Mohamed Ouessar

Mohamed Ouessar
Institut des Régions Arides | IRA · Eremology and Combating Desertification

PhD

About

125
Publications
66,068
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,750
Citations
Citations since 2017
42 Research Items
1208 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
February 1994 - present
Institut des Régions Arides
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Undertake research activities on: Water harvesting Watershed management Combating desertification Hydrological modeling Groundwater recharge
Education
September 2002 - October 2007
Ghent University
Field of study
  • LAND MANAGEMENT
September 1989 - October 1991
Ghent University
Field of study
  • EREMOLOGY (DRYLANDS SCIENCES)
September 1985 - July 1989
Institut national agronomique de Tunisie (INAT)
Field of study
  • AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
This study focused on monitoring the water status of vegetation and soil by exploiting the synergy of optical and microwave satellite data with the aim of improving the knowledge of water cycle in cultivated lands in Egyptian Delta and Tunisian areas. Environmental analysis approaches based on optical and synthetic aperture radar data were carried...
Article
Earth Observation (EO) technologies have played an increasingly important role in monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). These technologies often combined with Machine Learning (ML) models provide efficient means for achieving the SDGs.The great progress of this combination is also demonstrated by the large number of software, web tool...
Article
Full-text available
The organic amendment of degraded soil in South East of Tunisia was used to restore the chemical, and physical properties of soil quality investigated in this study. Biochar derived from pyrolyzed green waste at 360°C was used like organic amendment. Nines randomized plots with one square meter of the area of each plot in three replicates have been...
Article
The aquifers under the Jeffara Plain in southeastern Tunisia is a complex aquifer system consisting of interconnected shallow and deep aquifers within Triassic and younger sediments. The extent of the aquifers is only roughly known, so a gravity and electrical resistivity analysis was undertaken to aid for determining the aquifers extent. The gravi...
Article
Full-text available
Water harvesting techniques (WHTs) are important climate change adaptation measures to better manage rainwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, but which WHT to plan where is subject to sustainability considerations. Moreover, suitability of different WHTs varies from one location to another, depending on physical and socio-economic conditio...
Article
Full-text available
The olive tree is well known for being adapted to the arid conditions of the Mediterranean basin. However, prolonged drought periods which are expected to become more frequent because of climate change could result in severe water stress. In order to map the spatial distribution of drought stress in the olive groves in the arid regions of southeast...
Chapter
Full-text available
A two-year study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biological effects of the introduction of an SDI system on adult olive tree in a 58-year-old olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Zarrazi) orchard located at Bir-lahmar, Tataouine, Tunisia. Irrigation was applied every three days at 3 am, by an automatic subsurface drip irrigation system with...
Chapter
The storage of phosphogypsum waste has become an essential issue for the environment. The regulations require the presence of a safety barrier with an optimal seal to avoid contamination of the subsoil and the water table. Clays, having low permeability and a high capacity to retain pollutants (heavy metals), are therefore frequently used as a pass...
Chapter
An accurate representation of the spatiotemporal precipitation distribution is very important, mainly because of the erosion risk and flooding. To study the spatiotemporal rainfall variability in the Wadi Koutine watershed (southern Tunisia), rainfall collected data were analyzed over a period of fifty years (1969–2018). The trend analysis and eval...
Chapter
Tunisia is a small North-African country with a dry Mediterranean climate. It is among the poorest countries in terms of water availability (450 m³/capita/year). With 516,000 farms, the agricultural sector occupies 65% of the country’s land, contributes with 12.6% to the GDP, and employs 15% of the labor force. The agricultural production represent...
Article
Full-text available
Soil erosion remains one of the principal environmental problems in arid regions. This study aims to assess and quantify the variability of soil erosion in the Koutine catchment using the RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) model. The Koutine catchment is located in an arid area in southeastern Tunisia and is characterized by an annual mea...
Chapter
Soil erosion processes remain the principal environmental issue in the arid regions, such as the southern part of Tunisia. Erosion is a real threat not only for soil conservation but also for the sustainability of water harvesting techniques (cisterns, check dams). The quantification of soil loss in Koutine watershed depends on many factors such as...
Chapter
Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) is a new approach, which is receiving considerable interest worldwide, in assessing current land condition. An LDN assessment was undertaken for the Dhahar-Jeffara transect in southeastern Tunisia. The assessment was performed following the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) method in terms...
Article
Groundwater is the main source of water in arid regions. In the Southeast of Tunisia, Zeuss-Koutine and Mio-Plio-Quaternary underflow aquifers of Jeffara plain are considered the main source of water supply for drinking, agriculture, and industry. The study area is characterized with several known groundwater pollution sources (industrial and waste...
Article
Full-text available
en The impact of Land use/land cover (LULC) change was assessed through monitoring the distribution of ecological indicators and tracking the aeolian deposits, which provides valuable information on desertification and climate change in Tunisian arid regions. This study was conducted in Oum Zessar area, in southeastern Tunisia. Both visual interpre...
