Monica Biernat

Monica Biernat
University of Kansas | KU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., University of Michigan

About

117
Publications
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6,437
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Publications

Publications (117)
Article
Full-text available
We examined the relationship between verbal disclosure of sexual orientation and mental health among gay Latino and gay White men. In Study 1, we recruited 164 gay Latino ( n = 81) and gay White ( n = 83) men via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Participants completed measures assessing the degree to which they verbally disclosed their gay identit...
Article
Race differences in perceptions of discrimination are well documented, but questions remain about contextual- and individual-difference moderators of when White and Black Americans see racial bias. We examined how temporal framing (focusing on past decades or not), race, political party, and domain of discrimination influence discrimination percept...
Article
Full-text available
Building on perspectives on triadic group relations and status hierarchies, we predicted that Americans would be more likely to expect immigrants from a perceived low-status rather than high-status country of origin to assimilate to the U.S. mainstream culture and that ethnocentrism would mediate this effect (N = 2,246). Using 60 countries/areas as...
Article
The First Amendment of the United States Constitution protects individual's right to protest, but people tend to have differing attitudes toward protests depending on the issue being protested. Across two studies we examined general attitudes toward protests, racial attitudes, and political ideology as predictors of support for two separate pairs o...
Article
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Across two studies conducted in the United States, we apply an intersectional analysis to investigate how the interaction of sexual orientation (gay versus straight) and race (Black versus White) in male groups affect perceptions of inter-group similarity and stereotype content. The intersectionality hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) predicts that the inte...
Preprint
Full-text available
We examined the relationship between verbal disclosure of sexual orientation and mental health among gay Latino and gay White men. In Study 1, we recruited 164 gay Latino (N = 81) and gay White (N = 83) men via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Participants completed measures assessing the degree to which they verbally disclose their gay identity t...
Article
Cultural appropriation has been described and discussed within academic and everyday discourse, but little research has examined its role in the psychological context of intergroup relations. We sought to examine whether minority and majority group members (i.e., Black and White Americans) would differentially judge instances of cultural exchange a...
Article
Full-text available
Cultural appropriation has been described and discussed within academic and everyday discourse, but little research has examined its role in the psychological context of intergroup relations. We sought to examine whether minority and majority group members (i.e., Black and White Americans) would differentially judge instances of cultural exchange a...
Article
In seven studies ( n cross-sectional = 1,699, n longitudinal = 118), we developed a measure of relationship norm strength defined as qualities that make the rules and expectations in romantic couples more or less likely to be followed. In our six cross-sectional samples, the resulting Relationship Norm Strength Questionnaire (RNSQ) yielded consiste...
Article
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Grant-writing and grant-getting are key to success in many academic disciplines, but research points to gender gaps in both, especially as careers progress. Using a sample of National Institutes of Health (NIH) K-Awardees—Principal Investigators of Mentored Career Development Awards—we examined gender and race effects in response to imagined negati...
Article
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Victims of rape are uniquely vulnerable for being blamed for their assault relative to victims of other interpersonal crimes and thus much research has been conducted to understand why this is the case. But the study of victim blaming in acquaintance rape cases is hindered by contradictory empirical results. Early investigations in victim blaming o...
Article
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Can immigrants’ names determine whether they receive help or not? Drawing on a partial in-group membership framework, we adapted intergroup versions of moral dilemmas (a trilogy of transportation accidents) to test how Anglicizing ethnic names affects intergroup decision-making in hypothetical life-and-death situations. Study 1 showed that White Am...
Article
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The practice of adopting Anglo names among ethnic minorities and foreign individuals may be intended to smooth interactions with majority group members, but it may also have negative implications for minorities themselves. Two studies investigated the associations among adoption of Anglo names, self-esteem, and other psychological outcomes. Chinese...
Article
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Across many disciplines, women are underrepresented in faculty positions relative to men. The present research focuses on the academic conference as a setting because it is a gateway to an academic career and a context in which women might experience sexism. We surveyed 329 presenters (63% women) from three U.S. national academic conferences, which...
Article
Academic conferences are important settings for socialization, scholarly engagement, and networking. Two studies explore the effects of ambient cues in such settings on women's and men's climate perceptions. Participants (undergraduates in Study 1, graduate students in Study 2) viewed a flyer advertising a professional mixer that included an erotic...
