Mohammad Shafiul Alam

Mohammad Shafiul Alam
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh | ICDDR,B · Laboratory for Parasitology

PhD(Parasitology)
Malaria drug resistance, point of care tests for infectious diseases, G6PD deficiency, and vector control.

About

157
Publications
32,528
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1,958
Citations
Citations since 2016
104 Research Items
1586 Citations
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Introduction
Working as a Scientist at the Emerging Infections & Parasitology Laboratory of icddr,b. He has received Ph D and a Masters Degree in Parasitology from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Research interest includes malaria drug resistance, point of care diagnostics for infectious diseases, host-parasite interaction and vector control. Has received several fellowships in the field of infectious diseases diagnosis from the University of Tokyo, Fondaton Mérieux, Univ. of Washington etc.
Additional affiliations
January 2021 - present
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Position
  • Researcher
November 2017 - August 2021
Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery
Position
  • Fellow
January 2016 - December 2020
International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
Full-text available
Background Recent gains in reducing the global burden of malaria are threatened by the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins. The discovery that mutations in portions of a P. falciparum gene encoding kelch (K13)–propeller domains are the major determinant of resistance has provided opportunities for monitoring such resistanc...
Article
Full-text available
Serostudies are needed to answer generalizable questions on disease risk. However, recruitment is usually biased by age or location. We present a nationally-representative study for dengue from 70 communities in Bangladesh. We collected data on risk factors, trapped mosquitoes and tested serum for IgG. Out of 5,866 individuals, 24% had evidence of...
Article
Full-text available
Background Arboviral diseases, including dengue and chikungunya, are major public health concerns in Bangladesh where there have been unprecedented levels of transmission reported in recent years. The primary approach to control these diseases is to control the vector Aedes aegypti using pyrethroid insecticides. Although chemical control has long b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is dependent upon G6PD genotype and age of the red blood cell (RBC) population, with younger RBCs having higher activity. Peripheral parasitemia with Plasmodium spp. induces hemolysis, replacing older RBCs with younger cells with higher G6PD activity. This study aimed to assess whether...
Article
Full-text available
The control of malaria, in terms of drug resistance, remains a significant global challenge, with Bangladesh, a malaria-endemic country, being no exception. The aim of this study was to explore antimalarial resistance in Bangladesh by molecular analysis of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug...
Article
Full-text available
Background Bangladesh has reduced malaria incidence and mortality by over 75% between 2010 and 2020. Widespread long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) distribution and use is one of the measures responsible for this success. Recalcitrant malaria hotspots within the Chittagong Hill Tracts districts suggest important drivers of malaria risk may remain...
Article
Full-text available
Amongst the multiple ways to diagnose coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains the reference gold standard, providing fast and accurate results. This study evaluated and compared the performance of three commercially available COVID-19 RT-PCR kits-Aridia® COVID-19 Real-Time PCR Test (CTK...
Article
Full-text available
Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has recently posed a threat to global health by spreading at a high rate and taking millions of lives worldwide. Along with the respiratory symptoms, there are gastrointestinal manifestations and one of the most c...
Article
Full-text available
Plasmodium malariae is a neglected human malaria parasite with low parasitemia that often results in the misdiagnosis and underestimation of the actual disease burden of this pathogen. Microscopy is the best diagnostic tool, despite the fact that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are the best surveillance tool for malaria diagnosis in many rural areas...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme (G6PD) activity is a key determinant of drug-induced haemolysis. More than 230 clinically relevant genetic variants have been described. We investigated the variation in G6PD activity within and between different genetic variants. In this systematic review, individual patient data from studies r...
Article
Full-text available
Mapping asymptomatic malaria infections, which contribute to the transmission reservoir, is important for elimination programs. This analysis compared the spatiotemporal patterns of symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in a cohort study of ∼25,000 people living in a rural hypoendemic area of about 179 km ² in a smal...
Article
Full-text available
Background Malaria remains endemic in Bangladesh, with the majority of cases occurring in forested, mountainous region in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). This area is home to Bengali and diverse groups of indigenous people (Pahari) residing largely in mono-ethnic villages. Methods 1002 individuals of the 9 most prominent Pahari and the Bengali p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Plasmodium vivax forms dormant liver stages that can reactivate weeks or months following an acute infection. Recurrent infections are often associated with a febrile illness and can cause a cumulative risk of severe anaemia, direct and indirect mortality, and onward transmission of the parasite. There is an increased risk of P. vivax...
Article
Full-text available
Primaquine and tafenoquine are the only licensed drugs with activity against Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites but cause haemolysis in patients with glucose–6–phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Malaria also causes haemolysis, leading to the replacement of older erythrocytes with low G6PD activity by reticulocytes and young erythrocytes with high...
Article
Primaquine and tafenoquine are the only licensed drugs with activity against Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites but cause haemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydroge-nase (G6PD) deficiency. Malaria also causes haemolysis, leading to the replacement of older erythrocytes with low G6PD activity by reticulocytes and young erythrocytes with hig...
