Mohini Sain

Mohini Sain
University of Toronto | U of T · Centre for Biocomposites and Biomaterials Processing, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

PhD, Drhc, FRSC (UK), FCAE (Canada), P.Eng,

About

638
Publications
203,719
Reads
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22,101
Citations
Introduction
Research area of Prof. Sain includes advanced bionanomaterials, new energy materials from carbon, Digital 3D printing with nano and renewable contents, advanced manufacturing in automotive and aerospace; melt electrospinning and bio-inspired molecules
Additional affiliations
May 2010 - June 2010
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
Position
  • Visting Honorary Professor
January 2005 - present
University of Toronto
Position
  • Managing Director
July 1999 - June 2001
University of New Brunswick
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (638)
Article
Multiple novel chemo sensor devices were created using hydrothermally synthesized fluorescent carbon produced from xylem sap. Most notably, UV light shone on the carbon can be used to selectively detect Fe3+ ions and pH by the “naked eye” instantly, a first for xylem-syrup-derived hydrocarbons. A large stroke shift is present with outstanding photo...
Article
Nanocellulose backbones highly regioselectively substituted with thiophene and long fatty acid side chains were synthesized via a protecting group strategy. The presence of long-chain pendants balanced the torsional conformations of the nanocellulose backbone caused by large thiophene molecules on the nanostructured substrate, imparting enhanced el...
Article
A new design approach of “Flipping Melt-Pancakes” structure was proposed to improve the ductile behavior and heat transfer capacity for polymer melt extrusion. Three-dimensional numerical analysis of novel proposed structures was implemented compared with Maddock element and conventional screw that are commonly used in industry. Results indicated t...
Article
This research paper reports light-weighting future mobility system by modification of recycled carbon fiber composites (RCF). Virgin carbon fiber (VCF) from defense and aerospace sectors needs significant innovation for their high value reutilizations. RCF for composites is at its infancy and fundamental research gap remains to enhance fiber adhesi...
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Correction for ‘Continuous reactor for renewable methanol’ by Athanasios A. Tountas et al., Green Chem., 2021, 23, 340–353, DOI: 10.1039/D0GC03115A.
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The structural changes of the glucopyranose chain and the chemical compositional response of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) under thermal exposure (at 190 °C for 5 h) have remained a significant gap in the understanding of the long-term performance of nanocellulose. Herein, CNF films with different chemical compositions were investigated to confirm th...
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Here we report the enhanced light penetration and mass transfer efficiency of photocatalytic foams to convert CO2 to CO. The viability of utilizing a metallic foam as a model photocatalyst support is used to evaluate the photochemical and thermochemical reverse water gas shift reaction catalyzed by photoactive indium oxide hydroxide nanorods unifor...
Article
A lightweight acoustic composite foams with unique sound absorption feature is reported, that is, the foam acoustic composite demonstrates surprisingly stable sound absorption performance in a wide bandwidth of frequency. The unique acoustic properties are attributed to the highly exfoliated nano-layered biocarbon nucleation, derived from the pyrol...
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In the present work, the ductile formation mechanism of a newly proposed torsion configuration has been investigated. One of the unique attributes of this paper is the first-time disclosure of the design and fabrication of a novel prototype screw with torsional flow character validating the orthogonal test model experimentally. The torsional spiral...
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Recently, functional applications of thermoplastic foams have received extensive attention from the research and materials communities, focusing on their various applications, key challenges, material systems designs, processing methods, and cellular structure characteristics needed for specific functional applications. This review paper starts wit...
Article
A novel design concept of torsion screw configuration has been proposed to improve polymer melting ability. The heat transfer and melt flow behavior of a two-phase viscous polymer, induced by torsion elements in a screw compression section, were analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics simulation. It has been found that screws with added tors...
Article
This is the first study of the catalytic graphitization of Black Spruce (Picea mariana) which has successfully discovered the formation of single crystal graphitic carbon structures with a very high conductivity over 850 S/m implemented in the cathode of a coin cell battery. Renewable carbon with this conductivity is suitable for use in bio-electro...
Article
Under cyclic loading, while graphene can suffer from catastrophic brittle fatigue failure, graphene oxide (GO) can be engineered to improve fatigue response and possibly ductile failure. Herein, we study the fatigue response of atomically thin GO using atomistic simulations complemented by atomic force microscopy-based experiments. Analysis of the...