Article
Understanding land users’ livelihoods and their strategies is essential in order to adapt prevention and adaptation policies and to ensure sustainable land management (SLM) planning. Considering the global call for SLM, and due to a lack of studies on land degradation (LD) in Tunisia, we aimed to explore the livelihoods of farmers, their livelihood...
Article
Full-text available
En Tunisie, la ressource hydrique est le premier facteur limitant le développement du secteur oléicole. L'amélioration de son efficience d'utilisation est donc nécessaire et peut passer par des stratégies d'irrigation déficitaire. La capacité d'adaptation au déficit hydrique de la variété d'olivier 'Koroneiki', a été étudiée à travers l'analyse des...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of tree irrigation frequency on the vegetative growth and yield of two introduced olive cultivars (Olea europaea L. cvs. Koroneiki and Picholine). The trials took place in 2014. There were four different irrigation treatments, which were irrigating every other day (T0), every 4 days (T1),...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Predicting photosynthetic production in olive trees is a key feature in managing the effect of climate change on arid areas. Functional-structural plant modelling is a promising tool for achieving this goal. We used a photosynthetic sub-model that accounted for water and temperature stress and implemented it into LIGNUM model. We then cond...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of tree irrigation frequency on the vegetative growth and yield of two introduced olive cultivars (Olea europaea L. cvs. Koroneiki and Picholine). The trials took place in 2014. There were four different irrigation treatments, which were irrigating every other day (T0), every 4 days (T1),...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to locate and rank suitable sites for Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) in Jerba Island (South Tunisia) by integrating a single-objective AHP method into a GIS model. The methodology represents a first step in SAT basin construction projects before field investigations. It considers several criteria related to technical, environme...
Article
Full-text available
In the arid regions of south eastern Tunisia, the land use is predominated by olive trees cropping, where two main cultivation strategies can be found: using of water harvesting techniques to overcome the scarcity and variability of rainfall (in the Matmata mountains) and dryland farming (in the Jeffara plain). In these arid areas, soil moisture is...
Article
In this paper, an approach for estimating the soil moisture content (SMC) in arid environment in Tunisia is presented. In countries characterized by arid and semi-arid climate, it is very important to obtain reliable estimates of soil moisture evolution for water management purposes, in order to reduce water wastes and properly schedule agricultura...
Article
Full-text available
In arid and semi-arid areas, farmers are experiencing unprecedented water scarcity, which is likely to increase by the perspective of global warming. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three irrigation frequencies on vegetative growth, leaf turgor pressure, and photosynthesis of young olive trees (Olea europaea L. cvs ‘Koroneik...
Article
Studies in arid regions have shown that scattered trees strongly influence the environmental conditions under their canopies providing favourable conditions for the recruitment of other plants. The most critical factor controlling plant productivity in arid regions is soil–water availability. Hence, understanding the soil–water relationships below...
Article
Groundwater is the main source of water in arid regions. Thus, groundwater pollution becomes a major issue due to the increasing contamination, which poses serious and harmful risk to the environment. Groundwater vulnerability maps can be used as a tool to help decision makers to protect groundwater resources from contamination. The vulnerability o...
Article
Land cover, land use, soil salinization, and sand encroachment, which are desertification-indicating features, were integrated in a diachronic assessment, obtaining quantitative and qualitative information on the ecological state of the land, particularly degradation tendencies. In arid and semi-arid study areas of Algeria and Tunisia, sustainable...
Chapter
Full-text available
Arid and semiarid regions face water scarcity and climatic uncertainty. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) has been used for generations to cope with these challenges. Numerous methods have been applied to select suitable sites for RWH. However limited attention has been given to evaluation of RWH structure performance. In this study, a comprehensive metho...
Chapter
Soil moisture is an important indicator to determine the potential production of a crop, especially in recurrent drought threatened countries as Tunisia. It is also important in hydrologic modeling of watersheds. In the context of enhancing the value of jessour (plural of jesr), and providing scientific knowledge of the evolution of soil water cont...
Chapter
Climate change (CC) is a main issue of interest at the international as well as the national levels. It is important at this stage to do research to analyze impacts and adaptation strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the water stress of olive groves within the context of CC in the South East of Tunisia (watershed of Oum Zessar, M...
Chapter
Despite broad interest in use of water harvesting techniques (WHTs) to reduce pressure on natural resources in arid zones, few ex post assessments are available on how WHTs impact livelihood sustainability. This paper assesses the impact of WHTs on the livelihood conditions of inhabitants in the Oum Zessar watershed in south-east Tunisia. We used a...
Chapter
Climate projections for Tunisia show a rise in temperature by 2020 of 1.1 degrees Celsius (°C) and 2.1 °C in 2050. The south of the country is much more of a concern. Rainfall is projected to decrease between 10% in the north and 30% in the south over the same period. In the province of Médenine, in Southern Tunisia, where the bio-climate is dry (r...
Article
Full-text available
Groundwater vulnerability mapping is largely used as a modeling tool to delineate areas susceptible to pollution and to protect groundwater resources from this threat. The Zeuss-Koutine aquifer, which constitutes an important source of drinking water in the Southeastern Tunisia, is subjected to an intensive exploitation and threatened by pollution...
