Monica Pratesi

Monica Pratesi
Università di Pisa | UNIPI · Department of Economics and Management

Full Professor of Statistics, PhD in Applied Stats

About

80
Publications
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Introduction
Educational Poverty - Local indicators - Smart Statistics

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
In Italy, a crucial anti-poverty policy “Reddito di Cittadinanza” (RdC), a measure of guaranteed minimum income, was introduced in April 2019. We aim to evaluate the targeting of the RdC policy at the local level, as aggregated analyses could mask important misalignments between the share of beneficiaries of the RdC and the share of poor households...
Article
Composite indicators (CIs) are frequently employed to measure complex, multidimensional phenomena such as well-being, sustainability, or work quality. It is nowadays well studied, that the multiple decisions made in the construction process of building the CI strongly affect the result. These construction decisions range from the selection of a set...
Research
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is twofold: first it shows how the identification of seven vulnerable labour market groups in the 2018 European Union Labour Force Survey (EU-LFS) is possible. These groups include age, gender identity, sexual orientation, single parenthood, migration (ethnicity, nationality, and migration status), religion, and disability. Se...
Article
Full-text available
Inclusive and equitable education and the promotion of lifelong learning opportunities for all are important targets in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Deprivation in education, read also as deprivation of opportunities and rights i.e. health, culture, participation, social relations, referred to as educational poverty (EP), has attrac...
Article
In recent decades, the measurement and evaluation of important social and natural phenomena has significantly evolved, with many traditional measurements based on single variables increasingly being replaced by multidimensional approaches. One key aspect of these approaches is the development of composite indexes, usually real-value functions of mu...
Presentation
Full-text available
The work aims to measure the educational poverty in Europe using different composite indicators
Article
Full-text available
Today, big data is a buzz word. Although there have been attempts to properly define the term, a really universally accepted definition has not yet been given. Accordingly, many different types of data may be classified as big data or new data. These range from scanner data collected at retail outlets, through remote sensing data to mobile phone da...
Article
Full-text available
The MAKSWELL project was set up to help strengthening the use of evidence and information on well-being and sustainability for policy-making in the EU, as also the political attention to well-being and sustainability indicators has been increasing in recent years. Traditionally sample surveys are the data source used for measurement frameworks for...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to investigate whether the quality of educational services and the university’s institutional image influence students’ overall satisfaction with their university experience as well as the possible consequences of these relationships on students’ loyalty. In particular, in today’s increasingly competitive higher educa...
Article
Full-text available
While the contributions on the organized crime and Mafia environments are many, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the firm’s decision to resist to extortion. Our case study is based on Addiopizzo, an NGO that, from 2004, invites firms to refuse requests from the local Mafia and to join a public list of “non-payers”. The research is based on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to extend the use of Internet search data to estimate Italian monthly young unemployed at small area level, more precisely at regional level. The input data used in the application are the monthly time series produced by Istat Labour Force Survey in the period January 2005-December 2014 and the regional monthly Google Trend...
Article
When using small area estimation models, the presence of outlying observations in the response and/or in the auxiliary variables can severely affect the estimates of the model parameters, which can in turn affect the small area estimates produced using these models. In this paper we propose an M-quantile estimator of the small area mean that is rob...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to highlight some key issues and challenges in the analysis of poverty at the local level using survey data. In the last years there was a worldwide increase in the demand for poverty and living conditions estimates at the local level, since these quantities can help in planning local policies aimed at decreasing poverty an...
Article
Full-text available
The background preparation of students entering the university system is checked through evaluation tests in Italy. The test is non-selective in most degree programmes, as it does not preclude the possibility of enrolling in the student’s chosen program. However, the initial preparation and attitude of the students seem to be key issues in explaini...
Article
The use of big data in many socio-economic studies has received a growing interest in the last few years. In this work we use emotional data coming from Twitter as auxiliary variable in a small area model to estimate Italian households’ share of food consumption expenditure (the proportion of food consumption expenditure on the total consumption ex...