Article
Electroresponsive devices have attended significant interest for actuators and artificial muscles in recent days but are susceptible to low deformation at applied voltages. To address this problem, herein, we have prepared novel flexible composite gel based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC), dibutyl adipate (DBA), and functionalized reduced graphene oxid...
Article
Controlled carbonization of biomass leads to nano-layered graphitic structures with characteristic crystalline sp² hybridization, conductive properties up to 600 S/m, and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of 47.7 dB at 12 GHz. We investigate functional properties of nano-layered renewable carbon, including conductive and photolum...
Article
Photoresponsive functionalized nanofilms were prepared via radical polymerization of carbazole units on a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) backbone via one-pot procedure. Herein, NFC was functionalized with active carbazole units as pendant organic moieties. The nanofilms were characterized by UV–visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transf...
Article
A highly conductive flexible cellufoil composite was fabricated from cellulose nanofiber (CNF) and graphene nanoplatelets (GPs) through facile and low-cost papermaking process. The electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of cellufoil were highly dependent on cellulose to graphite ratio. The electrical conductivity of 219 S/m was found at...
Article
For the first time the electrical conductivity of bamboo biographite-based material reported a ground-breaking milestone of 4.4 × 10⁴ (S/m). This reported conductivity by far exceeded all previous reported conductivity measurements obtained from renewable carbon. Controlled high-temperature thermal carbonization of biomass, notably Asian bamboo, at...
Article
We disclose novel high pressure design, non-destructive structural analysis and fabrication of bipolar plate composites (BPC) that are highly conductive yet mechanically flexible. Here we report the highest electrical conductivity of 221 S.cm⁻¹ of a BPC by tailoring graphitic structure of carbon nanomaterials and their functional attributes through...
Article
In this study, for the first time, a flexible substrate made from nanofibrillated cellulose in slurry form was fabricated using a hydrophobic polymer base. Previous studies practiced energy-intensive dry cellulose nanofiber dispersion to produce olefin-based composites: ecological and economic viability and industrial practicability are often negle...
Article
Life cycle assessments (LCAs) are time consuming and can be expensive. Sometimes a company simply needs to have a basic estimate of the environmental impacts of the country which they are conducting the operations. If a company plans to move a current established production line or set up a new production line, which countries should be considered...
Article
Fuel cells in the near future are going to challenge the recent strong progress of the battery-based energy system. Despite many challenges, including material composition, storage and distribution, hydrogen fuel cell has demonstrated its potential in the trucking and fleet transportation systems due to its ability to be safely transported and used...
Article
System integration and multifunctionality requirements of high-performance materials in the transportation sector are pushing manufacturers to search for advanced functional polymers that are easy to recycle, cost-effective and not energy intensive. This study reports, for the first time, an advanced and lightweight functional nanocomposite materia...
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This research work is the first to report thermal stability, heat deformation resistance, and crystallization behavior of a Polyethylene (PE)-based biphasic polyolefin system reinforced with Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), which was obtained through Graphene Oxide (GO) chemical reduction. Polypropylene (PP) represented the polymeric dispersed phase....
Article
Heterogeneous thermal catalytic processes are vital for industrial production of fuels, fertilizers, and other chemicals necessary for sustaining human life. However, these processes are highly energy-intensive, requiring a vast consumption of fossil fuels. An emerging class of heterogeneous catalysts that are thermally driven but also exhibit a ph...
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Purpose of Review This review paper summarizes recent research studies on the pathways to convert lignin into a micro and nanosize materials and their use in advanced applications as these materials are being utilized in greater amounts in recent years. Recent Findings Research, development, and applications carried out demonstrate the potential o...
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Novel and unique applications of nanocellulose are largely driven by the functional attributes governed by its structural and physicochemical features including excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In recent years, thousands of groundbreaking works have helped in the development of targeted functional nanocellulose for conductive,...
Article
This study discloses, for the first time, the impact of Graphene Oxide (GO) chemical reduction on structure and performance of a Polyethylene (PE) rich biphasic system, with Polypropylene (PP) representing the morphology tunable micro phase. A 2% weight fraction of the interface modifier Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO), together with a strategic mixin...
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A novel torsion screw has been proposed to resolve the inadequate control of mass transfer and the thermal management of two component polymer blends and their carbon fiber composites. The novel torsional screw distinctly introduced radial flow in the torsion screw channel, which is a significant improvement over the flow pattern developed by the c...
Article
A novel design concept of torsion screw configuration has been proposed, which allows an innovative and effective way to resolve a growing challenge in thermoplastic polymers’ ductile processibility affected by an inadequate control of mass transfer and thermal management for melts during extrusion or injection processes. More specifically, this wo...
