that captured by species richness. Here we develop two new metrics that combine phylogenetic diversity and the extent of human pressure across the spatial distribution of species-one metric valuing regions and another prioritis...
Article
Full-text available
Given the current biodiversity crisis, pragmatic approaches to detect global conservation trends across a broad range of taxa are critical. A sampled approach to the Red List Index (RLI) was proposed, as many groups are highly speciose. However, a decade after its conception, the recommended 900 species sample has only been implemented in six group...
Article
Establishing historical baselines of species' populations is important for contextualising present-day population trends, identifying significant anthropogenic threats, and preventing a cultural phenomenon known as ‘shifting baseline syndrome’. However, our knowledge of historical baselines is limited by a lack of direct observation data on species...
Article
More than 33,500 fish species inhabit freshwater and marine environments, according to FishBase database records. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has assessed the conservation status of approximately half of them, the lowest percentage in any vertebrate group. In order to identify what factors may underlie this assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Rare species tend to be especially sensitive to habitat disturbance, making them important conservation targets. Thus, rarity patterns might be an important guide to conservation efforts. Rabinowitz's approach defines rarity using a combination of geographical range, habitat specificity, and local abundance, and is frequently used in conservation p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) is increasingly recognised as an important measure that can provide information on evolutionary and functional aspects of biodiversity for conservation planning that are not readily captured by species diversity. Here we develop and analyse two new metrics that combine the effects of PD and human encroachment on species...
Article
Full-text available
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents were discovered only 40 years ago. We now know that around 600 of these auditorium-sized oases exist in the vast expanse of the ocean, flourishing with unique life that we are nowhere close to fully understanding. This lack of baseline biodiversity assessments creates an ‘out of sight, out of mind’ conservation dilemma f...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Variation in body size across animal species underlies most ecological and evolutionary processes shaping local‐ and large‐scale patterns of biodiversity. For well over a century, climatic factors have been regarded as primary sources of natural selection on animal body size, and hypotheses such as Bergmann's rule (the increase of body size wi...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Climate change is a major threat to the persistence of biodiversity. Global assessments highlight the most climate vulnerable species and geographic regions based on species traits and measures of exposure to climate change. Yet the majority of climate change vulnerability assessments have focused on terrestrial and marine vertebrates and large...
Article
Full-text available
Effective conservation action relies on access to the best-available species data. Reptiles have often been overlooked in conservation prioritization, especially because of a paucity of population data. Using data for 549 reptile populations representing 194 species from the Living Planet database, we provide the first detailed analysis of this dat...
Article
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (Red List) details the extinction risk of the world's species and presents an important biodiversity indicator for conservation policy. Its continued utility relies on it containing up-to-date information on the extinction risk of species. This requires both regular reassessments and the timely assessment of...
Article
Full-text available
p>In the version of this Article originally published, grant no. 2015/20215-7 for C.N. was omitted from the Acknowledgements section. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Article.</p
Chapter
Full-text available
The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) is developing a monitoring framework around a set of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) which aims at facilitating data integration, spatial scaling and contributing to the filling of gaps. Here we build on this framework to explore the monitoring of EBV classes at the...
Article
Full-text available
Human-driven global change is causing ongoing declines in biodiversity worldwide. In order to address these declines, decision-makers need accurate assessments of the status of and pressures on biodiversity. However, these are heavily constrained by incomplete and uneven spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. For instance, data from regions such...
Article
Full-text available
The distributions of amphibians, birds and mammals have underpinned global and local conservation priorities, and have been fundamental to our understanding of the determinants of global biodiversity. In contrast, the global distributions of reptiles, representing a third of terrestrial vertebrate diversity, have been unavailable. This prevented th...
Article
Full-text available
In this Article originally published, owing to a technical error, the author ‘Laurent Chirio’ was mistakenly designated as a corresponding author in the HTML version, the PDF was correct. This error has now been corrected in the HTML version. Further, in Supplementary Table 3, the authors misspelt the surname of ‘Danny Meirte’; this file has now be...
Article
Full-text available
en International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List assessments rely on published data and expert inputs, and biases can be introduced where underlying definitions and concepts are ambiguous. Consideration of climate change threat is no exception, and recently numerous approaches to assessing the threat of climate change to species ha...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Understanding determinants of species' range size is paramount to explaining global ecological patterns and estimating extinction risk of species. Here, we examined whether a sample of 536 snake species exhibits a latitudinal gradient of range size in support of Rapoport's rule, and determined predictors of range size from a set of environmenta...
Article
Butterflies are important pollinators and indicators of environmental health. Habitat destruction and fragmentation caused by developmental activities and poor natural resource management are the main reasons for the drastic decline of butterfly populations throughout the world, and prompt the need for effective conservation management. We assessed...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population i...
Chapter
Full-text available
Monitoring the status and trends of species is critical to their conservation and management. However, the current state of biodiversity monitoring is insufficient to detect such for most species and habitats, other than in a few localised areas. One of the biggest obstacles to adequate monitoring is the lack of local capacity to carry out such pro...
Article
Establishing and maintaining protected areas (PAs) are key tools for biodiversity conservation. However, this approach is insufficient for many species, particularly those that are wide-ranging and sparse. The cheetah Acinonyx jubatus exemplifies such a species and faces extreme challenges to its survival. Here, we show that the global population i...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by standards , governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms.
Data
Unique visitors per year to knowledge products’ websites. (DOCX)
Data
Calculation of the cost of achieving pre-defined baselines by 2020. All extrapolations were derived through data from the sample compiled in the study and projections provided by each knowledge product team. (DOCX)
Data
Currency conversions and accounting for inflation. Costs were provided in British Pounds (GBP), US Dollars (US$), Euros (EUR), Australian Dollars (AUD), and Swiss Francs (CHF) of the year when the investment took place. We accounted for inflation by calculating the value of the currency in 2014 and then we transformed all currencies to US Dollars (...
Data
Extrapolated one-off costs costs per funding source between 1979 and 2013 for all four knowledge products. Extrapolated one-off costs costs per cost categories between 1979 and 2013 for all four knowledge products. (DOCX)
Data
Summary of data collection for all four knowledge products. The table summarises which costs were collected for each of the four knowledge products and how much of the total number of assesments, available in December 2013, these represent. In cases where 100% of the costs were not collected, the total sum for each knowledge product was increased p...