Article
Full-text available
The timely, accurate monitoring of social indicators, such as poverty or inequality, on a finegrained spatial and temporal scale is a crucial tool for understanding social phenomena and policymaking, but poses a great challenge to official statistics. This article argues that an interdisciplinary approach, combining the body of statistical research...
Chapter
In this paper we analyze the issue of inactive university students, that is, students with zero university credits in career for at least a calendar year. A focus on this topic is important not only for the negative effects of inactivity on students and their families but also because an increasingly amount of the Ordinary Financing Fund (FFO) is a...
Chapter
The main sources of statistical data on monetary and non-monetary poverty are from sample surveys on income and living conditions. These rarely give credible estimates at sub-regional and local level. From this comes the importance of the Small Area Estimation (SAE) methods for measuring poverty at local level. This chapter serves as necessary back...
Article
Small area estimation with M-quantile models was proposed by Chambers and Tzavidis (). The key target of this approach to small area estimation is to obtain reliable and outlier robust estimates avoiding at the same time the need for strong parametric assumptions. This approach, however, does not allow for the use of unit level survey weights, maki...
Data
R code that implements nonparametric M-quantile regression via penalized splines.
Conference Paper
The paper presents the current state of progress of the Net-SILC2 work package dealing with standard error estimation and other related sampling issues in EU-SILC. The aim of this work package is to develop a practicable set of recommendations on standard error estimation both for data producers (NSIs) and data users. The increased complexity of EU...
Chapter
Uno dei presupposti ideali per lo svolgimento di un’indagine campionaria è quello di poter osservare le modalità delle variabili oggetto d’indagine in tutte le unità selezionate per fare parte del campione. In realtà questa condizione difficilmente risulta soddisfatta e si verifica molto spesso che una parte delle unit`a campionarie non collaborino...
Chapter
Nel corso del processo in cui si progetta e realizza un’indagine le possibilità di errore non campionario sono molte. Gli errori di copertura sono i primi in cui si può incorrere. Essi, definiti nel Par. 1.2.4, nascono dalla non corrispondenza tra le popolazioni obiettivo e frame e possono essere attribuiti a chi realizza l’indagine, perché non ha...
Chapter
Nel capitolo precedente sono stati richiamati in modo schematico i principali piani di campionamento di uso corrente evidenziando il ruolo fondamentale delle informazioni disponibili nel frame. Ad esempio, conoscere la dislocazione territoriale delle unità statistiche consente di predisporre una stratificazione territoriale; oppure, nel caso sia no...
Chapter
Lo scopo introduttivo di questo capitolo è quello di richiamare i concetti fondamentali del campionamento da popolazioni finite. Dopo alcune definizioni preliminari e una breve disquisizione sulla terminologia in uso, vengono ricordate le fasi di una indagine statistica e individuati gli errori che in ciascuna di esse possono aver origine. Come si...
Chapter
Il presente capitolo riguarda i campioni probabilistici secondo la definizione fornita nel Par. 2.3 e fa riferimento a una situazione del tutto ideale. Così, si suppone che le unità delia popolazione frame, di numerosità nota e pari a N, coincidano con quelle della popolazione target e che tutte le unità comprese nel campione forniscano le risposte...
Chapter
Full-text available
Available data to measure poverty and living conditions in Italy come mainly from sample surveys, such as the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). However, these data can be used to produce accurate estimates only at the national or regional level. To obtain estimates referring to smaller unplanned domains small area methodologies can...
Article
Full-text available
There has been rising interest in research on poverty mapping over the last decade, with the European Union proposing a core of statistical indicators on poverty commonly known as Laeken Indicators. They include the incidence and the intensity of poverty for a set of domains (e.g. young people, unemployed people). The EU-SILC (European Union - Stat...
Chapter
Full-text available
We propose to estimate non-linear small area population quantities by using Empirical Best (EB) estimators based on a nested error model. EB estimators are obtained by Monte Carlo approximation. We focus on poverty indicators as particular non-linear quantities of interest, but the proposed methodology is applicable to general non-linear quantities...
