Mohammed Mardan

Mohammed Mardan
NHH Norwegian School of Economics | NHH · Department of Business and Management Science

Dr.

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30
Publications
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122
Citations

Publications

Publications (30)
Article
This study develops theory and discusses implications of inflexibility in tax-motivated income shifting. We show that inflexibility to adjust income-shifting strategies within a tax year in response to losses implies that income-shifting incentives are based on the expected rather than the statutory tax rate differential. This has important implica...
Article
We study commodity taxation in markets where firms, such as Internet Service Providers, energy suppliers, and payment card platforms, adopt multi‐part tariffs. We show that ad valorem taxes can correct underprovision and hence increase welfare, provided the government applies differentiated tax rates to the usage and access parts of the tariff. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper analyzes the optimal tax system consisting of the tax rate and the capacity of the tax administration. I challenge the conventional wisdom that tax rates and tax administrations' capacity are complements showing that their relationship depends on a country's level of development. Accordingly, developed and developing countries should set...
Article
This paper analyzes tax competition between countries, which differ in their country-specific risks. We show that the outcome of asymmetric tax competition crucially depends on the ability of multinational firms to shift profits. With high costs of profit shifting, higher-risk countries set lower tax rates than lower-risk countries whereas the oppo...
Article
Recent empirical research documents a tendency of multinational enterprise affiliates to bunch around zero reported profit. We set up a theoretical model of multinational firm behavior in which we allow for corner solutions in the choice of the optimal transfer price due to insufficient profits or losses of affiliates. Such constraints in the choic...
Article
We develop a tax competition model that allows for the setting of both an origin-based and a destination-based commodity tax rate in the presence of avoidance and evasion. In the presence of evasion, jurisdictions will give cross-border shoppers tax preferential treatment, thus not fully exploiting the potential of destination-based taxation. Moreo...
Article
Governments worldwide use targeted tax policies to trade off the gains from increased FDI against the cost of excessive profit shifting by multinational firms. We show that nationally optimal tax systems generally incorporate both thin-capitalization rules, which tax discriminate between purely national and multinational firms, and controlled-forei...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent empirical research documents a tendency of affiliates of multinational enterprises to bunch around zero reported profit. Setting up a model that allows for profitable and loss-making affiliates of multinationals, we show that profit shifting to a low-tax country as well as a loss-related, inverted-type of transfer pricing from the low-tax to...
Article
This paper analyzes the relevance of firm losses for tax revenues and welfare when switching from separate accounting to a system of tax base consolidation with formula apportionment. We find that a system change unambiguously decreases tax revenues in the short run, in which neither firms nor governments can adjust their behavior, due to the cross...
Article
This study examines the flexibility of multinational firms to adjust their income-shifting strategies—whether using transfer pricing or internal debt—during the tax year to react to affiliates' operating losses. We develop the concept that under flexibility, multinationals can adjust their inter-affiliate payments ex post (i.e., after financial out...
Working Paper
The purpose of thin capitalization rules is to limit multinational firms' possibilities of engaging in tax planning via debt shifting. This paper analyzes the optimal design of thin capitalization rules in the presence of financial frictions when a host country, in the first stage, chooses the type of thin capitalization rule and then, in the secon...
Working Paper
Following recent court rulings, cross-border loss compensation for multinational firms has become a major policy issue in Europe. This paper analyzes the effects of introducing a coordinated cross-border tax relief in a setting where multinational firms choose the size of a risky investment and host countries non-cooperatively choose tax rates. We...

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