Monica E Calkins

Monica E Calkins
University of Pennsylvania | UP · Department of Psychiatry

Ph.D.

About

303
Publications
29,935
Reads
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12,540
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - present
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • Associate Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry
August 2004 - June 2015
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 1994 - May 2002
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Position
  • Doctoral Student - Clinical Science and Psychopathology Research
Education
August 2002 - August 2004
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • NIMH Postdoctoral Fellowship in Neuropsychiatry
September 1994 - May 2002
University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Field of study
  • Clinical Science and Psychopathology Research

Publications

Publications (303)
Article
Prospective evaluation of youths with early psychotic-like experiences can enrich our knowledge of clinical, biobehavioral and environmental risk and protective factors associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We aimed to investigate the predictors of persistence or worsening of psychosis spectrum features among US youth through the...
Article
Background: An integrative multidisciplinary approach is required to elucidate the multiple factors that shape neurodevelopmental trajectories of mental disorders. The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC), funded by the National Institute of Mental Health Grand Opportunity (GO) mechanism of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, was d...
Article
The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that, in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical risk individuals and in schizophrenia. To our knowledge, functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based PS samples...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Structural brain abnormalities are prominent in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, it is unclear when aberrations emerge in the disease process and if such deficits are present in association with less severe psychosis spectrum (PS) symptoms in youth.Objective To investigate the presence of structural brain abnormal...
Article
Little is known about the occurrence and predictors of the psychosis spectrum in large non-clinical community samples of U.S. youths. We aimed to bridge this gap through assessment of psychosis spectrum symptoms in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, a collaborative investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a prospectively...
Article
Background Validated screening tools are needed to detect subtle cognitive impairment in individuals at-risk for developing psychosis. Here, the utility of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB) were evaluated for detecting cognitive impairment in individuals with psychosis spectrum (PS) symptom...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are challenged not only by the defining features of social-communication deficits and restricted repetitive behaviors, but also by a myriad of psychopathology varying in severity. Different cognitive deficits underpin these psychopathologies, which could be subjected to intervention to alte...
Article
Evidence shows that reports of psychopathology symptoms by youth and their caregiver informants differ. To quantify youth-caregiver discrepancies in psychopathology symptoms and factors associated with such discrepancies, we investigated differences in how youth and their caregivers rated psychopathology symptoms. The sample (N = 5094) was extracte...
Article
The phenotype of schizophrenia (SZ), regardless of etiology, represents the most studied psychotic disorder with respect to neurobiology and distinct phases of illness. The early phase of illness represents a unique opportunity to provide effective and individualized interventions that can alter illness trajectories. Developmental age and illness s...
Preprint
Cortical variations in cytoarchitecture form a sensory-fugal axis that systematically shapes regional profiles of extrinsic connectivity. Additionally, this axis is thought to guide signal propagation and integration across the cortical hierarchy. While human neuroimaging work has shown that this axis constrains local properties of the human connec...
Article
Importance: Psychiatric and cognitive phenotypes have been associated with a range of specific, rare copy number variants (CNVs). Moreover, IQ is strongly associated with CNV risk scores that model the predicted risk of CNVs across the genome. But the utility of CNV risk scores for psychiatric phenotypes has been sparsely examined. Objective: To d...
Article
BACKGROUND The spatial layout of large-scale functional brain networks differs between individuals and is particularly variable in association cortex implicated in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. However, it remains unknown whether this variation in functional topography is related to major dimensions of psychopathology in youth. METHODS T...
Article
Schizophrenia has a heritability of 60–80%1, much of which is attributable to common risk alleles. Here, in a two-stage genome-wide association study of up to 76,755 individuals with schizophrenia and 243,649 control individuals, we report common variant associations at 287 distinct genomic loci. Associations were concentrated in genes that are exp...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The prevalence and significance of schizophrenia-related phenotypes at the population level is debated in the literature. Here, the authors assessed whether two recently reported neuroanatomical signatures of schizophrenia-signature 1, with widespread reduction of gray matter volume, and signature 2, with increased striatal volume-could...
Preprint
Background Digital technology, the internet and social media are increasingly investigated as a promising means for monitoring symptoms and delivering mental health treatment. These apps and interventions have demonstrated preliminary acceptability and feasibility, but previous reports suggests that access to technology may still be limited among i...
Article
Socioeconomic status (SES) can impact cognitive performance, including working memory (WM). As executive systems that support WM undergo functional neurodevelopment during adolescence, environmental stressors at both individual and community levels may influence cognitive outcomes. Here, we sought to examine how SES at the neighborhood and family l...
Article
