Monica Rubini

Monica Rubini
Alma Mater StudiorumUniversity of Bologna

Ph.D in Social Psychology

About

103
Publications
39,610
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,955
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 1988 - November 2017
University of Bologna
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (103)
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the associations between cultural diversity approaches endorsed by teachers and adolescents' positive and negative intergroup contact in schools. Participants were 984 adolescents (Mage = 14.66; 62.7% female; 24.8% ethnic minority) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study between 2019 and 2020. Results highlighted that pe...
Article
Studying how attitudes develop in the transition from late adolescence to emerging adulthood offers unique insights into future generations’ perceptions of society and of others. However, findings on ethnic prejudice during this life period are mixed. The current research aims to examine the development of affective and cognitive ethnic prejudice,...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates the relationship between different valence contact of migrants with native people and their motivation to avoid further interactions with the majority group, as a preventing factor of adaptation by either side. Specifically, the joint and differential effects of positive and negative contact of migrants with natives on ou...
Article
Full-text available
Recent findings highlight two facets of the two fundamental stereotype content dimensions of agency (i.e., ‘dominance’ and ‘competence’) and communality (i.e., ‘morality’ and ‘sociability’; e.g., Abele et al., 2016) with implications for understanding gender inequality in the workplace (e.g., Prati et al., 2019). Extending this research and contrib...
Article
Full-text available
Developmental literature highlights that cognitive, moral, and affective development proceeds from concrete operations to more abstract ones. However, it is not known whether this fundamental developmental trajectory also characterizes the development of social identification (i.e., the feelings of belonging, affiliation, and correctness to a group...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research highlighted that prejudice is already formed in early childhood, reaches a peak in middle childhood, and slightly decreases in late childhood, whereas the development of prejudice in adolescence was mostly unknown. This systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively summarize and integrate prior longitudinal researc...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the role of morality, competence, and attractiveness as perceived from faces in predicting hiring decisions for men and women. Results showed that for both female and male applicants, facial competence significantly predicted the hiring decision directly and indirectly, through the mediation of the overall impression. Dec...
Article
This research examined how recipients reacted to group-directed praise formulated by ingroup or outgroup members and varying in linguistic abstraction. Study 1 ( N = 81) showed that ingroup praise was perceived as more sincere when formulated in abstract (vs. concrete) terms, whereas outgroup praise formulated in abstract terms was seen as less sin...
Article
Full-text available
Friendships have important implications for adolescents’ psychological and social adjustment. However, there is still limited evidence on how different same‐ethnic and cross‐ethnic friendships are formed and regarding their role in refugee adjustment. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine the interplay of parents’ and adolescents’ sa...
Article
Full-text available
In three surveys of adults in five nations, we investigated how shared beliefs about the political system motivate individuals' political engagement. Specifically, we tested whether individuals' beliefs that the political context is fair, noncorrupt, and their belief that they could influence politics motivates political engagement to a higher exte...
Article
Full-text available
We review a 40-year corpus of research that we collectively name “Multiple Categorisation Theory” (MCT). From early illustrations using the minimal group paradigm, through a focus on how people cognitively represent social diversity, to recent models of outgroup “re-humanisation”, this work has revealed much about how we think about inclusivity, ex...
Article
Full-text available
Recent developments in the acculturation literature have emphasized the importance of adopting inter-group perspectives that provide a valuable background for investigating how acculturation orientations (i.e., maintenance of the culture of origin and the adoption of the destination culture) of adolescents from migrant families are embedded in thei...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigated whether evaluations of female and male job candidates rely on different dimensions. Going beyond previous studies on the role of gender stereotypes, we examined the relative importance of competence, morality, and sociability in employment decisions. In Study 1, we content-analyzed 68 archival reports of profession...
Article
Full-text available
The present research aims to test whether varying the sequential position in which majority members recall positive and negative contacts with migrants affects the linguistic descriptions of these episodes - in terms of abstraction and valence - provided by majority group members. We also tested whether participants' prior contact with migrants and...
Article
Two studies investigated outgroup-to-outgroup generalization, addressing whether members of negatively perceived minority outgroups are perceived as prototypical of larger partially-inclusive outgroups and whether this tendency is enhanced under intergroup threat. Both experimental studies were conducted with Italian undergraduate participants. Exp...