Article
Full-text available
Tick and tick-borne diseases cause significant impediments to livestock health and production; however, information on the tick fauna is significantly limited in Bangladesh. This study was aimed to investigate tick fauna in Sylhet sub-district of Bangladesh targeting animal hosts and environment. A total 1427 ticks were collected by using blunt for...
Article
Full-text available
Solar geoengineering is often framed as a stopgap measure to decrease the magnitude, impacts, and injustice of climate change. However, the benefits or costs of geoengineering for human health are largely unknown. We project how geoengineering could impact malaria risk by comparing current transmission suitability and populations-at-risk under mode...
Article
Full-text available
This report describes the MalariaGEN Pv4 dataset, a new release of curated genome variation data on 1,895 samples of Plasmodium vivax collected at 88 worldwide locations between 2001 and 2017. It includes 1,370 new samples contributed by MalariaGEN and VivaxGEN partner studies in addition to previously published samples from these and other sources...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The introduction of novel short course treatment regimens for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires reliable point-of-care diagnosis that can identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient individuals. While deficient males can be identified using a qualitative diagnostic test, the genetic make-up of females requir...
Preprint
Full-text available
Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus is a mosquito species with an extensive and expanding inter-continental geographic distribution, currently reported in over 50 countries, across Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and now Australia. It is an important vector of medical and veterinary concern, capable of transmitting multiple arboviruses which cause...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Emerging resistance to artemisinin drugs threatens the elimination of malaria. Resistance is widespread in South East Asia (SEA) and Myanmar. Neighboring Bangladesh, where 90% of infections occur in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHTs), lacks recent assessment. We undertook a prospective study in the sole district-level hospital in Bandarban,...
Article
Full-text available
ccurate diagnosis at the right moment is the prerequisite for treatment of any disease. Failure to correctly diagnose a disease can result in highly detrimental effects, unmistakably a crucial factor during the COVID-19 pandemic. RT-PCR is the gold standard for COVID-19 detection while there are other test procedures available, such as LAMP, X-Ray,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The exploration of alternative antimalarial therapeutics is a requisite for the emergence of resistance against Artemisinin. Considering the required cost and time length of classical small molecule drug discovery process, phytochemical screening of traditionally used medicinal plant which are repertoire of active compounds with antimalarial activi...
Article
Full-text available
Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive mosquito species and a vector of human arboviral diseases including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. There are no effective drugs or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of most of these diseases, so the primary option for disease prevention and control is to target mosquitoes, often using insecticides. Despi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of resistance to artemisinin drugs threatens global malaria control. Resistance is widely seen in South East Asia (SEA) and Myanmar, but not comprehensively assessed in Bangladesh. This is due to lack of measuring parasite clearance times in response to drug treatment, a gold standard used to track artemisinin resistance (AR), in the...
Article
Full-text available
Background The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires treatment with an 8-aminoquinoline drug, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, to eradicate liver hypnozoite stages, which can reactivate to cause relapsing infections. Safe treatment regimens require prior screening of patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to avoid p...
Article
Full-text available
Polymerase chain reaction, although an expensive method for the detection of human Plasmodium spp., is still considered the finest for the diagnosis of malaria. The conventional diagnostic PCR is an inexpensive process but consumes a lot of time, reagents and lacks sensitivity. On the other hand, real-time PCR assays currently being used are mostly...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The persistent increase of resistance to existing antimalarials underscores the needs for new drugs. Historically, most of the successful antimalarial are derived from plants. The leaves of the S. cymosum is one of the plant materials used by traditional healers in malaria-endemic areas in Bangladesh for treatment of malaria. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax requires treatment with an 8-aminoquinoline drug, such as primaquine and tafenoquine, to clear the liver of parasites which can reactivate to cause relapsing infections. Safe treatment regimens require prior screening of patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency to avoid potent...
Preprint
Full-text available
For centuries medicinal plants have been traditionally used for prophylaxis and ailment of diseases. Nowadays it’s easy to isolate, purify, and characterize bioactive compounds with high efficacy. To investigate the medicinal especially antimalarial property of traditionally used plants, a number of Erythrina spp have been reviewed systematically w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Solar geoengineering is often framed as a stopgap measure to decrease the magnitude, impacts, and injustice of climate change. However, the costs or benefits of geoengineering for human health are largely unknown. We project how geoengineering could impact malaria risk by comparing transmission suitability and populations-at-risk today against mode...
Article
Full-text available
Bangladesh has achieved significant progress towards malaria elimination, although health service delivery for malaria remains challenging in remote forested areas such as the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions of malaria and its treatment among the local population to inform contextualized strategies...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Surveillance of low-density infections and of exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used re...
Article
Full-text available
The proportion of Plasmodium vivax malaria among all malarias is increasing worldwide. Treatment with 8-aminoquinolines remain the only radical cure. However, 8-aminoquinolines can cause severe hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients. The population of the multi-ethnic Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) carry the highest...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The persistent increase of resistance to existing antimalarials underscores the needs for new drugs. Historically, most of the successful antimalarial are derived from plants. The leaves of the S. cymosum is one of the plant materials used by traditional healers in malaria-endemic areas in Bangladesh for treatment of malaria. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arboviral diseases including dengue and chikungunya are a major public health concern in Bangladesh, with unprecedented levels of transmission reported in recent years. The primary approach to control these diseases is control of Aedes aegypti using pyrethroid insecticides. Although chemical control is long-practiced, no comprehensive analysis of A...