Aim: The Pennsylvania first episode psychosis program evaluation (PA-FEP-PE) core assessment battery was developed as a standard and comprehensive clinical assessment and data collection tool in Pennsylvania coordinated specialty care programs (CSC). To reduce administrative time and maximize clinical utility by maintaining acceptable levels of pr...
Article
Adolescence is hypothesized to be a critical period for the development of association cortex. A reduction of the excitation:inhibition (E:I) ratio is a hallmark of critical period development; however, it has been unclear how to assess the development of the E:I ratio using noninvasive neuroimaging techniques. Here, we used pharmacological fMRI wi...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood adversity places youth at risk for multiple negative outcomes. The current study aimed to understand how a constellation of risk and resilience factors influenced mental health outcomes as a function of adversities: socioeconomic status (SES) and traumatic stressful events (TSEs). Specifically, we examined outcomes related to psychosis an...
Preprint
Full-text available
The prevalence and significance of schizophrenia-related phenotypes at the population-level are debated in the literature. Here we assess whether two recently reported neuroanatomical signatures of schizophrenia, signature 1 with widespread reduction of gray matter volume and signature 2 with increased striatal volume, could be replicated in an ind...
Article
Full-text available
Background Pathways leading to psychosis in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been the focus of intensive research during the last two decades. One of the common clinical risk factors for the evolution of psychosis in 22q11.2DS is the presence of positive and negative subthreshold psychotic symptoms. The gold standard for measuring subthre...
Article
Decades of research have highlighted the importance of optimal stimulation of cortical dopaminergic receptors, particularly the D1R receptor (D1R), for prefrontal-mediated cognition. This mechanism is particularly relevant to the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, given the abnormalities in cortical dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and in the expr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Low socioeconomic status has been shown to have detrimental effects on cognitive performance, including working memory (WM). As executive systems that support WM undergo functional neurodevelopment during adolescence, environmental stressors at both the individual and community levels may have a particularly strong impact on cognitive outcomes. Her...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spatial layout of large-scale functional brain networks differs between individuals and is particularly variable in association cortex that has been implicated in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. However, it remains unknown whether this variation in functional topography is related to major dimensions of psychopathology in youth. Capital...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenia occurs in about one in four individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The aim of this International Brain and Behavior 22q11.2DS Consortium (IBBC) study was to identify genetic factors that contribute to schizophrenia, in addition to the ~20-fold increased risk conveyed by the 22q11.2 deletion. Using whole-genome sequenc...
Article
Background Obsessive compulsive symptomatology (OCS) is common in adolescence but usually does not meet the diagnostic threshold for obsessive compulsive disorder. Nevertheless, both OCD and subthreshold OCS are associated with increased likelihood of experiencing other serious psychiatric conditions including depression and suicidal ideation. Unfo...
Article
Background: Traumatic stressful events (TSEs) are among the most studied risk factors for subsequent schizotypal symptoms. However, specificity and aggregate effects of trauma exposure on schizotypal symptoms remain unclear. This study investigates these relationships among a community-based sample of US adolescents. Material and methods: A sub-...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Digital technology, the internet and social media are increasingly investigated as a promising means for monitoring symptoms and delivering mental health treatment. These apps and interventions have demonstrated preliminary acceptability and feasibility, but previous reports suggests that access to technology may still be limited among i...
Article
Full-text available
Low reward responsiveness (RR) is associated with poor psychological well-being, psychiatric disorder risk, and psychotropic treatment resistance. Functional MRI studies have reported decreased activity within the brain’s reward network in individuals with RR deficits, however the neurochemistry underlying network hypofunction in those with low RR...
Preprint
Full-text available
Adolescence is hypothesized to be a critical period for the development of association cortex. A reduction of the excitation:inhibition (E:I) ratio is a hallmark of critical period development; however it has been unclear how to assess the development of the E:I ratio using non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Here, we used pharmacological fMRI wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mapping individual differences in behavior is fundamental to personalized neuroscience. Here, we establish that statistical patterns of smartphone-based mobility features represent unique footprints that allow individual identification. Critically, mobility footprints exhibit varying levels of person-specific distinctiveness and are associated with...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mapping individual differences in behavior is fundamental to personalized neuroscience. Here, we establish that statistical patterns of smartphone-based mobility features represent unique “footprints” that allow individual identification. Critically, mobility footprints exhibit varying levels of person-specific distinctiveness and are associated wi...
Article
Full-text available
Psychopathology is rooted in neurodevelopment. However, clinical and biological heterogeneity, together with a focus on case-control approaches, have made it difficult to link dimensions of psychopathology to abnormalities of neurodevelopment. Here, using the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we built normative models of cortical volume and t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Questions remain regarding whether genetic influences on early life psychopathology overlap with cognition and show developmental variation. Methods Using data from 9,421 individuals aged 8–21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, factors of psychopathology were generated using a bifactor model of item-level data from a psych...