Article
Full-text available
Spontaneous emotionally congruent facial responses (ECFR) to others’ emotional expressions can occur by simply observing others’ faces (i.e., smiling) or by reading emotion related words (i.e., to smile). The goal of the present study was to examine whether language describing political leaders’ emotions affects voters by inducing emotionally congr...
Article
This study examined the relations of multiple categorization and social dominance orientation with adolescents’ prejudice against migrants and identification with the human group over time. Participants were 304 Northern‐Italian late adolescents (61.84% female, Mage = 17.49) involved in a three‐wave longitudinal study (with 3 months interval betwee...
Article
This research examined whether linguistic abstraction in group-directed criticisms moderates the intergroup sensitivity effect. Study 1 ( N = 76) showed that criticisms coming from an out-group member and formulated in concrete terms—which imply lower generalizability and stability of the information transmitted—provoked less negative reactions com...
Article
Full-text available
The healthcare services network is a recent organizational structure of healthcare services that are interdependent and organized as a network on the basis of the Hub-and-Spoke model. This questionnaire-based study analyzed socio-psychological well-being of health workers both in terms of team-related experience and individual satisfaction and enga...
Article
Full-text available
Morality, competence, and sociability have been conceptualized as fundamental dimensions of social judgment that individuals use to evaluate themselves and other people and groups. The way in which adolescents perceive themselves along these dimensions affects the quality of their relationships across multiple social contexts. Given the centrality...
Article
Full-text available
The present research investigated the spontaneous reference to the criteria of competence, morality, and sociability in descriptions made by professional committees evaluating female and male employees’ work performance. We examined whether professional committees used different criteria in their performance appraisal of male and female employees a...
Article
There is ample evidence for the central role of morality in social judgments. However, research has not examined whether perceived morality of others also drives perceived humanness, nor has it extensively considered its behavioral consequences. These issues were addressed across two studies. Study 1 revealed that information about a target person’...
Article
Personal and social identity have generally been considered as separate components of individual's self-concept. In this review, after addressing classical models of personal and social identity, we focus on recent theoretical advancements. We propose possible interconnections, focusing on communalities between personal and social identity and outl...
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction. Present-day developments in Europe, such as persistent socio-economic inequalities, growing numbers of young people at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion, xenophobic attitudes, and discrimination, present numerous challenges to youth identity development. Experiences of social exclusion and discrimination based on important aspects o...
Article
Research has shown that the perceived morality of the ingroup is a primary source of group pride and ingroup identification. The present research examined whether this is true even when a group has a poor reputation for morality in terms of dishonesty and corruption, such as in the case of Italians. To address this issue, two studies analyzed the r...
Article
Full-text available
Morality, competence, and sociability have been conceptualized as fundamental dimensions on which individuals ground their evaluation of themselves and of other people and groups. In this study, we examined the interplay between self-perceived morality, competence, and sociability and relationship quality within the core social contexts with which...
Article
Full-text available
The development of personal and social identity is crucial in adolescence. On the one hand, adolescents face the task of forming and consolidating their personal identity in multiple domains, with educational and interpersonal domains particularly salient. On the other hand, they enlarge their social horizon and increasingly define themselves as me...
Article
How are personal and social identity intertwined. This contribution represents an attempt to provide a preliminary answer to a fundamental question at the basis of the scientific activity of Augusto Palmonari. In order to achieve this aim, the key features of the processes underlying personal identity (commitment and various forms of exploration) a...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested whether intergroup threat enhances prejudice and discrimination toward the highly discriminated out-group of Roma. An implicit measure of linguistic discrimination, namely language abstraction of terms used in Roma descriptions, and an explicit measure of affective prejudice, that is, feelings thermometer, were employed. The relat...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple and counterstereotypic categorization of outgroup members reduces prejudice towards them. The present research addresses, for the first time, the role of political orientation in moderating the impact of these strategies on prejudice reduction. Given that right-wingers have very likely a higher need for cognitive closure compared to left-w...
Article
The combination of multiple categorization (i.e., the use of multiple criteria to define others) and human identity–the superordinate group of human beings–has recently been highlighted as a method to reduce implicit (i.e., attribution of secondary emotions) and explicit (i.e., attribution of human rights) dehumanization towards Blacks. In two stud...
Article
Full-text available
Outgroup projection is the tendency to generalise among members of different outgroups as if their members were all alike. The present study analysed this almost unexplored phenomenon and tested whether intergroup threat enhances the tendency to generalise the members of a negativelyvalued outgroup (i.e., Roma) onto another larger (partially) inclu...
