Mokarram Hossain

Mokarram Hossain
Swansea University | SWAN · Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering

PhD

About

101
Publications
56,538
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1,999
Citations
Introduction
I am currently working at the Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering (ZCCE), Swansea University as Associate Professor. My research interests lie in the wide and interdisciplinary areas of soft polymeric and active functional materials from experiments to computational modelling. I have been active in the areas of biological tissue modelling and polymeric material characterizations. Recently I am interested in responsive gels (e.g., ferrogels) and self-healing soft materials.
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - present
Swansea University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2015 - February 2017
Northumbria University
Position
  • Lecturer
October 2008 - August 2015
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
October 2005 - February 2010
Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
Recently, among other smart and multifunctional materials, magneto-electric soft materials are expected to open a new horizon with myriad of potential applications such as wireless energy harvesting, spintronics and nonvolatile memories, magneto-electric random access memory, to mention a few. Magneto-electric coupling can be defined as the ability...
Article
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In this paper, we present a mixed displacement-pressure finite element formulation that can successively model compressible as well as truly incompressible behaviour in growth-induced deformations significantly observed in soft materials. Inf-sup stable elements of various shapes based on quadratic Bézier elements are employed for spatial discretis...
Article
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Magneto-active polymers (MAPs) consist of a polymeric matrix filled with magnetisable particles. MAPs may change their mechanical properties (i.e., stiffness) and/or mechanical deformation upon the application of an external magnetic stimulus. Mechanical responses of MAPs can be understood as the combined contributions of both polymeric matrix and...
Article
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Electro-active polymers (EAPs) are increasingly becoming popular materials for actuators, sensors, and energy harvesters. To simulate the complex behaviour of actuators under coupled loads, particularly in the realm of soft robotics, biomedical engineering and energy harvesting, finite element simulations are proving to be an indispensable tool. In...
Article
Full-text available
Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are a class of recently emerged smart materials whose moduli are largely influenced when exposed to an external magnetic field. The MREs are particulate composites, where micro-sized magnetic particles are dispersed inside a non-magnetic polymeric matrix. These elastomers are known for changing their mechanical...
Preprint
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In this paper, a theoretical scheme for shape-programming of thin hyperelastic shells through differential growth is proposed, which aims to determine the growth tensor (or growth functions) that can produce the deformation of a shell to the desired shape. First, a consistent finite-strain shell theory is introduced. The shell equation system is es...
Article
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The oesophagus is a primarily mechanical organ whose material characterisation would aid in the investigation of its pathophysiology, help in the field of tissue engineering, and improve surgical simulations and the design of medical devices. However, the layer-dependent, anisotropic properties of the organ have not been investigated using human ti...
Article
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Recent advances in magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) have posed the question on whether the combination of both soft-and hard-magnetic particles may open new routes to design versatile multifunctional actuators. Here, we conceptualise ultra-soft hybrid MREs (≈1-10 kPa stiffness) combining experimental and computational approaches. First, a compr...
Preprint
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We review nine invariant and dispersion-type anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive models for soft biological tissues based on their fitting performance to experimental data from three different human tissues. For this, we used a hybrid multi-objective optimization procedure. A genetic algorithm is devised to generate the initial guesses followed b...
Article
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The three-dimensional printing (3DP) also known as the additive manufacturing (AM), a novel and futuristic technology that facilitates the printing of multiscale, biomimetic, intricate cytoarchitecture, function-structure hierarchy, multi-cellular tissues in the complicated micro-environment, patient-specific scaffolds, and medical devices. There i...
Preprint
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Hard-magnetic soft materials (HMSMs) are particulate composites that consist of a soft matrix embedded with particles of high remnant magnetic induction. Since the application of an external magnetic flux induces a body couple in HMSMs, the Cauchy stress tensor in these materials is asymmetric, in general. Therefore, the micropolar continuum theory...
Article
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Mechanical characterisation of the layer-specific, viscoelastic properties of the human oesophagus is crucial in furthering the development of devices emerging in the field, such as robotic endoscopic biopsy devices, as well as to enhance the realism, and therefore effectiveness, of surgical simulations. In this study, the viscoelastic and stress-s...