Preprint
We propose analytic review as a solution to the problem of misreporting statistical results in psychological science. Analytic review requires authors submitting manuscripts for publication to also submit the data file and syntax used during analyses. Regular reviewers or statistical experts then review reported analyses, in order to verify that th...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual assault is often described as motivated by power, yet there is relatively little experimental research investigating the effect of power (and powerlessness) on interpretations of a sexual assault. Two studies manipulated participants’ feelings of power prior to a thought-listing task about sexual assault victims (Study 1) or an evaluation of...
Article
A field experiment and a lab experiment investigated how White Americans react to foreigners who present themselves either using original names or Anglo names. Drawing on self-categorization theory, hypotheses were derived from a partial ingroup membership framework. In Study 1, an email from a Chinese student requesting a meeting about graduate tr...
Article
In an experimental study, we examined the effects of dyadic communication and implicit racial attitudes on impressions formed of Black versus White individuals. Participants viewed a graduate application of a student depicted as a Black or White male and then had a conversation about the applicant with another student (or not) before individually r...
Article
We examine nonprototypicality as an antecedent to invisibility (lack of individuation) of Black women. Study 1 varied numerical representation of Black women within the group “women” to be low/equal to White women, and Study 2 varied the trait overlap of Black women to be low/high relative to White women and/or Black men. Invisibility was measured...
Article
Full-text available
We examined how verbal disclosure affects subjective well-being among gay Latino and White men. In Study 1, increased gay identification predicted increased verbal disclosure for gay White men but not for gay Latino men, who reported verbal disclosure levels in line with a tacit coming out strategy (expressing one’s sexual orientation to others mor...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotypes may function as standards, such that individuals are judged relative to within-category expectations. Subjective judgments may mask stereotyping effects, whereas objective judgments may reveal stereotype-consistent patterns. We examined whether gender stereotypes about parenting lead judges to rate women and men as equally “good” parent...
Article
Employees' positive affective displays have been widely used as a strategic tool to enhance service experience and strengthen customer relationships. Companies have primarily focused their employee training programs on two dimensions of display: intensity and authenticity. Yet there is limited research on when, how, and why these two dimensions aff...
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A meta-analysis that included more than 1,100 effect sizes tested the predictions of three theoretical perspectives that explain evaluative extremity in social judgment: complexity-extremity theory, subjective group dynamics model, and expectancy-violation theory. The work seeks to understand the ways in which group-based information interacts with...
Chapter
The accent of service providers in call centers may positively or negatively bias customer perception of service quality. Among American consumers, the Indian accent may have a negative bias while the British accent may have a positive bias. An experiment was conducted using a sample of 176 students.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we propose analytic review (AR) as a solution to the problem of misreporting statistical results in psychological science. AR requires authors submitting manuscripts for publication to also submit the data file and syntax used during analyses. Regular reviewers or statistical experts then review reported analyses in order to verify...
Article
Full-text available
Seven studies reveal that nostalgia, a sentimental affection for the past, offers a window to the intrinsic self-concept-who people think they truly are. In Study 1, state nostalgia was associated with higher authenticity and lower extrinsic self-focus (concern with meeting extrinsic value standards). In Study 2, experimentally primed nostalgia inc...
Article
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The cross-race effect (CRE) is the tendency to remember same-race (SR) faces better than cross-race (CR) faces. While there has been debate about the causes of the CRE, recent perspectives suggest that a lack of motivation to remember CR faces causes this effect. We provide direct support for this model across two studies manipulating the perceived...
Article
Gender- and race-bias have often been studied as separate phenomena, but examining intersections of race and gender is critical given that people always belong to many social categories simultaneously. In two studies, we focus on the evaluation of mixed-sex work teams, and examine how race and gender of team members affect the evaluations they rece...
Article
We examined how written communications about other people are affected by racial stereotypes and the race-relevant motivations communicators bring to the situation. Following exposure to a Black or White student's academic transcript, White communicators who were low (but not high) in the internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS) offer...
Chapter
Stereotypes may function as standards against which we judge individual members of stereotyped groups. This is the basic premise of the shifting standards model (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991), from which a complex set of predictions is derived: Members of negatively stereotyped groups may be judged, communicated about, and treated more or less po...