Article
In two studies, we examined how primary school teachers use the subtle structural properties of language to communicate different evaluations of students who achieve higher versus lower marks, boys versus girls, and students with immigrant versus nonimmigrant origins. Written judgments of final evaluation records were coded for language abstraction...
Article
Full-text available
In adolescence, youth antisocial behaviors reach a peak. Parents can use different strategies, such as parental solicitation and control, to monitor their children’s activities and try to prevent or reduce their antisocial behaviors. However, it is still unclear if, and for which adolescents, these parental monitoring behaviors are effective. The a...
Article
The transition from late adolescence to emerging adulthood is a period of the life span that offers young people the possibility to consolidate their self-certainty and prosociality. Both aspects are of core importance for increasing personal and societal well-being. The purpose of this longitudinal study was twofold: (i) to examine patterns of cha...
Article
The present study examined whether emotionally congruent facial muscular activation − a somatic index of emotional language embodiment can be elicited by reading subject-verb sentences composed of action verbs, that refer directly to facial expressions (e.g., Mario smiles), but also by reading more abstract state verbs, which provide more direct ac...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine reciprocal associations between identity processes (commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and dimensions (support, negative interaction, and power) of maternal, paternal, and sibling relationships. A total of 497 Dutch families including 14-years-old adolescents (56.9% males),...
Article
This study examines the negative stereotypes of the category of women and their subcategories through the language of insults. Participants produced a list of epithets induced by the same hypothetical scenario in which the protagonist was presented either as a “prostitute” or as a “girl” (i.e., nonprostitute). Findings showed that the prostitute wa...
Article
Full-text available
In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants incr...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, m...
Article
Full-text available
Health disparities between groups remain even after accounting for established causes such as structural and economic factors. The present research tested, for the first time, whether multiple social categorization processes can explain enhanced support for immigrant health (measured by respondents’ behavioral intention to support immigrants’ vacci...
Article
This study examines the impact of relative group size on linguistic ingroup favoritism and outgroup derogation. Members of minority, majority, and equal-size groups freely described outcome allocations made by either ingroup or outgroup members. The abstraction and valence of the terms used were analyzed. Majority members expressed ingroup favoriti...
Article
Full-text available
In three experiments we investigated the impact that exposure to counter-stereotypes has on emotional reactions to outgroups. In Experiment 1, thinking about gender counter-stereotypes attenuated stereotyped emotions towards females and males. In Experiment 2, an immigrant counterstereotype attenuated stereotyped emotions towards this outgroup and...
Article
Full-text available
The present study extends previous research on the influence of social dominance orientation (SDO) in international affairs by investigating the role of sociocognitive processes such as social identity complexity (SIC) and intergroup dehumanization in explaining the relationship between SDO and support for Arabs' autonomy. An Italian heterogeneous...
Article
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to disentangle patterns of change and stability in self-concept clarity (SCC) in adolescents and in their parents; and (b) to examine processes of intergenerational transmission of SCC in families with adolescents. Participants were 497 Dutch families including the father (baseline Mage = 46.74), the mothe...
Article
Full-text available
One way to promote equality is to encourage people to generate counter-stereotypic role-models. In two experiments, we demonstrate that such interventions have much broader benefits than previously thought – reducing a reliance on heuristic thinking and decreasing tendencies to dehumanize outgroups. In Experiment 1, participants who thought about a...
Article
Full-text available
The present research addressed for the first time conditions under which linguistic out-group derogation can be hindered by increasing the qualitative and quantitative complexity of out-group members categorization. An analysis was made of the spontaneous language used to describe counterstereotypic versus stereotypic portrayals of Romanians (Study...
Article
Full-text available
The current paper reviews the fundamental developments of social categorization theories, showing that the more the number and complexity of others' social categories increase, the more social prejudice and intergroup discrimination decrease. Moreover, not only the perception of the complex combination of others' memberships but also the awareness...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the role of perceived (reduced) humanity and group membership of others in producing linguistic discrimination. Study 1 assessed the effects of these factors on a subtle measure of linguistic discrimination, namely, linguistic abstraction. Study 2 considered the explicit level of verbal abuse. Results highlighted that target'...
