Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi

Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | UNC

Doctor of Philosophy

About

74
Publications
140,041
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2,139
Citations

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
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Self-branding is crucial for online freelancers as they must constantly differentiate themselves from competitors on online labor platforms to ensure a viable stream of income. By analyzing 39 interviews with freelancers and clients on the online labor platform Upwork, we identify five key self-branding strategies: boosting a profile, showcasing sk...
Article
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Emerging artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities will likely pervade nearly all organizational contours and activities including knowledge management (KM). This article aims to uncover opportunities associated with the implementation of emerging systems empowered by artificial intelligence for KM. In doing so, we explicate the potential role of A...
Article
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Although artificial intelligence (AI) has become a crucial component of digital transformation efforts tied to organizational strategy, many firms struggle to articulate the strategic value of emerging AI systems. In this article we argue that the power of AI as a strategic resource lies in its self-learning capabilities. Such learning capabilities...
Chapter
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Digital diaries emerge as viable methods for capturing situated practices in research participants' natural environments. In this chapter, we review what has been learned about the affordances of diary studies from various research traditions and describe our use of the digital diary method in different research contexts. We specifically explore th...
Article
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We theorize mobile knowledge workers' uses of digital and material resources in support of their working practices. We do so to advance current conceptualizations of both 'information infrastructures' and 'digital assemblages' as elements of contemporary knowledge work. We focus on mobile knowledge workers as they are (increasingly) self-employed (...
Article
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As flexible work arrangements such as remote working or digital nomadism are normalized, the structure of work, performance expectations, and employee-employer relationships fundamentally change, presenting both benefits and risks for workers. Currently, the design and management of ICT systems for work is still geared towards 'standard' organizati...
Article
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The rapid development of machine-learning algorithms, which underpin contemporary artificial intelligence (AI) systems, has created new opportunities for the automation of work processes. While algorithmic management has been observed primarily within the platform-mediated gig economy, its transformative reach and consequences are also spreading to...
Article
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We present a model of information that integrates the two competing perspectives of information by emulating the Chinese philosophy of Yin-yang. The model embraces the two key dimensions of information that exist harmoniously: information as 1) objective and veridical representations in the world (information as object), and 2) socially constructed...
Article
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Pathology is a fundamental element of modern medicine that determines the final diagnosis and portrays the prognosis in most medical conditions. Due to continuous improvements in AI capabilities (e.g., object recognition and image processing), intelligent systems are bound to play a key role in augmenting pathology research and clinical practices....
Article
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Purpose Personal knowledge management (KM) lends new emphasis to ways through which individual knowledge workers engage with knowledge in organizational contexts. This paper aims to go beyond an organizational approach to KM to examine key personal KM and knowledge building (KB) practices among adult professionals. Design/methodology/approach This...
Article
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The enthusiasm around remote and independent working has rapidly gained momentum in the last few years. The digital nomad phenomenon has frequently been portrayed as an exemplar of this pattern and referred to by the media as a highly location-independent form of nomadic work. However, findings from this study highlight the centrality of various sp...
Conference Paper
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This research-in-progress examines the mobilities of digital work. We study digital nomadism as an exemplary case of extremely mobile forms of digital working. The recent "mobile turn" in the social sciences provides us with theoretical grounds to understand societies that are increasing defined by dynamic, global environments (e.g., freelance work...
Article
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The use of intelligent machines-digital technologies that feature data-driven forms of customization, learning, and autonomous action-is rapidly growing and will continue to impact many industries and domains. This is consequential for communities of researchers, educators, and practitioners concerned with studying, supporting, and educating inform...
Article
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We advance the concept of platformic management, and the ways in which platforms help to structure project-based or “gig” work. We do so knowing that the popular press and a substantial number of the scholarly publications characterize the “rise of the gig economy” as advancing worker autonomy and flexibility, focusing attention to online digital l...
Article
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Although reproducibility-the idea that a valid scientific experiment can be repeated with similar results-is integral to our understanding of good scientific practice, it has remained a difficult concept to define precisely. Across scientific disciplines, the increasing prevalence of large datasets, and the computational techniques necessary to man...