Article
This research examines customer biases relating to employee accents in call service encounters. Extant research and practitioners generally assume that customers automatically evaluate call service employees with a negatively biased accent lower than employees with a standard accent. However, using the Justification-Suppression Model as a framework...
Chapter
Prejudice is generally conceptualized as a negative attitude toward a group and its members. This chapter reviews the psychological literature on prejudice by considering theoretical and empirical approaches that emphasize intergroup, normative, evolutionary, and/or motivational factors as contributors to prejudice, as well as more complex conceptu...
Article
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Performance evaluations of male and female junior attorneys in a Wall Street law firm were analyzed. Male supervisors judged male attorneys more favorably than female attorneys on numerical ratings that mattered for promotion but offered narrative comments that showed either no sex effects or greater favorability toward women. Judgments of male att...
Article
Feedback on task performance is often phrased in subjective language (e.g., “not bad!”), but how do recipients understand or translate that feedback into a clear, objective, performance metric? We suggest that when feedback is provided in a stereotype-relevant domain, translation is made with reference to stereotyped expectations for one's group. I...
Article
The authors distinguish between minimum and confirmatory standards of incompetence and hypothesize that for groups stereotyped as relatively competent (or deficient in incompetence), minimum standards of incompetence are lower (suspicion of incompetence is triggered sooner) but confirmatory standards are higher, relative to groups stereotyped as re...
Article
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Three studies test whether group members strategically shift the standard of judgment they use to decide whether a particular ingroup action was unjust. In Study 1, individuals who were highly identified with their ingroup set higher confirmatory injustice standards than low identifiers-they needed more evidence to conclude that their group acted u...
Article
Research on racial and gender stereotyping typically focuses on the role of one of these social categories at a time rather than race/gender combinations. We suggest that the relative non-prototypicality of Black women’s race and gender results in their “invisibility” relative to White women and to Black and White men ( [Fryberg and Townsend, 2008...
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The judgment dimensions of competency and warmth capture much of the space into which our perceptions of individuals and groups fall. Though these dimensions are orthogonal to each other, they may also be inversely related, as perceivers may compensate for low ratings on one with high ratings on the other (Judd, James-Hawkins, Yzerbyt, & Kashima, 2...
Article
Communications about other people may be shaped by group stereotypes. This study examined how racial stereotypes about academic performance affected communicators’ descriptions of individuals and interpreters’ “decoding” of those descriptions. Participants assigned to a “communicator” role viewed a college transcript of a Black or White student, an...
Article
Members of stereotyped groups tend to be judged relative to group-specific standards such that subjective descriptions (smart, aggressive, tall) mean something different when they are applied to members of different groups. A "shifting standards" effect is present when judgments of group members on objective rating scales show stronger evidence of...
Article
Labor arbitrators were asked to render decisions about grievances brought by employees who had been fired because of problems created by work conflicts with family responsibilities. The study examined the effects of experimentally manipulated grievant attributes (gender, type of work-family conflict) as well as arbitrator attributes (gender, politi...
Article
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An "evidentiary standards" approach was used to examine how standards for trait diagnosis may become more lenient or stringent depending on category membership of the target being judged and the type of standard-minimum or confirmatory - being referenced. Three studies demonstrated that minimal standards are lower but confirmatory standards are hig...
Article
The effects of gender, marital, and parental status on judgments of applicants for a blue-collar job were examined. One hundred eighteen undergraduates (72 males, 46 females) at University of Kansas, USA first rated a standard “ideal worker” applicant (single male with no child), followed by a target applicant (who varied on gender, martial and par...
Article
Brown v. Board of Education was the landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision that declared racial segregation illegal in the United States. Commemorating Brown offers a critical retrospective on the role of psychological research in the fight against racism and discrimination and an up-to-date review of the psychology of racism and its implicatio...
Chapter
Judging Others: StereotypingJudging the Self: Social ComparisonConclusions
Article
Letters of recommendation typically use subjective language that is open to interpretation. In three studies, participants “translated” letters of recommendation for female and male applicants written by sexist, anti-sexist, or “control” professors. Predictions were based on the shifting standards model [Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991], the attribu...