Article
Full-text available
Environment (E) is pivotal in explaining variability in brain and behavior development, including suicidal ideation (SI) and behavior. It is therefore critical to systematically study relationships among environmental exposures (i.e., exposome) and suicidal phenotypes. Here, we evaluated the role of individual-level adversity and neighborhood envir...
Article
Full-text available
Background The psychosis spectrum is associated with structural dysconnectivity concentrated in transmodal cortex. However, understanding of this pathophysiology has been limited by an overreliance on examining direct inter-regional connectivity. Using Network Control Theory, we measured variation in both direct and indirect connectivity to a regio...
Article
Full-text available
Background Assessment of risks of illnesses has been an important part of medicine for decades. We now have hundreds of ‘risk calculators’ for illnesses, including brain disorders, and these calculators are continually improving as more diverse measures are collected on larger samples. Methods We first replicated an existing psychosis risk calcula...
Preprint
Objective: Self-reports from informants and youth differ, adversely impacting the validity and reliability of obtained information. Such discrepancies are dependent on informant type, psychopathology domain and may be related to sociodemographic and cultural factors. Examining informant discrepancies may provide clinically pertinent information rel...
Article
Aim Pennsylvania (PA) first‐episode psychosis (FEP) program evaluation is a statewide initiative, supported by the PA Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (PA‐OMHSAS) and administered by PA Early Intervention Center/Heads Up, which evaluates fidelity and outcomes of PA Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) programs. Programs participate...
Article
Full-text available
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with a 20–25% risk of schizophrenia. In a cohort of 962 individuals with 22q11DS, we examined the shared genetic basis between schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related early trajectory phenotypes: sub-threshold symptoms of psychosis, low baseline intellectual functioning and cognitive decline. We...
Article
Full-text available
Abnormalities in brain white matter (WM) are reported in youth at-risk for psychosis. Yet, the neurodevelopmental time course of these abnormalities remains unclear. Thus, longitudinal diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was used to investigate WM abnormalities in youth at-risk for psychosis. A subset of individuals from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The psychosis spectrum is associated with structural dysconnectivity concentrated in transmodal association cortex. However, understanding of this pathophysiology has been limited by an exclusive focus on the direct connections to a region. Using Network Control Theory, we measured variation in both direct and indirect structural connect...
Article
Depression is a common psychiatric illness that often begins in youth, and is sometimes associated with cognitive deficits. However, there is significant variability in cognitive dysfunction, likely reflecting biological heterogeneity. We sought to identify neurocognitive subtypes and their neurofunctional signatures in a large cross-sectional samp...
Article
Background Latency of the acoustic startle reflex is the time from presentation of the startling stimulus until the response, and provides an index of neural processing speed. Schizophrenia subjects exhibit slowed latency compared to healthy controls. One prior publication reported significant heritability of latency. The current study was undertak...
Article
Prevailing models of psychosis risk incorporate positive subthreshold symptoms as defining features of risk or transition to psychotic disorders. Despite this, relatively few studies have focused on characterizing longitudinal symptom features, such as prevalence, concordance and structure, which may aid in refining methods and enhancing classifica...
Article
Full-text available
Background Anxiety symptoms are common in adolescence and are often considered developmentally benign. Yet for some, anxiety presents with serious comorbid nonanxiety psychopathology. Early identification of such “malignant” anxiety presentations is a major challenge. We aimed to characterize anxiety symptoms suggestive of risk for depression and s...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding biological mechanisms underlying traumatic stress resilience is critical and can advance preventive psychiatry. Brain phenotypes of stress resilience have been investigated in animals, but such data in humans is scarce. Here we characterize cross-sectional brain correlates of traumatic stress resilience and susceptibility to mood and...
Article
The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with impaired cognitive functions and increased risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Speech and language deficits are prominent, with evidence of decline anteceding emergence of psychosis. There is paucity of data examining language function in children with 22q11DS with follow‐up assessme...
Preprint
Background: Depression and anxiety are common in adolescence, but adolescents’ reports of their symptoms are often at odds with their parents’ report. The extent to which reporting difference is a function of gender and context (i.e., clinical or community) has yet to be established. Since discrepancies have been found to be predictive of poor long...
Preprint
Full-text available
Psychopathology is rooted in neurodevelopment. However, clinical and biological heterogeneity, together with a focus on case-control approaches, have made it difficult to link dimensions of psychopathology to abnormalities of neurodevelopment. Here, using the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we built normative models of cortical volume and t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Interest in early intervention for first-episode psychosis (FEP) has increased globally in recent decades in response to evidence that multi-component programs may reduce individual and societal burden of psychotic disorders. In 2016, the Pennsylvania (PA) Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (OMHSAS) provided funding to...
Article
Full-text available
Background The early years following a first episode of psychosis (FEP) present unique opportunities to prevent declines in clinical and social function. Early intervention programs target factors known to be associated with poor long-term outcomes, including longer duration of untreated psychosis, treatment non-adherence, affective symptoms, and c...