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This review summarizes the application of percolation theory for the behavior simulation of renewable-carbon in its doped packaging composites. Such dopant-reinforced materials have sparked considerable interest due to the significant improvement on the aesthetic and mechanical properties at considerable low filler content (<1% in some cases), whic...
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Close contact and poor hygiene are major factors for passing around the communicable virus and infectious bacterial. Hand sanitizer is a popular product which can be used for fighting against the hazardous bacterial, thus providing the necessary health protection. It is especially beneficial for the cases when sinks are unavailable, or when sensiti...
Article
Electro-responsive devices are used in actuators and artificial muscles but susceptible low deformation limits its applications. Herein, we prepared soft composites from functional multi-wall carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) and plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The PVC/FMWCNTs soft composite assembled with double layer electrodes functioned as a hig...
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This paper focuses on the development of polyvinylidene fluoride microfoam by implementing a chemical blowing agent through a continuous process. The objective was to investigate the effects caused by varying concentrations of chemical blowing agent, the use of a master batch as formulation variables, and variation of die temperature on the propert...
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The effect of unidirectional (UD) carbon fibre hybridisation on the tensile properties of flax fibre epoxy composite was investigated. Composites containing different fibre ply orientations were fabricated using vacuum infusion with a symmetrical ply structure of 0/+45/−45/90/90/−45/+45/0. Tensile tests were performed to characterise the tensile pe...
Article
A contemporary concept for screw designs has been proposed in relationship with multi-field-synergy in polymer plasticization with composites to facilitate phase-to-phase thermal and molecular mobility; subsequently a torsion configuration has been designed, manufactured and validated by both numerical modelling and experimental data. This new scre...
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This review article discusses advancement in electro-stimulated gel, recent perspectives in materials selectivity in electro-simulated gels, the gel deformation mechanism, and their applications in various advanced fields. This paper also considered the challenges associated with chemistry, drying process and mechanics of electro-responsive gels an...
Article
Lignin is the most abundant aromatic polymer in nature. Due to its high amount of phenolic compounds storage, lignin is considered as an alternative source for various polymers and biomaterials production. Except for the native lignin in lignocellulose, a massive amount of technical lignin is being produced daily all over the world. However, the co...
Article
Over the span of the last decade, carbon dots (CDs) synthesized from renewable organic resources (organic CDs) have gathered a considerable amount of attention for their photoluminescent properties. This review will focus on organic CDs synthesized using clean chemistry and conventional synthetic chemistry from organic sources and their fluorescenc...
Article
Industrial ecology, sustainable manufacturing, and green chemistry have been considered platform‐based approaches to the reduction of the environmental footprint. Recently, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has gained significant interest due to its mechanical properties, biodegradability, and availability. These outstanding properties of NFC have en...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of cellulose sheets made from fibrillated micro/nanofibrils of bamboo, jute and eucalyptus. Micro/nanofibrils obtained from alkaline-treated jute had higher crystalline fraction (CF) and crystallinity index (CI). The onset degradation temperature (Tonset) was very similar for all the micro/nan...
Article
Bamboo-derived biocarbon (BA900) and wood-derived biocarbon (THOC700) have exhibited graphite-like characteristics through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy analysis. Lightweight composites of biocarbons were manufactured by a mechanism of shear controlled melt-phase mixin...
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of alkaline and bleaching pre-treatments on nanofibrillation of jute fibers and on mechanical performance of the ensuing cellulose films. Fibers were submitted to mild or strong alkaline pre-treatments. Then, only after mild alkaline pre-treatment, the fibers were pre-treated with two different bleaching p...
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This work aims to provide an overview of producing value‐added products affordably and sustainably from greenhouse gases (GHGs). Methanol (MeOH) is one such product, and is one of the most widely used chemicals, employed as a feedstock for ≈30% of industrial chemicals. The starting materials are analogous to those feeding natural processes: water,...
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Conventional industrial‐scale fossil‐enabled heterogeneous catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to methanol is being challenged by more sustainable electrocatalytic, photocatalytic, biocatalytic and solar thermal methods using carbon dioxide and water as feed‐stocks. In article number 1801903, Geoffrey A. Ozin and co‐workers provide...
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Chars intended for use as soil amendment (“biochars”) vary greatly in their chemical and physical properties. In the present study, 19 Canadian temperate wood feedstocks were charred across a range of pyrolysis temperatures from 300–700 °C. The resulting 95 biochars were tested for their physio-chemical properties and liming capacity. Data indicate...