Article
In 4 studies, the authors tested the hypothesis that success prompts standard raising and that doing so helps maintain performance-related esteem by augmenting perceptions of competence. Study 1 showed that students raised examination standards following success in meeting them. In Study 2, professors who were recently promoted to tenure raised wha...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies explored responses to ingroup deviance. Group-defining opinions of prowar Republicans (Study 1) and prolife Christians (Study 2) were challenged by either an ingroup or outgroup deviate. Participants evaluated the deviate and structured the boundaries of their ingroup in counterbalanced order. Of importance, boundary structuring allowed...
Article
In two studies, subjects' stereotypes of various campus groups were assessed using a content-free, cognitive methodology in which stereotypes are defined as “generalizations about a class of people that distinguish that class from others” (McCauley, Stitt, & Segal, 1980, p. 197). In an effort to predict strength of stereotypes, four main findings e...
Article
Full-text available
The role of family values in promoting prejudice toward gay men was examined. Participants high and low in support for family values were primed with family-relevant or neutral cues and were exposed to either a gay or a straight father who was described as a good or a bad parent. Both individual differences in family value support and situational p...
Article
Stereotypes affect how people understand implicit comparisons. In two studies, people judged the comparison implied by a statement (e.g., “Math is easy for me,” “I’m really aggressive”) made by an African-American, White, or Asian-American male. Counter-stereotypic comments, such as the African-American saying he was “bad” at basketball, caused par...
Article
ABSTRACT Motives to achieve and values associated with achievement were conceptualized as distinct and independent personality constructs, one nonconscious, the other conscious, each predictive of a different type of achievement-related behavior It was hypothesized that (a) motive and value measures would be uncorrelated, (b) motives would predict...
Article
This book examines how standards and expectancies affect judgments of others and the self. Standards are points of comparison, expectancies are beliefs about the future, and both serve as frames of reference against which current events and people (including the self) are experienced. The central theme of the book is that judgments can be character...
Article
Two studies tested the hypothesis that rules of trait inference may differ depending on trait stereotypicality and the social group membership of the target being judged. Specifically, traits that are stereotypic of a group were expected to instantiate lower evidentiary standards (require fewer behaviors to confirm), but only in members of that gro...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of some 10 years of research on the "Shifting Standards Model" (Biernat, Manis, and Nelson, 1991). This model suggests that stereotypes lead perceivers to evaluate individual group members relative to within-category standards. One result of this process is that subjective evaluations (e.g., judgments on semantic-d...
Article
Although the economic and social position of women has improved considerably in the last decades, some gendered expectations and roles have proved remarkably resilient. Increasingly, the gender gap in compensation has become an issue of “mother” versus “other,” as, for example, working mothers earn 60% of what working fathers earn. Conservatives te...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the influence of gender and parental status on employment decisions. The shifting standards model predicts that parenthood polarizes judgments of women and men such that mothers are held to stricter employment standards than fathers. Social role theory predicts that parenting role, rather than gender, guides judgments of mothers and...
Article
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A new measure sensitive to differences in the importance that people ascribe to their social (group) and personal identities is described. The Social and Personal Identities (SIPI) scale distinguishes between the interpersonal level of self which differentiates the individual as unique from others, and the social identity level of self whereby the...
Article
Stereotyping effects are typically considered to be assimilative in nature: A member of a group stereotyped as having some attribute is judged to have more of that attribute than a member of some comparison group. This article highlights the fact that stereotyping effects can also occur in the direction of contrast--or even null effects-- depending...
Article
What motivates people to derogate unfavorable ingroup members more harshly than comparably unfavorable outgroup members? Researchers investigating the black sheep effect maintain that this differential derogation is a means of group protection. In contrast, we argue that derogating unfavorable ingroup members may be an individual protection strateg...
Article
Four studies tested a prediction derived from the shifting-standards model (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991) regarding the role stereotypes play in judgments of individual group members. Previous research has documented that stereotyping effects are stronger on objective than on subjective response scales, and the present studies found that these ef...
Article
Gender stereotypes regarding task competence may lead perceivers to set different standards for diagnosing competence in women versus men. Specifically, stereotypes may prompt lower minimum standards (or initial screening criteria) but higher confirmatory standards for women than men (Biernat & Kobrynowicz, 1997). In two studies simulating hiring d...
