Monica Melby-Lervåg

Monica Melby-Lervåg
University of Oslo · Department of Special Needs Education

About

57
Publications
57,293
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4,911
Citations

Publications

Publications (57)
Article
Full-text available
Children with low performance in early numeracy are at risk of facing learning difficulties in mathematics, but few trials have examined how this can be ameliorated. A total of 120 first-grade children ( M age = 6.4 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control condition. The 14-week intervention targeted early numeracy skills and w...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on what we know about the development of reading comprehension in the early school years, with a particular emphasis on understanding causal processes. According to the simple view of reading, reading comprehension is the product of decoding and language comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is typically assessed using tests...
Article
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Bilingualism appears to be related to poor language and reading comprehension in the instructional language (L2). However, in the long term, an early age of second language acquisition (AoA) may produce higher levels of second language skills than a later onset of L2 exposure. Most studies on school-aged second language learners (L2 learners) inclu...
Article
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Knowledge about the smallest meaningful units of language, morphemes, is crucial for vocabulary and reading comprehension. This meta-analysis of 43 studies examined differences in morphological knowledge in the societal language between language-minority and language-majority children. There was a moderate to large mean group difference in morpholo...
Article
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Background: Some studies suggest that children with language and learning disorders (LLDs) show more internalizing and externalizing problems than their peers. However, the available evidence remains inconsistent, especially regarding the conditions under which these psychological problems occur. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of studies...
Article
Whether the effects of an oral-language intervention is tested with measures of trained vocabulary (treatment-inherent tests) or standardized measures (treatment-independent tests) can have consequences for the mean effect size in meta-analyses. Moreover, based on a theory of transfer effects, effects on the trained words could serve as an index of...
Article
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Listening comprehension involves the ability to understand and extract meaning from spoken sentences, stories, and instruction. This skill is vital for young children and has long-term effects on school achievement, employability, income, and participation in society. There is a lack of measures of young children’s listening comprehension skills. W...
Article
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The simple view of reading proposes that the development of reading comprehension in early elementary school is best predicted by children’s fluent decoding and oral language skills. Recent studies challenge this view and suggest that executive functions should also be included in this theoretical model; however, the empirical evidence is not stron...
Article
Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and developmental language disorder (DLD). We evaluate this theory by performing a series of meta-analyses on evidence from the six procedural learning tasks that have most commonly been used to test this theory: the serial reaction time, Hebb learnin...
Article
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We examined the concurrent relationship between narrative skills (the Renfrew Bus Story Test) and core language measures (vocabulary, grammar and verbal memory) at age 4 and the longitudinal relationship between core language and listening comprehension skills at age 7 in a sample of 215 children using latent variables and structural equation model...
Article
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This study evaluates the effect of an intervention whose aim is to make articulatory consciousness a tool in decoding and spelling. The sample comprises 11 students with severe dyslexia (2 SD below the mean pseudoword scores), and the intervention programme consists of 32 individual sessions over 8 weeks. The study applies a multiple baseline/probe...
Article
This paper describes a randomised control trial (RCT) of a small group intervention targeting articulatory consciousness in first graders with a reading delay (control condition: n = 57, intervention condition: n = 64). The programme in the intervention condition consisted of basic decoding and spelling tasks using articulatory cards to symbolise s...
Article
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There is a relationship between reading and math skills, as well as comorbidity between reading and math disorders. A mutual foundation for this comorbidity could be that the quality of phonological representations is important for both early reading and arithmetic. In this study, we examine this hypothesis in a sample traced longitudinally from pr...
Article
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Bilingual people are often claimed to have an advantage over monolingual people in cognitive processing owing to their ability to learn and use two languages. This advantage is considered to be related to executive function (EF). However, no consensus exists as to whether this advantage is present in the population or under which conditions it prev...
Article
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Oral language is crucial for social interaction and for learning in the classroom; it also provides the foundation for reading comprehension. It follows that children with language difficulties are at high risk of educational failure. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that it is possible to produce small but significant improvements i...
Article