Article
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Background: Activity trackers are becoming increasingly popular, but patients often hesitate to share the data from such devices with their health care providers. Researchers have shown that sharing everyday health data with physicians can foster greater patient engagement. Objectives: This research is intended to investigate activity tracker us...
Article
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We analyze a set of Twitter hashtags to ascertain how contemporary parlance in social media can illuminate the rich cultural intersections between modern forms of work, use of technology, and physical mobility. We use network word co-occurrence analysis, and topic modeling, which reveal several thematic areas of discourse present in Twitter, each w...
Preprint
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Artificial Intelligence systems that will augment human performance, improve safety, output and efficiency are entering countless domains. However, automated systems fall victim to automation bias in their design, operation, and oversight, which can cause complacent human operators to allow system failures. As functioning AI systems, autonomous veh...
Article
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Many workers have been drawn to the gig economy by the promise of flexible, autonomous work, but scholars have highlighted how independent working arrangements also come with the drawbacks of precarity. Digital platforms appear to provide an alternative to certain aspects of precarity by helping workers find work consistently and securely. However,...
Article
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Recent developments in AI have generated tidal waves, which are shaking the foundation of organizations and businesses. Even though AI is considered an unprecedented disruptive force for work automation, much can be learned from current research on the computerization of work. Drawing on the seminal work of Shoshana Zuboff, this article provides a...
Article
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The algorithm-based management exercised by digital gig platforms has created information and power asymmetries, which may undermine the stability of gig work. Although the design of these platforms may foster unbalanced relationships, in this paper, we outline how freelancers and clients on the gig platform Upwork can leverage a network of allianc...
Article
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Wearable activity trackers (WAT) are electronic monitoring devices that enable users to track and monitor their health-related physical fitness metrics including steps taken, level of activity, walking distance, heart rate, and sleep patterns. Despite the proliferation of these devices in various contexts of use and rising research interests, there...
Conference Paper
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The current conversation around automation and artificial intelligence technologies creates a future vision where humans may not possibly compete against intelligent machines, and that everything that can be automated through deep learning, machine learning, and other AI technologies will be automated. In this article, we focus on general practitio...
Article
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We theorize on the heterogonous network of people, visions, concepts, technological artifacts, and organizations that come together to enable product innovation. Drawing on the conceptual framing and mechanisms of actor-network theory (ANT), we focus on the relationships among human and non-human actors and their roles to enact new products. We do...
Article
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Objectives Activity trackers hold the promise to support people in managing their health through quantified measurements about their daily physical activities. Monitoring personal health with quantified activity tracker-generated data provides patients with an opportunity to self-manage their health. Many have been conducted within short-time frame...
Conference Paper
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Data-driven algorithms now enable digital labor platforms to automatically manage transactions between thousands of gig workers and service recipients. Recent research on algorithmic management outlines information asymmetries, which make it difficult for gig workers to gain control over their work due a lack of understanding how algorithms on digi...
Article
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We examine the concept of personal knowledge management using data drawn from our studies of digital nomads. We make two contributions: an empirical and conceptual development of knowledge management as it relates to independent workers and an advancement of social informatics that builds on Gibson's ecological perspective. Digital nomads provide a...
Article
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has penetrated many organizational processes, resulting in a growing fear that smart machines will soon replace many humans in decision-making. To provide a more proactive and pragmatic perspective, this article highlights the complementarity of humans and AI, and examines how each can bring their own strength in organi...
Article
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Over the last few years the sharing economy has been changing the way that people share and conduct transactions in digital spaces. This research phenomenon has drawn scholars from a large number of disparate fields and disciplines into an emerging research area. Given the variety of perspectives represented, there is a great need to collect and co...
Article
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Social informatics research offers insights into the relationship between information technologies and social contexts. However, the material roles of information technologies, and their interplay with the agentic work of social actors, have not been addressed. Drawing on a field study of 37 mobile knowledge workers, we examine the dual material ro...
Article
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A large number of activity-tracking devices have recently dominated the fitness world. These devices typically track different forms of activities and are argued to encourage more active lifestyles. The devices encourage and incentivize change in behavior through mechanisms including personal goals, gratifying representations, and social features....