Article
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Hard-magnetic soft materials (HMSMs), as a sub-class of magneto-active polymers, consist of a polymeric matrix filled with particles of high remnant magnetic induction. The application of external magnetic flux on HMSMs induces a moment on its material particles. From the angular momentum balance law, it is deduced that the Cauchy stress tensor in...
Article
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Electro-active polymers (EAPs) have the ability to undergo large deformations upon the stimulation by an electric field. They offer new design possibilities in a variety of applications, such as simple soft and flexible actuators, stretchable sensors, and energy harvesters. In the subclass of dielectric elastomers, the operation principle relies on...
Article
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A comprehensive experimental study performed under a combination of electro-mechanical loads applied on a particle-filled silicone as a representative of dielectric elastomers is presented in the Part I of this work (Mehnert et al., submitted , 2022). The constitutive modelling and numerical simulation of electro-active polymers are essential field...
Article
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This work aims at developing a viscoelastic formulation for the time-dependent finite deformation analysis of beams made of hard-magnetic soft materials (HMSMs) under magnetic loading. After introducing the basic kinematic quantities, a viscoelasticity formulation for the analysis of HMSMs is developed, which is general in the sense that it can be...
Article
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Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) mechanically respond to external magnetic stimuli by changing their mechanical properties and/or changing their shape. Recent studies have shown the great potential of MREs when manufactured with an extremely soft matrix and soft-magnetic particles. Under the application of an external magnetic field, such MREs...
Article
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In this work, graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were incorporated into poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) matrix to prepare PET-GNP nanocomposites using a melt compounding followed by compression moulding and then quenching process. Both static and dynamic mechanical properties of these quenched materials were characterized as a function of GNP content...
Article
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Like electrical conductivity, the electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of carbon-containing polymeric composites also goes through a transition phase known as the percolation threshold (PT). In this study, the applicability of various sigmoidal models such as Sigmoidal-Boltzmann (SB), Sigmoidal-Dose Response (SD), Sigmoidal...
Article
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The last decade has witnessed the emergence of magneto-active polymers (MAPs) as one of the most advanced multi-functional soft composites. Depending on the magnetisation mechanisms and responsive behaviour , MAPs are mainly classified as hard magnetic MAPs and soft magnetic MAPs. Polymeric materials are widely treated as fully incompressible solid...
Article
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Magneto-/ electro-responsive polymers (MERPs) are a class of stimuli-responsive materials that are actuated when triggered by external magnetic/ electric fields. MERPs exhibit rapid, reversible, and safe multi-functional and dynamic (i.e., changing with time) properties, which can effectively be manipulated at different length scales. These feature...
Article
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Hard-magnetic soft composites consist of magneto-active polymers (MAPs) where the fillers are composed of hard-magnetic (magnetically polarised) particles. These novel multifunctional materials are experiencing a great advance from the last few years. This rise has been motivated by the possibility of controlling ferromagnetic patterns during the m...
Article
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Magnetoactive soft materials (MSMs) are soft polymeric composites filled with magnetic particles that are an emerging class of smart and multifunctional materials with immense potentials to be used in var- ious applications including but not limited to artificial muscles, soft robotics, controlled drug delivery, minimally invasive surgery, and meta...
Article
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Growth of soft material plates is commonly observed in nature. However, the relations between growth fields and shape changes of the plates remain poorly understood. The current work aims to derive some analytical results for the growth-induced axisymmetric deformations of circular hyperelastic plates. The problem of shape-control of circular plate...
Preprint
Full-text available
The last decade has witnessed the emergence of magneto-active polymers (MAPs) as one of the most advanced multi-functional soft composites. Depending on the magnetisation mechanisms and responsive behaviour, MAPs are mainly classified into two groups: i) hard magnetic MAPs in which a large residual magnetic flux density sustains even after the remo...
Article
Smart photoluminescent nanocomposite surface coating was prepared for simple industrial production of long‐persistent phosphorescence and superhydrophobic wood. The photoluminescent nanocomposite coatings were capable to continue emitting light in the dark for prolonged time periods that may reach 1.5 hrs. Difference ratios of lanthanide‐doped alum...