Book
This book presents recent lessons learned in the context of research and development for various dryland ecosystems, focusing on water resources management, land and vegetation cover degradation and remediation, and socioeconomic aspects, as well as integrated approaches to ensuring water and land security in view of the current and predicted clima...
Article
This paper presents an integrated and a trans-disciplinary analysis from a case study in Northwest of Tunisia in order to release a decision for upscaling sustainable land management practices in the national level. The integrated, trans-disciplinary approach aims at initiating a process of co-production of knowledge and joint learning between rele...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between fine resolution, local-scale biophysical and socioeconomic contexts within which land degradation occurs, and the human responses to it. The research draws on experimental data collected under different territorial and socioeconomic conditions at 586 field sites in five Mediterranean countries (Spain...
Article
Full-text available
States of ecological maturity and temporal trends of drylands in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia north of 28 ˝ N are reported for 1998–2008. The input data were Normalized Difference Vegetation Index databases and corresponding climate fields, at a spatial resolution of 1 km and a temporal resolution of one month. States convey opposing dynamics of hu...
Article
Full-text available
Arid and semi-arid regions around the world face water scarcity problems due to lack of precipitation and unpredictable rainfall patterns. For thousands of years, rainwater harvesting (RWH) techniques have been applied to cope with water scarcity. Researchers have used many different methodologies for determining suitable sites and techniques for R...
Poster
A simple water-balance model was developed, combined with field measurements to analyse the performance of various RWH designs and management scenarios.
Article
Full-text available
Harvested rainwater is an alternative source of water in arid and semi-arid regions (ASARs) around the world. Many researchers have developed and applied various methodologies and criteria to identify suitable sites and techniques for rainwater harvesting (RWH). Determining the best method or guidelines for site selection, however, is difficult. Th...
Poster
The main objective of this study is to define a general method to select suitable RWH sites and techniques in ASAR through the inventory of the main methods and criteria developed during the last three decades.
Article
Soil degradation and desertification processes in the Mediterranean basin reflect the interplay between environmental and socioeconomic drivers. An approach to evaluate comparatively the multiple relationships between biophysical variables and socioeconomic factors is illustrated in the present study using the data collected from 586 field sites lo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Arid regions of Maghreb (North Africa) suffer scarce water conditions and the erratic behaviour of rainfall events over brief intervals often produce short and intense floods events which converge into ephemeral wadi beds. The watershed of wadi Oum Zessar, in South-East Tunisia, is characterized by a rainfall rate of about 200 mm/year, overexploita...
Article
Full-text available
The Jeffara Plain, in Medenine region (SE Tunisia), suffers of dry climatic conditions. Lower Triassic sandstones widely outcrop within the Plain and they host a strategic aquifer exploited for drinking and irrigation purposes. An insufficient natural recharge and an increasing water demand have led to an overexploitation of such aquifer. Water har...
Article
Full-text available
An approach to derive relationships for defining land degradation and desertification risk and developing appropriate tools for assessing the effectiveness of the various land management practices using indicators is presented in the present paper. In order to investigate which indicators are most effective in assessing the level of desertification...
Article
Full-text available
Indicator-based approaches are often used to monitor land degradation and desertification from the global to the very local scale. However, there is still little agreement on which indicators may best reflect both status and trends of these phenomena. In this study, various processes of land degradation and desertification have been analyzed in 17...
Article
Studies in arid regions have shown that scattered trees strongly influence the environmental conditions under their canopies providing favourable conditions for the recruitment of other plants. The most critical factor controlling plant productivity in arid regions is soil water availability. Hence, understanding the soil-water relationships below-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a context of climate change and fragile environmental and economic background, the arid and semi-arid land of Tunisia faces great challenges as vulnerability of productive land to degradation is accelerated by human interventions. Thus, there is a strong need of continuous temporal and spatial monitoring of land cover/land use change and the dyn...
Article
Full-text available
Soil degradation and desertification processes in the Mediterranean basin reflect the interplay between environmental and socioeconomic drivers. An approach to evaluate comparatively the multiple relationships between biophysical variables and socioeconomic factors is illustrated in the present study using the data collected from 586 field sites lo...
Data
Full-text available
This paper introduces and evaluates DryMOD, a dynamic water balance model of the key hydrological process in drylands that is based on free, public-domain datasets. The rainfall model of DryMOD makes optimal use of spatially disaggregated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets to simulate hourly rainfall intensities at a spatial resolu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces and evaluates DryMOD, a dynamic water balance model of the key hydrological process in drylands that is based on free, public-domain datasets. The rainfall model of DryMOD makes optimal use of spatially disaggregated Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets to simulate hourly rainfall intensities at a spatial resolu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is to assess the short term effect of OMWW (olive mill waste water) application on chemical and biological soil properties. A field experiment was carried out in southern Tunisia. OMWW application was done at rates equivalent to 0, 15, 30 and 45 m3/ha. Results showed that increasing rates of OMWW enhance the soil fertility due...
Article
This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal,...