Article
COVID-19 is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 which shares genetic similarity to the agent for the SARS virus (SARS-CoV). The growth of these two viruses in Vero E6 cells shows sigmoidicity and hence various primary growth models can be applied to extract useful growth parameters. The overlapping of the 95% confidence intervals for the parameter...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Surveillance on low-density infections and exposure to vectors is crucial to understand where malaria elimination might be feasible, and where the risk of outbreaks is high. Archived rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used by national malaria control and elimination programs for clinical diagnosis, present a valuable, yet rarely used resourc...
Article
Full-text available
Background The radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale requires treatment with primaquine or tafenoquine to clear dormant liver stages. Either drug can induce haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, necessitating screening. The reference diagnostic method for G6PD activity is ultraviolet (UV) spectr...
Article
Full-text available
According to the WHO, unmanaged insecticide resistance may lead to increases in malaria-related mortality and morbidity. Bangladesh, having made significant progress in malaria control efforts, has recently seen an upswing in malaria cases-58% of which occurred in Bandarban district. Toward identifying entomological drivers of increased malaria, an...
Article
Full-text available
More than 200 million malaria clinical cases are reported each year due to Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread Plasmodium species in the world. This species has been neglected and understudied for a long time, due to its lower mortality in comparison with Plasmodium falciparum. A renewed interest has emerged in the past decade with the discovery...
Article
We herein report the first case of Mediterranean glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant from Bangladesh. A boy had been admitted to hospital and was diagnosed with uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax infection and treated with 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) chloroquine for 3 days and 4.8 mg/kg BW primaquine (PQ) to be taken over 14 days. The boy wa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Malaria elimination requires diagnostic methods able to detect parasite levels well below what is currently possible with microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. This is particularly true in surveillance of malaria at the population level that includes so-called "asymptomatic" individuals. Methods: The development of the first ultrase...
Preprint
Full-text available
Imported cases present a considerable challenge to the elimination of malaria. Traditionally, patient travel history has been used to identify imported cases, but the long-latency liver stages confound this approach in Plasmodium vivax . Molecular tools to identify and map imported cases offer a more robust approach, that can be combined with drug...
Article
Full-text available
Anopheles jeyporiensis and Anopheles nivipes appear to play an important role in contemporary malaria transmission in Bangladesh. However, very little is known about the natural host selection of these vectors. Therefore, host selection of these two species was investigated in Bandarban, the most malarious region of Bangladesh. A total of 480 engor...
Article
Full-text available
The goal to eliminate malaria from the Asia-Pacific by 2030 will require the safe and widespread delivery of effective radical cure of malaria. In October 2017, the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group met to discuss the impediments to primaquine (PQ) radical cure, how these can be overcome and the methodological difficultie...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Spectrophotometry kits from Pointe Scientific (PS; USA) were compared to kits from Trinity Biotech (Trinity; Ireland) in 50 venous blood samples from purposively selected individuals in Bangladesh. Repeatability and inter-assay variability were assessed by Students t-test, Bland-Altman plot and Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The me...
Article
Full-text available
Background Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy worldwide, no reliable bedside diagnostic tests to quantify G6PD activity exist. This study evaluated two novel quantitative G6PD diagnostics. Methods Participants with known G6PD activity were enrolled in Bangladesh. G6PD activity was measured by spectro...
Data
Comparison of the STANDARD G6PD Test (SG) in the field against spectrophotometry a) Scatter plot and b) Bland-Altman plot. a) rs = 0.9122; p<0.001, n = 106 b) Mean difference: -1.18 U/gHb, 95% LoA: -4.20 to 1.84 U/gHb (grey shaded area). (PDF)
Data
Absolute fall in G6PD activity at 24 hrs and 13 days. Grey shaded area indicates 10% of measurement, equivalent to max. variation of spectrophotometry. (PDF)
Data
G6PD activity (U/gHb) and the delay from sample collection and processing. r = 0.0030; p = 0.970, n = 158. (PDF)
Data
Comparison of the SG-Hb in the lab against CBC-HB a) Scatter plot and b) Bland-Altman plot. a) rs = 0.8892; p<0.001, n = 108 b) Mean difference: 0.37 g/dL, 95% LoA: -0.80 to 1.54 g/dL (grey shaded area). (PDF)
Data
Repeatability of two measurements of the STANDARD G6PD TEST in the field- a) Scatter plot and b) Bland–Altman plot. a) rs = 0.9025; p<0.001, n = 106 b) Mean difference: - 0.66 U/gHb, 95% LoA: -2.04 to 3.36 U/gHb (grey shaded area). (PDF)
Data
Comparison of the STANDARD G6PD Test (SG) in the lab and field a) Scatter plot and b) Bland-Altman plot. a) rs = 0.8765; p<0.001, n = 106 b) Mean difference: -0.33 U/gHb, 95% LoA: -3.29 to 2.63 U/gHb (grey shaded area). (PDF)