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Studies have identified concurrent, longitudinal, and bidirectional associations between language difficulties and internalizing problems. This is commonly explained by social exclusion or withdrawal from peers, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This study uses sibling data to investigate if the comorbidity between language difficu...
Article
The ability to construct meaning from texts is the core of reading. We report a meta-analysis and a systematic review of 64 longitudinal studies tracing the development of reading comprehension from preschool. Previous research showed that linguistic comprehension and code-related abilities in preschool correlate moderately with reading comprehensi...
Article
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Early Numeracy Screener. The Early Numeracy Screener is a teacher-administered, paper-and-pencil test measuring counting skills, numerical relational skills, and basic arithmetic skills. Three hundred and sixty-six first graders took the Early Numeracy Screener at the beginning of the schoo...
Article
While we know that interventions targeting oral language can be effective, little is known about what drives these effects. In this study, we examine whether gains in transfer measures are mediated through the specific words that are trained in a language intervention. Based on a large-scale randomized controlled trial of language intervention in f...
Article
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This protocol presents the plan for a systematic review that will investigate the effect of oral language interventions for children with intellectual disability (ID), language disorder (LD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Down syndrome (DS), Williams syndrome (WS), and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Language development is a highly frequent area of di...
Article
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Learning to read efficiently is one of the main skills that children has to learn in school and is important in order to functioning well in modern society. Even if children's reading skills seem to be related to their socioeconomic status, only a few studies have examined how SES is related to the development of reading skills in children facing s...
Article
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Few studies have examined how socioeconomic status (SES) affects two essential parts of human development, namely vocabulary and reading comprehension, in children facing severe poverty. The Roma population is the largest minority group in Europe, the majority of whom live in severe poverty. This study compared the development of 322 Roma children...
Article
The two major determinants of reading comprehension are language comprehension and decoding, but prior studies of the development of reading comprehension from an early age show inconsistent results. To clarify these inconsistencies we report a 6-year longitudinal study (starting at Age 4 years) where we control for measurement error and track the...
Article
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Social functioning and reading proficiency are critical for success in school and society. Therefore, identifying children with such problems is important. This study had 2 parts: first, a random sample of 234 elementary schools was surveyed about which instruments they use to assess reading proficiency and social functioning. Second, a systematic...
Article
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This Campbell systematic review examines the relationships between skills in preschool and later reading comprehension. The review summarizes evidence from 64 longitudinal studies that have observed these relationships. Code‐related skills in preschool (e.g., phoneme awareness and letter knowledge) are indirectly related to reading comprehension vi...
Article
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Background: Children with language comprehension difficulties are at risk of educational and social problems, which in turn impede employment prospects in adulthood. However, few randomized trials have examined how such problems can be ameliorated during the preschool years. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized trial in 148 preschool class...
Article
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Listening comprehension and word decoding are the two major determinants of the development of reading comprehension. The relative importance of different language skills for the development of listening and reading comprehension remains unclear. In this 5-year longitudinal study, starting at age 7.5 years (n = 198), it was found that the shared va...
Article
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This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elementary Social Behaviour Assessment (ESBA), a teacher-report measure of students’ social skills and academic engagement adapted for use in Norwegian schools. At two times, 8 weeks apart, 151 teachers rated 793 students in Grades 1–6 on the ESBA and the Social Skills Rating System Teacher...
Article
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This study investigated an adaptation of the Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measure of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills into a European context for the Norwegian language, which has a more transparent orthog-raphy than English. Second-order latent growth curve modeling was used to examine the longitudinal measurement invariance of...
Article
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It has been claimed that working memory training programs produce diverse beneficial effects. This article presents a meta-analysis of working memory training studies (with a pretest-posttest design and a control group) that have examined transfer to other measures (nonverbal ability, verbal ability, word decoding, reading comprehension, or arithme...
Article
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Second-language learners display poorer general language skills in the language used at school than their monolingual peers, which is a concern because general language skills (vocabulary, grammar, language expression and comprehension) provide the foundation for later academic success. In a randomized controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of...
