Mónica R. Carvalho

Mónica R. Carvalho
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute · Center for Tropical Paleoecology and Archaeology (CTPA)

PhD

About

29
Publications
14,444
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534
Citations
Introduction
I currently work as a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Tropical Paleoecology and Archaeology (CTPA), Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. I am a plant morphologist and an evolutionary biologist. My research integrates systematics, comparative morphology and paleobiology to study form-function relations in plants and the evolution of plants in the tropics https://moccada.wixsite.com/paleobiology
Additional affiliations
August 2012 - August 2017
Cornell University
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (29)
Article
Full-text available
The nightshade family Solanaceae holds exceptional economic and cultural importance. The early diversification of Solanaceae is thought to have occurred in South America during its separation from Gondwana, but the family’s sparse fossil record provides few insights. We report 52.2-million-year-old lantern fruits from terminal-Gondwanan Patagonia,...
Article
Full-text available
Although much is known about the hydraulics of xylem, the hydraulic interconnectivity and dimensional scaling of phloem with respect to xylem in leaves has not been adequately studied to test alternative hydraulic architectural rules such as da Vinci's rule or Murray's rule, or physiological models such as Münch's Pressure Flow hypothesis. Using co...
Article
Full-text available
The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: • Premise of the study: The early Eocene Laguna del Hunco caldera-lake paleoflora (ca. 52 Ma) from Chubut Province, Argentina, is notably diverse and includes many conifer and angiosperm lineages that are extinct in South America but extant in Australasian rainforests. No ferns have been previously described from Laguna del Hunco. We...
Article
Full-text available
The clade Bombacoideae + Malvoideae ('Malvatheca group' sensu Baum et al.) in Malvaceae comprises a mostly tropical lineage with derived taxa that now thrive in higher latitudes. The sparse fossil record, especially for Malvoideae, obscures interpretations of past distributions. We describe fossil leaves of Malvoideae from the middle-late Paleocene...
Article
Full-text available
Extant istiophorids are open ocean apex predators that are extensively studied due to their ecological importance and high values for fisheries. Nevertheless, little is known about their evolution because of a fragmentary fossil record and extremely difficult taxonomy of fossil species. Here, we present a new phylogenetic hypothesis covering fossil...
Article
Modern Neotropical rainforests are characterized by the high intensity and host specificity with which insects feed on plants. Previous studies have shown that, during the middle–late Paleocene, the leaves of the early evolving Neotropical rainforests of tropical South America were heavily herbivorized by insects. Yet, less attention has been given...
Book
Full-text available
Aparte del prologo escrito por Dubán Canal: "El presente documento constituye un aporte invaluable de 9 mujeres y 6 hombres colombianos quienes dedican sus esfuerzos al conocimiento de los atributos de los bosques andinos del país. Los estudios presentados son tan diversos como los Andes mismos e incluyen aspectos relacionados con el origen de la d...
Article
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Plant predation by insects is a major driver of high plant diversity in modern tropical forests. Previous reports of leaf damage in middle–late Paleocene Neotropical rainforests of Cerrejón, Colombia, show that leaf herbivory was abundant but of low diversity, mainly inflicted by generalized feeders. Here, we present and describe plant–insect assoc...
Article
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The Pliocene–Pleistocene transition in the Neotropics is poorly understood despite the major climatic changes that occurred at the onset of the Quaternary. The San Gregorio Formation, the younger unit of the Urumaco Sequence, preserves a fauna that documents this critical transition. We report stingrays, freshwater bony fishes, amphibians, crocodil...
Article
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The birth of modern rainforests The origin of modern rainforests can be traced to the aftermath of the bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous. Carvalho et al. used fossilized pollen and leaves to characterize the changes that took place in northern South American forests at this time (see the Perspective by Jacobs and Currano). They not only fo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Plant predation by insects is considered a major driver of high plant diversity in modern Neotropical rainforests. Nonetheless, the interactions between plants and their herbivores, and their role in the early evolution of Neotropical rainforests are poorly known. The earliest known records of Neotropical rainforests date back to the middle to late...
Article
Full-text available
Leguminosae are one of the most diverse flowering-plant groups today, but the evolutionary history of the family remains obscure because of the scarce early fossil record, particularly from lowland tropics. Here, we report ~500 compression or impression specimens with distinctive legume features collected from the Cerrejón and Bogotá Formations, Mi...
Article
The survival of all vascular plants depends on phloem and xylem, which comprise a hydraulically coupled tissue system that transports photosynthates, water, and a variety of other molecules and ions. Although xylem hydraulics has been extensively studied, until recently, comparatively little is known quantitatively about the phloem hydraulic networ...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: The hydraulics of xylem has been widely studied in numerous species and organ types. However, comparatively little is known about how phloem and xylem are hydraulically coupled or about many of the basic structural properties of phloem (such as conducting cell numbers and conductive areas), which nevertheless have direct bear...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the spatiotemporal distribution and accumulation of calcium (Ca), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) during the growth and maturation of grey poplar (Populus tremula × alba) leaves covering plastochrons 01 through 10. This period spans the sugar sink-to-source transition and requires coordinated changes of multiple core metabolic processes th...
Article
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Extant Neotropical rainforests are well known for their remarkable diversity of fruit and seed types. Biotic agents disperse most of these disseminules, whereas wind dispersal is less common. Although wind-dispersed fruits and seeds are greatly overshadowed in closed rainforests, many important families in the Neotropics (e.g., Bignoniaceae, Fabace...
Article
• Documented fossil floras in the neotropics are sparse, yet their records provide evidence on the spatial and temporal occurrence of taxa, allowing for testing of biogeographical and diversification scenarios on individual lineages. A new fossil Piper from the Late Cretaceous of Colombia is described here, and its importance for assessing diversif...
Article
Past typifications of the 27 generic names allied to Salix (Salicaceae) published by Rafinesque in 1817 and 1838 are reconsidered in light of the current rules of nomenclature. A lectotype is proposed here for Diplima. Some generic names previously designated as lectotypes are here corrected to neotypes: Diplopia, Disynia, Oisodix, Opodix, Vetrix,...
Article
Full-text available
Morphological and DNA sequence data has been used to propose hypotheses of relationships within the Characiformes with minimal comparative discussion of causes underpinning the major intraordinal diversification patterns. We explore potential primary morphological factors controlling the early diversification process in some Neotropical characiform...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: Fossil leaves of Menispermaceae were previously described from the Paleocene of Colombia. Because of strong homoplasy of leaf characters, the fossils could not be placed more specifically within recognized clades, and additional data were needed to specify intrafamilial and paleogeographic relationships during the Paleocene....

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