Article
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Digital nomadicity has gained popularity in recent years as a fashionable lifestyle and as a way of challenging traditional work contexts, but there has been very little incisive empirical research on the lifestyle’s characteristics, its implications for the future of work, or on the technology, which supports it. This paper describes the four key...
Research
Theorizing a division of labor between humans and machines, particularly as people are becoming more comfortable with the idea of physical integration of machines within their bodies for reasons other than life-saving biological support. Demonstrating how humans extend machine capability in ways that may or may not be similar to the extension of co...
Article
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Ongoing discussions of the gig economy have focused on the critical aspect of digital mediation, and in particular the role of applications and platforms such as Uber or TaskRabbit. We extend this discussion by considering more decentralized contexts of gig economy, in which individuals do not rely on a single dominant, central intermediary, but ra...
Conference Paper
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Building on the concept of liminality as articulated in organization studies, we theorize many mobile knowledge workers may find themselves in liminal spaces-working across multiple organizations and projects. To be productive in these liminal spaces, mobile knowledge workers must constantly contend with organizational, contextual, and social bound...
Article
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Historically, organizations owned and controlled the information technologies (IT) their employees used: telephone, inter-office memos, mainframes and timesharing systems. Today, employees often want to use their own IT: not only personal smart phones and tablets, but also Twitter and Google Docs. This new trend can diversify and extend enterprise...
Article
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This article provides insight into the transformative role social media may play in informal knowledge sharing in an enterprise by adopting a social capital perspective. This work explores the ways in which the use of social media results in digital transformation of informal ties that provide the social capital needed for knowledge sharing within...
Article
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The knowledge workforce is changing: global economic factors, increasing professional specialization, and rapid technological advancements mean that more individuals than ever can be found working in independent, modular, and mobile arrangements. Little is known about professional information practices or actions outside of traditional, centralized...
Article
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Recent work suggests that technological devices and their use cannot be understood in isolation, and must be viewed as part of an artifact ecology. With the proliferation of information and communication technologies (ICTs), studying artifact ecologies is essential in order to design new technologies with effective affordances. This paper extends t...
Article
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The focus of this work arises from two needs within information science literature: 1) to understand more, from an empirically driven perspective, about the increasingly visible yet understudied mobile work population, and 2) to address more clearly, from a theoretical standpoint, the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICTs)...
Article
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This study examines how video conferencing is living up to its potential as a substitute for face-to-face communication among remote professionals. We interviewed mobile knowledge workers to better understand how video conferencing is used in professional settings. The laws of media provided our theoretical framework. We found that video conferenci...
Conference Paper
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Some believe that today's young and tech-savvy generation will eagerly adopt the latest health tracking technologies. However, we know little about the tracking practices of young adults, and in particular how they use technologies to journal their daily fitness activities and diet. Drawing from practice theory, this study uses Savolainen's concept...
Conference Paper
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Highly mobile knowledge workers spend a large portion of their time traversing within and among different infrastructural configurations as they move through space. These dynamic configurations are experienced as either technological or contextual constraints, which range from forms of technological exclusion and infrastructural disconnection to di...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents preliminary findings from an in-depth, exploratory study aimed at gathering an understanding of mobile knowledge workers' information practices, which are presumed distinct from those of non-mobile, stationary, centrally located workers. Its focus arises from a need to understand more, from an empirical standpoint, about the inf...
Chapter
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Through this chapter we provide an overview of the sociotechnical premise: the mutual constitution of people and technologies. The sociotechnical premise and its various approaches, including the seminal work of the Tavistock scholars, the Nordic and Scandic approaches, and their evolution, are developed as the historical basis of this work. In the...
Article
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This paper explores the role of digital and physical materiality in relation to the use of Fit bit activity tracking devices. Materiality concerns properties of a technology that transcend space, time, and particularities of the contexts. Our objective, in particular, is to examine how digital and physical properties may play a role in shaping user...
Article
This paper presents preliminary findings from an in-depth, exploratory study aimed at gathering an understanding of mobile knowledge workers? information practices, which are presumed distinct from those of non-mobile, stationary, centrally located workers. Its focus arises from a need to understand more, from an empirical standpoint, about the inf...