Chapter
This chapter considers evidence for the efficacy of educational interventions for learning disorders in children. We consider interventions for reading disorders (dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment), language disorders and mathematics disorder. We will also briefly consider evidence relating to educational interventions for children with...
Article
The possible cognitive benefits of working memory training programs have been the subject of intense interest and controversy. Recently two meta-analyses have claimed that working memory training can be effective in enhancing cognitive skills in adulthood (Au et al. Behavioural Brain Research 228:(1) 107-115, 2014) and stemming cognitive decline in...
Article
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Working memory training programs have generated great interest, with claims that the training interventions can have profound beneficial effects on children’s academic and intellectual attainment. We describe the criteria by which to evaluate evidence for or against the benefit of working memory training. Despite the promising results of initial re...
Article
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Sentence repetition tasks are widely used in the diagnosis and assessment of children with language difficulties. This paper seeks to clarify the nature of sentence repetition tasks and their relationship to other language skills. We present the results from a 2-year longitudinal study of 216 children. Children were assessed on measures of sentence...
Article
In most school subjects, students' comprehension of what they read is crucial, as is improving that comprehension. In this article, we review studies on the effects of interventions on reading comprehension. A simple view of reading sees reading comprehension as the product of linguistic comprehension and decoding skills, while an augmented view al...
Article
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We report a systematic meta-analytic review of studies comparing reading comprehension and its underlying components (language comprehension, decoding, and phonological awareness) in first- and second-language learners. The review included 82 studies, and 576 effect sizes were calculated for reading comprehension and underlying components. Key find...
Article
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In the study reported here, we assessed the theory that vocabulary learning in children depends critically on the capacity of a "phonological loop" that is indexed by nonword-repetition ability. A 3-year longitudinal study of 219 children assessed nonword-repetition ability and vocabulary knowledge at yearly intervals between the ages of 4 and 7 ye...
Article
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It has been suggested that working memory training programs are effective both as treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other cognitive disorders in children and as a tool to improve cognitive ability and scholastic attainment in typically developing children and adults. However, effects across studies appear to be vari...
Article
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The authors report a systematic meta-analytic review of the relationships among 3 of the most widely studied measures of children's phonological skills (phonemic awareness, rime awareness, and verbal short-term memory) and children's word reading skills. The review included both extreme group studies and correlational studies with unselected sample...
Article
The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme...
Article
We present a meta-analysis reviewing studies that have focused on the relationship between dyslexia and nonword repetition. The results show that children with dyslexia have poorer nonword repetition skills when compared to both chronological-age and reading-level controls. However, the severity of the nonword repetition problem varies significantl...
Article
The authors examine the reading profile in children with Down syndrome by comparing the nonword decoding skills in children with Down syndrome and typically developing children matched for word recognition level. Journal articles published before 04.05.2010 were identified by using the keyword Down* cross-referenced to 'reading', 'literacy', 'decod...
Article
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This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have broad...
Article
We present a meta-analysis of cross-linguistic transfer of oral language (vocabulary and listening comprehension), phonology (decoding and phonological awareness) and reading comprehension. Our findings show a small meta-correlation between first (L1) and second (L2) oral language and a moderate to large correlation between L1 and L2 phonological a...
Article
Full-text available
Children were assigned to three groups given training on unfamiliar words--phoneme-awareness training, rhyme training, and vocabulary training--and an untrained control group. Before and after training, we assessed the children's performance on serial- and free-recall tasks with these words, as well as their ability to define the words, manipulate...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
This randomized controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a reading and language intervention for young Norwegian children (7–9 years, i.e., 2nd and 3rd grade) identified by national reading tests as being at risk for reading disorders. The intervention program aims to improve reading comprehension through language comprehension and word decoding and their precursors.
Project
The implementation and evaluation of the School-wide Positive Behavior Support started in 2003 and has been evaluated in two Projects, With one publication in 2007 and a string of publications from 2014 to 2017. More than 200 Schools have implemented PALS in Norway, and the Principal investigator (PI) of the evaluation Project has been Mari-Anne Sørlie. Anne Arnesen and Willhelm Meek Hansen has been responsible for the implementation and quality monitoring of the Project. Arnesen has also contributed With publication on Reading skills and social skills.