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Lightweighting is considered as one of the solutions for reducing transportation emissions. Automobile manufacturers and original equipment manufacturers are seeking novel ways to meet this objective. One of the options for emission reduction would be the use of natural and/or recycled fiber-reinforced composites as these materials are lighter and...
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Research results revealed that controlled thermal re-exposure of preconsumed recycled carbon fiber (RCF) increases the formation of a graphitic core and consequently a higher modulus recycled carbon fiber. Furthermore, formation of acidic functionality on carbon during thermal treatment led to improved adhesion with plastic. Transportation lightwei...
Article
In this study, the optimal experimental conditions for extraction of organosolv lignin from wheat straw were determined. Initially, the wheat straw chemical compositions were investigated. The wheat straw held 24.6 lignin and 60% cellulose and hemicellulose on a dry weight base. The lignin extractions from wheat straw were carried out by applying 6...
Article
Zwitterions, a class of materials that contain covalently bonded cations and anions, have been extensively studied in the past decades owing to their special features, such as excellent solubility in polar solvents, for solution processing and dipole formation for the transfer of carriers and ions. Recently, zwitterions have been developed as elect...
Chapter
Environmental consciousness, technology improvement, and stringent regulations have significantly increased the interest of biodegradable polymers in the industry in the past decade and polylactic acid (PLA) represents one of the most promising biopolymers. However, compared to the conventional petroleum-based polymers, owing to its inherent chemis...
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Background: This paper provides a critical review of biopolymer-based substrates, especially the cellulose derivatives, for their application in buccal drug delivery. Drug delivery to the buccal mucous has the benefits of immobile muscle, abundant vascularization and rapid recovery, but not all the drugs can be administered through the buccal muco...
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Sustainability, eco‐efficiency, pollution prevention, industrial ecology, and green chemistry are considering platform‐based approaches to the development of the next generation of products and processes. Recently, renewable alternatives to traditional petroleum‐derived plastics have motivated recent interest in bio‐based composite materials which...
Article
Environmental friendlier polymer blends are targeted by the packaging and automotive industry at comparable or lower cost through the use of renewable resources. Non-wood soda (sulfur-free) lignin was blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) at 10, 20 and 30% w/w at the mixing temperature of 150 °C which is approximately: 20 °C above the melti...
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Graphene oxide (GO) was chemically modified in xylene with dodecyl amine and hydrazine monohydrate to obtain reduced functionalized graphene oxide (RFGO). Composites of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and GO were made via solvent reaction, whereas both melt mixing and solvent reaction were used for HDPE-RFGO composites for comparison purposes. Ele...
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Tea polyphenols have received much attention from the pharmaceutical and food industries owing to their extraordinary antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics. However, tea polyphenols are very unstable to processing and storage, since they are sensitive to the environmental factors like temperature, light and pH. Therefore, the effective appl...
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Edible films with desired mass transport properties have been receiving much attention for commercial packaging. In this paper, a modified nanofiltration setup using dialysis membrane was developed for the preparation of biomass-based edible (BE) film. The prepared films are effective barriers to oxygen by discriminating the molecular size and rela...
Article
Cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were isolated from Curauá fibers (Ananas erectifolius L. B. Smith) through a mechanical grinder preceded by mild chemical treatment. Morphology and surface characteristics of the fibers were followed until it reaches the nanoscale as long and flexible nanofibers. In aqueous suspensions, SAXS techniques revealed that such...
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Lignocellulosic-based bio-refineries are essential for a secure energy in future. Lignin degradation is required for carbon recycling and production of renewable chemicals. Lignin due to the high level of color and low biodegradability, is categorized as a serious pollutant particularly in the aquatic ecosystem. In this study, biodegradation of org...
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The purified lignin extracted from wheat straw by organosolv process was characterized for the existence of lignin subunits, functional groups and physical and thermal behaviours. Presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, methoxyl groups and C–C, C–O, C=O linkages were conducted by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR). By ¹H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spe...
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Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) have always been the subject of intense reasearch for encouraging polymer waste recycling while producing new materials for specific applications in a sustainable way. However, being thermodynamically immiscible, these polyolefins form a binary system usually exhibiting lower performances compared...
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It is well established that the addition of short elastic fibers slows the relaxation process in composites, but this phenomenon is not well-understood. Our recent study explained changes in the stress relaxation constant by accounting for the time-dependent interfacial shear stress transfer at the fiber-matrix interface. An analytical model was de...