Article
Small area estimation is conventionally concerned with the estimation of small area averages and totals. More recently emphasis has been also placed on the estimation of poverty indicators and of key quantiles of the small area distribution function using robust models for example, the M-quantile small area model (Chambers and Tzavidis, 2006). In p...
Article
Full-text available
Small area estimators are often based on linear mixed models under the assumption that relationships among variables are stationary across the area of interest (Fay–Herriot models). This hypothesis is patently violated when the population is divided into heterogeneous latent subgroups. In this paper we propose a local Fay–Herriot model assisted by...
Article
Small area estimation is conventionally concerned with the estimation of small area averages and totals. More recently emphasis has been also placed on the estimation of poverty indicators and of key quantiles of the small area distribution function using robust models for example, the M-quantile small area model (Chambers and Tzavidis, 2006). In p...
Article
This work assumes that the small area quantities of interest follow a Fay–Herriot model with spatially correlated random area effects. Under this model, parametric and nonparametric bootstrap procedures are proposed for estimating the mean squared error of the empirical best linear unbiased predictor (EBLUP). A simulation study based on the Italian...
Article
Full-text available
Quantile regression investigates the conditional quantile functions of a response variable in terms of a set of covariates. M-quantile regression extends this idea by a ‘quantile-like’ generalisation of regression based on influence functions. In this work, we extend it to nonparametric regression, in the sense that the M-quantile regression functi...
Article
In order to implement policies against poverty and inequality, policy makers all over Europe should have at their disposal information referring to appropriate domains, since the impossibility to access to goods and services varies with age, gender and zone of residence. However, the major Italian and European surveys collecting information on pove...
Article
Between 1991 and 1995, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program of the US Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey of lakes in the Northeastern states of the US to determine the ecological condition of these waters. Here, to this end, we want to obtain estimates of the proportion of lakes at (high) risk of acidification or acid...
Article
This paper deals with small area indirect estimators under area level random effect models when only area level data are available and the random effects are correlated. The performance of the Spatial Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (SEBLUP) is explored with a Monte Carlo simulation study on lattice data and it is applied to the results of...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade there has been growing demand for estimates of population characteristics at small area level. Unfortunately, cost constraints in the design of sample surveys lead to small sample sizes within these areas and as a result direct estimation, using only the survey data, is inappropriate since it yields estimates with unacceptable...
Article
Full-text available
This work assumes that the small area quantities of interest follow a Fay-Herriot model with spatially correlated random area effects. Under this model, parametric and nonparametric bootstrap procedures are proposed for estimating the mean squared error of the EBLUP (Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictor). A simulation study compares the bootstr...
Article
Full-text available
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is common and can have a substantial impact on fetal growth, birth weight, and morbidity. The American Diabetes Association recommends GDM testing with either a 3-h, 100-g glucose load (100 g) (criteria according to Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982;144:768-73) or a 2-h, 75-g glucose load (75g). We investigated the compar...
Article
The estimation of the size of an elusive population is a frequently addressed problem in many fields of applications. The paper proposes a two step sampling strategy for the estimation of the population size, under the assumption that each unit of the population is present at least in one centre of aggregation. In the first step a sample of centres...
Article
Full-text available
Small area indirect estimators are often based on area level random effects models. Under this class of models, when only aggregate specific covariates are available, the Best Linear Unbiased Predictor (BLUP) is obtained under the assumption of uncorrelated random area effects (Fay and Herriot, 1979). The EBLUP takes advantage of the between small...
Article
Full-text available
To investigate, in pregnant women without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the relation among obstetric/demographic characteristics; fasting, 1-h, and 2-h plasma glucose values resulting from a 75-g glucose load; and the risk of abnormal neonatal anthropometric features and then to verify the presence of a threshold glucose value for a 75-g glu...
Article
To analyze the individual longitudinal patterns of maternal biochemical and hematological tests performed throughout gestation in order to predict at the 20th week of pregnancy the later development of pre-eclampsia. A longitudinal study was conducted on 187 white normotensive pregnant women all with a history of pre-eclampsia. Blood samples were p...