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses the role of language abstraction as a means to discriminate female applicants in academic personnel selection. The level of abstraction of 814 judgments, which were drawn from publicly available archival material, was coded. Results reveal that judgments of female applicants were formulated using negative terms at a more abst...
Article
This article addresses the role of linguistic abstraction in the achievement of symbolic and practical goals. Reviewing evidence from laboratory studies, we first elaborate on the power of language as a means of ingroup enhancement or outgroup derogation under different intergroup conditions. We then report several experimental and archival studies...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines for the 1st time the effects of relative deprivation and relative gratification, based on social comparison, on implicit and overt forms of discrimination toward the outgroup in a minimal group setting. Study 1 showed that compared to a control condition, relative deprivation and relative gratification enhanced implicit discr...
Article
Two studies examined whether individuals vary the level of abstraction of messages composed to achieve the relational goals of initiating, maintaining, and ending a romantic relationships when the goal of communication was self-disclosure or persuading one's partner. Study 1 showed that abstract language was preferred to disclose thoughts and feeli...
Article
Full-text available
We tested the internal reliability and predictive validity of a new 4-item Short Social Dominance Orientation (SSDO) scale among adults in 20 countries, using 15 languages (N = 2,130). Low scores indicate preferring group inclusion and equality to dominance. As expected, cross-nationally, the lower people were on SSDO, the more they endorsed more w...
Article
Three studies examined the production of political messages and their persuasive impact on recipients as a function of speaker-audience similarity. The first two studies found support for the hypothesis that political leaders (Study 1) and party activists (Study 2) formulate more abstract messages when the audience is politically similar to them th...
Article
This contribution addresses the issue of reduction of dehumanisation towards Blacks, an outgroup that has been historically targeted by heinous prejudice. The study tested, for the first time, whether the combination of multiple categorisation and human identity represents the most optimal condition for reducing dehumanisation towards Blacks. The m...
Article
This contribution addresses the role of perceived humanity vs. reduced humanity of others on social judgment. Innovatively, in this study humanity of a target was manipulated on the basis of the combination of two uniquely human dimensions, that is, possessing (vs. dispossessing) prosocial values and secondary (vs. primary) emotions. Evidence confi...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution examines linguistic discrimination toward women in the context of personnel selection. It has been analysed the level of language abstraction of the terms used to compose the evaluations of applicants for a job position advertised by an Italian bank group. Results showed that selectors describe female candidates with positive term...
Article
This contribution examines linguistic discrimination toward women in the context of personnel selection. It has been analysed the level of language abstraction of the terms used to compose the evaluations of applicants for a job position advertised by an Italian bank group. Results showed that selectors describe female candidates with positive term...
Article
The present contribution tested the general hypothesis that individual tendencies in the choice of terms at different levels of abstraction are enhanced when the same descriptions are formulated by a group. We compared the level of abstraction of individual and collective written judgements about applicants for a job position and found that the sel...
Article
Full-text available
This study (N = 215) investigated the impact of group entitativity on ingroup favoritism in the allocation of negative outcomes. Three conditions of group entitativity were created by modifying the standard minimal group condition through the manipulation of proximity and common fate. Findings showed that increasing group entitativity enhanced inte...
Article
This review addresses familiar relations during adolescence on the basis of the concept of social influence. First, we examine studies which emphasize the role of one-way influence both from parents to children and from children to parents. Then we consider studies on two-ways influence considering both explicit and implicit processes of transmissi...
Article
This contribution considers outgroup projection, that is, the tendency to extend the negative contents of prejudice towards a minority subgroup (Roms) to the superinclusive group (Romanians), according to an outgroup projection process. Preliminary Study 1 examines stereotypic representations of Roms and Romanians. Preliminary Study 2 evaluates per...
Article
This study addressed the role of parental justice in promoting adolescent disclosure. Three dimensions of disclosure were considered: leisure time, school activities, and inner life. Moreover, the mediating role of family collective self-esteem was analysed. Findings showed that parental justice facilitates child disclosure. They also underline the...
Article
Questo contributo considera il fenomeno dell’outgroup projection, ovvero la tendenza a estendere i contenuti negativi del pregiudizio nei confronti di un sottogruppo minoritario (Rom) al gruppo sovrainclusivo (Rumeni). Lo Studio preliminare 1 esamina la rappresentazione stereotipica di Rom e Rumeni. Un secondo studio preliminare valuta la percezion...