Article
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Residual stresses may exist in different finitely deformed soft multifunctional materials such as in electro-active and magneto-active polymers. In order to develop accurate constitutive frameworks of these smart materials experiencing electro-magneto-mechanically coupled loads, the presence of residual stresses needs to be considered on the onset...
Article
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Dielectric elastomers are a class of solid polymeric materials that are sufficiently soft to deform under the application of an electric field due to the interaction of quasi-static electric charges. Their potential to undergo large deformations renders them promising candidates for the design of energy harvesters, sensors and soft actuators. For t...
Article
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A comprehensive experimental study performed under a combination of thermo-electro-mechanical loads applied to a widely used electro-active polymer, is presented in the Part I of this work (Mehnert et al., submitted, 2021). Soft polymeric materials, used as base materials in electro-active polymers, are highly susceptible to temperature changes. He...
Preprint
Full-text available
Technological advancements in the field of robotics have led to endoscopic biopsy devices able to extract diseased tissue from between the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite this, the layer-dependent properties of these tissues have yet to be mechanically characterised using human tissue. In this study, the ex vivo mechanical properties...
Article
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In the last decade, there has been a growing trend towards flexible body wave energy converters (WECs) enabled by rubber-like elastomeric composite membrane structures that can simplify all aspects of WEC design. Currently, there are few literature studies detailing the implementations of membranes into WEC design. This paper aims to overcome this...
Article
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Transparent wood with multifunctional properties have recently attracted more attention as efficient building products. Herein, we develop transparent wood with long‐persistent phosphorescence, tough surface, high durability, photostability and reversibility without fatigue, ultraviolet shielding, superhydrophobicity and flame‐retardant activity. T...
Article
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Silicone rubbers are promising materials that have extensively been used in many areas, including wear-able electronic devices, actuator materials in soft robotics, and energy harvesters. Ecoflex, a commercially available polymer, is a group of silicone rubbers appearing with various Shore hardnesses that has become popular in recent years. While s...
Article
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Hard-magnetic soft materials are a class of magneto-active polymers (MAPs) where the fillers are composed of hard-magnetic (magnetised) particles. These materials present complex magneto-mechanical couplings, which require the development of modelling frameworks in understanding their responses at the very beginning of conceptualisation and design....
Article
Full-text available
Dielectric elastomer-based transducers are rapidly gaining importance with the syntheses of new polymers that can potentially be utilized as dielectric materials. However, these materials are always prone to fracture in the presence of cracks and flaws. Failures originate from flaws (or notches) and a complete fracture may take place due to the pro...
Article
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Natural rubber is one of the most potential electro-active polymers (EAPs) for sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting applications. Enhancing the characteristic properties of polymers by reinforcing with fillers that possess multifunctional attributes have attracted considerable attention. In the present study, barium titanate (BT) reinforced na...
Article
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The effects of addition of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in core-shell hybrid magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) are reported in this study. The main idea of a core-shell hybrid MREs was recently demonstrated in our previous paper (Bastola et al., Colloids Surf A, 583:123975, 2019). It is observed in the current study that the MNPs enhanced the r...
Article
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Biological tissues have been shown to behave isotropically at lower strain values, while at higher strains the fibres embedded in the tissue straighten and tend to take up the load. Thus, the anisotropy induced at higher loads can be mathematically modelled by incorporating the strains experienced by the fibres. From histological studies on soft ti...
Article
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Semi-crystalline polymers offer great opportunities for design and tuning of multi-shape memory effect (multi-SME) through their programmable melting transitions. However, coexistence of amorphous and crystalline components as well as their multiple interfaces results in complex cooperative dynamics. In this study, we propose a one-dimensional (1D)...
Article
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This study evaluates a fluid-filled, closed-cell lattice as a novel route to reducing peak acceleration Cellular lattice structures provide effective energy absorption in repeat impact environments. This study evaluates a fluid-filled, closed-cell lattice as a novel route to further enhance energy absorption. A conical structure was designed and bu...