Article
This article explores the outcomes of solo status and the processes by which solos are evaluated within a group decision-making context. Six-person groups of varying gender composition were given a task to solve individually and as a group. Following group discussion, participants evaluated themselves and their groupmates on task-oriented and socia...
Article
This chapter provides an overview of some 10 years of research on the “Shifting Standards Model” (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991). This model suggests that stereotypes lead perceivers to evaluate individual group members relative to within-category standards. One result of this process is that subjective evaluations (e.g., judgments on semantic-dif...
Article
Full-text available
The implications of the shifting standards model for understanding behavior toward stereotyped groups were examined in two studies on gender and athleticism. Participants played the role of co-ed softball team managers, who made team selections, position assignments, and judgments about a series of male and female players. The data supported three...
Article
Members of low-status groups typically report that their group experiences more discrimination than they do personally, a phenomenon referred to as the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. It is hypothesized that manipulating the meaning of discrimination affects the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. In three studies, 301 female unde...
Article
The present study investigated processes of social judgment from the perspective of a minority group. Black participants evaluated either Black or White law-school applicants who possessed either strong or weak credentials. Consistent with predictions of the shifting-standards model (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991), a significant pattern of out-gro...
Article
Full-text available
High- and low-prejudiced participants were presented with a lecture segment in which the race of the professor (White or Black) and lecture quality (high or low) were manipulated. Consistent with predictions, low-prejudiced participants were more extreme in their evaluations (more negative) and performed more poorly on test items when presented wit...
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Full-text available
A study of race-based ingroup and outgroup judgment demonstrates the links between two models of social judgment—the ‘black sheep’ effect (Marques, Yzerbyt & Leyens, 1988) and expectancy-violation theory (Jussim, Coleman & Lerch, 1987). White participants had a live interaction with a Black or White partner who contributed to a team success or fail...
Article
Full-text available
The authors tested the shifting standards model (M. Biernat, M. Manis, & T. E. Nelson, 1991) as it applies to sex- and race-based stereotyping of self and others in the military. U. S. Army officers attending a leadership training course made judgments of their own and their groupmates' leadership competence at 3 time points over a 9-week period. W...
Article
This study examined the presence of PTSD symptoms across time in a community exposed to serial murder. One hundred eighty four subjects (48% response rate) responded to the initial survey while 64 and 30 subjects, respectively, participated in the 9- and 18-month follow-up studies. Results indicated widespread endorsement of PTSD symptoms following...
Article
This study examined resident perceptions of the media in a community exposed to serial murder. Residents were surveyed regarding the popularity, accuracy and trust of various information sources. One hundred eighty-four residents (48% response rate) responded to mailed questionnaires. Results indicated that traditional sources of news (television,...
Article
Three studies examined how subjective evaluations relevant to stereotypes are translated into open-ended descriptions (Study 1) and into objective judgments and Likert-type ratings (Studies 2 and 3). We expected that stereotypes would create an implicit context or standard that individuals would use to “decode” subjective evaluations and against wh...
Article
Judgments of self and referent others tend to be positively related, as evident in the false consensus effect, but others may also be contrasted from the self, as noted in the false uniqueness literature. In 3 studies that examined the domains of attitudes and traits, evidence of both assimilative and contrastive associations between self- and othe...
Article
Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books , 1997, Vol 42(5), 422-423. A close reading of this volume, Impacts of Racism on White Americans (2nd ed.) (1996) edited by B. P. Bowser and R. G. Hunt (see record 1996-97652-000 ), reveals that social psychologists and other scholars have much to learn by stepping back to ask a m...
Article
Stereotypes may influence judgment via assimilation, such that individual group members are evaluated consistently with stereotypes, or via contrast, such that targets are displaced from the overall group expectation. Two models of judgment--the shifting standards model and status characteristics theory--provide some insight into predicting and int...
Article
Full-text available
In an examination of group members' responses to the threat of negative in-group characterizations, sorority/fraternity members were asked to rate themselves, their own sorority/fraternity, sororities/ fraternities in general, and students in general on attributes that were stereotypic of sororities/ fraternities. Results showed that individuals se...
Article
In two studies, attributes of target groups were manipulated and then stereotypes of those groups were assessed using multiple measurement techniques. A variety of trait ascription (e.g. Likert-type scales) and perceived variability (probability of differentiation, standard deviation) indexes were used. The measures were compared with regard to the...