Article
Introduction. People living in rural areas may face specific barriers to finding useful health-related information, and their use of information may differ from their urban counterparts. Method. This random-digit dial telephone survey of 253 people (75% female) living in a rural, medically under-serviced area of Ontario, Canada, follows-up a previo...
Article
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Electronic course registration systems allow students to select courses and giving student to access course offerings through these on-line systems as well as the ability to complete various administrative functions allows for better management of curriculum decisions in the context of academic objectives. The objective of these systems is to make...
Article
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We identify the effects of specific organizational norms, arrangements, and policies regarding uses of social technologies for informal knowledge sharing by consultants. For this study, the term social technologies refers to the fast-evolving suite of tools such as traditional applications like e-mail, phone, and instant messenger; emerging social...
Article
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This paper theorizes on the sociotechnical dynamics and underlying dimensions of technology assemblages that emerge from the use of social technologies in organizations. This theorization reflects more precisely the information ecology around knowledge workers, which is more technologically diversified than suggested by prior studies. To that end,...
Article
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This article focuses on the ways in which social technologies facilitate informal knowledge sharing in the workplace. Social technologies include both common technologies such as email, phone, and instant messenger and emerging social networking technologies, often known as social media or Web 2.0, such as blogs, wikis, public social networking sit...
Article
This study focuses on the ways in which social technologies as a whole facilitate informal knowledge sharing in the workplace. Social technologies include both common technologies such as email, phone and instant messenger and emerging social networking technologies, often known as social media or Web 2.0, such as blogs, wikis, public social networ...
Conference Paper
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This doctoral research empirically investigates the role of various social technologies in informal knowledge sharing practices within and across organizations. Social technologies include both (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers) and (b) emerging social networking technologies commonly known as social med...
Conference Paper
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We focus on how the uses of social networking technologies (SNT) are bound up in knowledge sharing practices. For us SNT include weblogs, wikis, corporate social networking platforms, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Our focus is to the uses of SNT relative to people's informal networks within and across organiza...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
My doctoral research is an exploratory project focused on understanding and theorizing on the ways in which various social networking technologies (SNTs) facilitate informal knowledge sharing in the workplace. Forms of SNT include (but are not limited to) corporate social networking platforms, weblogs, wikis, and social networking sites such as Fac...
Conference Paper
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Social media increasingly pervade the business context. Despite the widespread fascination with the transformative capabilities of these tools, and an increased observability of online social media practices in the corporate sector, the adoption process at the organizational level as well as its consequences on policies and strategies are currently...
Conference Paper
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This poster reports preliminary findings from our ongoing research project that empirically investigates the role of various social networking technologies (SNTs) in informal knowledge sharing practices within and across organizations. In this research the definition of SNT includes corporate social networking platforms, weblogs, wikis, and social...
Conference Paper
This research proposal sets out to investigate the organizational consequences of Corporate Social Networking Technologies (cSNT). Despite the rapid uptake of cSNT very little is known about the uses in and effects of SNT on enterprises. My main contention is that these technologies are embedded within a network of social ties. To understand the in...
Article
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An understanding of the role of e-learning needs to be accompanied by a realisation of the variety of social dimensions in the innovation process. As most studies in this domain are typically context-independent, this research, building on structuration theory, seeks to investigate different interpretations and uses of course management systems (CM...
Article
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Due to rising collaborations among organizations and permeation of various ICT, Inter-organizational information systems (IOS) continue to attract scholarly attentions. The use of IOS technologies enables organizations to engage with other organizations in ways that previously seemed impossible and to present unprecedented inter-organizational arra...
Article
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Through this paper, we theorize on the meanings and roles of context in the study of information systems. The literatures of information systems and information science both explicitly conceptualize information systems (and there are multiple overlapping definitions). These literatures also grapple with the situated and generalizable natures of an...

Projects

Projects (5)
Project
An examination of the potential roles played by emerging artificial intelligence systems in shaping work practices and transforming organizations.
Project
A study of the ways mobile knowledge workers conduct information practices, and assemble, arrange, enact and draw on various digital infrastructure across space and time to accomplish work.