Presentation
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We present our recent work on a novel finite element framework for Computational Electromechanics.
Article
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly achieved global pandemic status. The pandemic created huge demand for relevant medical and personal protective equipment (PPE) and put unprecedented pressure on the healthcare system within a very short span of time. Moreover, the supply chain system faced extreme disruption a...
Article
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Self‐healing capability offers great designability on mechanical properties of double‐network (DN) hydrogel. However, the thermodynamics understanding behind such physicochemical transitions and self‐healing behaviors are yet to be explored properly. This study describes a renormalized Flory‐Huggins lattice model for DN hydrogels, of which the phys...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, dielectric elastomers (DEs) become enviable materials for the applications of electro-mechanical transducers. However, requirements of enhanced properties like high dielectric constants, low elastic mod-uli, high stretchability, and minimum viscous and dielectric losses are major challenges. The development of elastomeric composites to im...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to present a nonlocal gradient plasticity damage model to demonstrate the crack pattern of a body, in an elastic and plastic state, in terms of damage law. The main objective of this paper is to reconsider the nonlocal theory by including the material in-homogeneity caused by damage and plasticity. The nonlocal nature of the...
Article
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Miscible polymer blends offer great designability on shape memory effect (SME) with adjustable mechanical properties and stimuli-responsiveness, by simply changing the constituent compositions. However, the thermodynamics understanding behind those SMEs on miscible polymer blends are yet to be explored. This paper describes an approach to achieve h...
Preprint
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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 in short) rapidly achieved global pandemic status. Starting at the end of the year 2019, the pandemic, widely known as the COVID-19, has swiftly spread across the globe and has posed a major health threat and burden on human society. The pandemic created huge demand of relevant medical...
Article
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Digital Light Synthesis (DLS) technology creates ample opportunities for making 3D printed soft polymers for a wide range of grades and properties. In DLS, a 3D printer uses a continuous building technique in which the curing process is activated by an ultraviolet (UV) light. In this contribution, EUP40, a recently invented commercially available e...
Article
Full-text available
The additive manufacturing (AM) is a new paradigm across various disciplines of engineering sciences. Despite significant advances in the areas of hard material printings, the options for 3D printed soft materials are still limited. Most of the existing 3D printed polymers are in the areas of acrylics and polyurethanes or their composites. Recently...
Article
Full-text available
A hydrodynamic model was proposed to describe conformational relaxation of molecules, viscoelasticity of arms and hierarchical multiple-shape memory effect (multi-SME) of hyper-branched polymer. Fox-Flory and Boltzmann's principles were employed to characterize and predict the hierarchical relaxations and their multi-SMEs in hyper-branched polymers...
Article
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We propose a novel mixed displacement-pressure formulation based on an energy functional that takes into account the relation between the pressure and the volumetric energy function. We demonstrate that the proposed two-field mixed displacement-pressure formulation is not only applicable for nearly and truly incompressible cases but also is consist...
Preprint
We propose a novel mixed displacement-pressure formulation based on an energy functional that takes into account the relation between the pressure and the volumetric energy function. We demonstrate that the proposed two-field mixed displacement-pressure formulation is not only applicable for nearly and truly incompressible cases but also is consist...
Article
Full-text available
Silicone polymers have enormous applications, especially in the areas of biomedical engineering. Ecoflex, a commercially available room temperature cured silicone polymer, has attracted considerable attention due to its wide range of applications as medical-grade silicones and as matrix materials in producing nano-filled stretchable sensors and die...
Article
Full-text available
Even for a moderate actuation, a large electric voltage requirement hinders the application of electro-active polymers (EAPs) in many areas. Hence, among other mechanisms, the actuation enhancement in EAPs is performed via inclusions of high-dielectric-permittivity fillers in the matrix material in the uncured stage. Moreover, to obtain an optimum...
Article
Full-text available
The extreme stretching of dielectric elastomers in sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting devices is a common phenomenon where the materials are prone to fracture under the influence of flaws and notches. In this work, we have investigated the length of flaw sensitivities of two widely used dielectric materials, acrylic (VHB) and silicone (Ecofl...