Chapter
In this paper the effect of telephone survey sample design on discriminant analysis is studied. The population is divided into two groups and a superpopulation model with multivariate normal distribution is assumed for the variables. The learning sample is composed of the randomly generated telephone numbers which correspond to the eligible populat...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate whether minor abnormalities of glucose metabolism without gestational diabetes are a risk factor for fetal overgrowth. A sample of 1883 unselected white mother-infant pairs were screened for gestational diabetes using a 50 g 1-h oral glucose challenge test (GCT) in two periods of pregnancy: early (16-20 week...
Article
Aim of this study was to examine the maternal-neonatal outcome and the neonatal anthropometric characteristics of a full-term mother-infant pairs group with a positive oral glucose challenge test (GCT) without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Our study involved 1615 white women with singleton pregnancies who underwent universal screening for GD...
Article
The relationship between perinatal outcome and daily glucose profile throughout pregnancy was assessed in 31 White Class B through R pregnant diabetic women. The study population was divided into two groups on the basis of perinatal outcome: 20 patients (Group I) without neonatal complications; 11 patients (Group II) with at least one form of neona...
Article
We compared the effects of two treatment strategies (diet alone versus a combination of insulin and diet) on neonatal anthropometric measurements and the outcome of a full-term white infant sample born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study subjects included 217 consecutive nonrandomized women with GDM with term singleton pregna...
Article
Riassunto: Gli attuali disegni di campionamento utilizzati in ambito agricolo sono stati progettati per avere stime a livello regionale. Per ottenere stime per domini sub- regionali si rende quindi necessario applicare metodologie specifiche, basate su modelli che utilizzano informazioni ausiliarie relative anche alle aree "vicine". Tali stimatori...
Article
In many applications involving economic, environmental and epidemiological data observations that are spatially close may be more a like than observations that are further apart. This creates a type of spatial dependency in the data that invalidates the assumption of independent observations assumed by conventional regression models. One approach t...
Article
Riassunto: L'interesse recente della Comunità Europea e dei governi locali per le aziende agricole multifunzionali impone di rivedere il disegno delle indagini campionarie correnti. Stime attendibili riferite a tale popolazione rara anche per domini territoriali non previsti sono ottenute ampliando con network areali il campione originario dell'ind...
Article
The main factors influencing the cooperation in surveys over Internet, as suggested from empirical studies (Batagelj et al., 1998; Dillman et al., 1998), could be grouped into: - factors influencing the contact with the respondent (e.g., awareness of the survey, e-mail solicitation plan); - individual factors (e.g., socioeconomic characteristics, k...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to compare the results of analyses based on different small area estimation methods, including some estimators recently proposed. The target is the estimation of the at-risk-of-poverty rate (Head Count Ratio - HCR) and of the mean and the quantiles of the income distributions. These measures can be considered as a starting...
Article
survival analysis. Abstract The methodological framework and data quality in Internet surveys have not yet been completely investigated. This paper focuses on the role of the solicitation plan in the participation into the survey. The survey period length influences data timeliness; the period length is connected to the solicitation plan. Starting...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this paper is to analyze the possibility to improve the performance of the estimation at sub-regional level from ISTAT Labour Force Survey. In particular, we refer to estimation of unemployment rates for small domains cutting across survey strata, i.e. Local Labour Market Areas, defined as aggregation of municipalities. Currently, such...
Article
Full-text available
M-quantile regression has been proposed for small area estimation as a useful alternative to mixed models based inference for its properties of robustness to outliers and distribution-free inference. Here we relax the assumption of a linear relationship between the covariates and the variable of interest and employ penalized splines to approximate...
Article
Full-text available
The framework, which is driving the contact and response in a Web survey, is briefly discussed, in order to set up the rules under which the contact event is identified. Given that framework and the rate measures computed within it, theory for modeling the participation in a Web survey and the respondents' behavior during the compilation process is...