Mohamad Gharib

Mohamad Gharib
University of Tartu · Institute of Computer Science

PhD
Lecturer of Software Engineering

About

49
Publications
12,450
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252
Citations
Introduction
My research interest covers the broad area of design science with special emphasis on designing 1- Socio-Technical Systems (STS) and 2- Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems (CPSoS).
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - July 2021
University of florence
Position
  • PostDoc Position
June 2015 - August 2016
Università degli Studi di Trento
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
January 2010 - April 2015
Università degli Studi di Trento
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
Automatic Traffic Sign Detection and Recognition (TSDR) provides drivers with critical information on traffic signs, and it constitutes an enabling condition for autonomous driving. Misclassifying even a single sign may constitute a severe hazard, which negatively impacts the environment, infrastructures, and human lives. Therefore, a reliable TSDR...
Article
Several approaches have been developed to assist automotive system manufacturers in designing safer vehicles by facilitating compliance with functional safety standards. However, most of these approaches either mainly focus on the technical aspects of automotive systems and ignore the social ones, or they provide inadequate analysis of such importa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Most developed countries have enacted privacy laws to govern the collection and use of personal information (PI) as a response to the increased misuse of PI. Yet, these laws rely heavily on the concept of informational self-determination through the “notice” and “consent” models, which is deeply flawed. This study aims at tackling these fla...
Chapter
Full-text available
I have read and agree to the Privacy Policy". This can be described as one of the biggest lies in the current times, and that is all what a service provider needs to acquire what can be called "informed consent", which allows it to do as it pleases with your Personal Information (PI). Although many developed countries have enacted privacy laws and...
Article
Full-text available
A Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems (CPSoS) can be defined as a System-of-Systems (SoS), where its component systems are Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) that have been networked together for achieving a certain higher goal. Therefore, a key viability of any CPSoS is the integration of its CPSs to function as a single integrated system to support a com...
Chapter
Full-text available
Privacy has emerged as a key concern for companies that deal with Personal Information (PI) since they need to comply with certain privacy requirements. Unfortunately, these requirements are often incomplete or inaccurate due to the vagueness of the privacy concept. This paper tries to tackle this problem, contributing to the philosophical foundati...
Article
Artificial Intelligence (AI)- based classifiers rely on Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to provide functionalities that system architects are often willing to integrate into critical Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) . However, such algorithms may misclassify observations, with potential detrimental effects on the system itself or on the health of peo...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, most enterprises collect, store, and manage personal information of customers to deliver their services. In such a setting, privacy has emerged as a key concern since companies often neglect or even misuse personal data. In response to multiple massive breaches of personal data, governments around the world have enacted laws and regulatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, Machine Learning (ML) algorithms are being incorporated into many systems since they can learn and solve complex problems. Some of these systems can be considered as Safety-Critical Systems (SCS), therefore, the performance of ML algorithms should be sufficiently safe concerning the safety requirements of the incorporating SCS. However, t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Data are the infrastructure of science, and for some scientific studies, a vast amount of data might be needed. One way to obtain such data is through Citizen Science (CS), a research technique that enlists the public in gathering data. Although citizens themselves can be the source of such data, most of the citizens’ participation in CS so far foc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although many BPs involve critical activities that demand high-quality information for their successful enactment, most available BP approaches focus mainly on control-flow, and either ignore the Information Quality (IQ) perspective or consider it as a mere technical issue, instead of a social and organizational one. This leaves a BP subject to dif...
Article
Full-text available
Privacy has emerged as a key concern for business and social computing as security breaches have compromised personal data for millions. Despite this, much of existing work on privacy requirements deal with them as a special case of security requirements, thereby missing essential traits of such requirements. In this context, wrong design decisions...
Article
A cyber‐physical system‐of‐systems (CPSoS) can be defined as a system‐of‐systems (SoS), composed of several operable and autonomous constituent systems (CSs) that are themselves cyber‐physical systems (CPSs). A main challenge in integrating CPSoS to function as a single integrated system is the autonomy of its components, which may result in undesi...
Preprint
One of the main challenges in integrating Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems (CPSoS) to function as a single unified system is the autonomy of its Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), which may lead to a lack of coordination among CPSs and results in various kinds of conflicts. We advocate that to efficiently integrate CPSs within the CPSoS, we may need to...
Chapter
Full-text available
Privacy is becoming more and more a prominent concern for most countries, particularly for those of them that are moving toward the implementation of e-government [18] where software systems dealing with personal information (i.e., citizens, customers, etc.) have to be compliant with national and international privacy laws [26].
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Like all Non-functional Requirements (NFRs), Information Quality (IQ) requirements are used to be represented as softgoals that are difficult to be represented measurably. However, several recent studies argued that many requirements that are classified as NFRs can be expressed in a measurable way. This paper reports on experience gained while prop...
Chapter
Full-text available
In their daily practice, most enterprises collect, store, and manage personal information for customers in order to deliver their services. In such a setting, privacy has emerged as a key concern as companies often neglect or even misuse personal data. In response to this, governments around the world have enacted laws and regulations for privacy p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the main challenges in integrating Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems (CPSoS) to function as a single unified system is the autonomy of its Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), which may lead to lack of coordination among CPSs and results in various kinds of conflicts. We advocate that to efficiently integrate CPSs within the CPSoS, we may need to a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to learn and work with incomplete knowledge has motivated many system manufacturers to include such algorithms in their products. However, some of these systems can be described as Safety-Critical Systems (SCS) since their failure may cause injury or even death to humans. Therefore, the performance of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, most developed countries need to optimize their electricity production and consumption, which has led to the development of the Smart Grid (SG) concept. SG has a main objective of optimizing the generation, consumption, and management of electricity via information and communication technology. However, the vast amounts of information gen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several approaches have been developed to assist automotive system manufacturers in designing safer vehicles by complying with functional safety standards. However, most of these approaches either mainly focus on the technical aspects of automotive systems and ignore the social ones, or they are not equipped with an adequate automated support. To t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nowadays, most companies need to collect, store, and manage personal information in order to deliver their services. Accordingly, privacy has emerged as a key concern for these companies since they need to comply with privacy laws and regulations. To deal with them properly, such privacy concerns should be considered since the early phases of syste...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Information Quality (IQ) is particularly important for organizations: they depend on information for managing their daily tasks and relying on low-quality information may negatively influence their overall performance. Despite this, the literature shows that most software development approaches do not consider IQ requirements during the sy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Cyber-Physical System-of-Systems (CPSoS) can be defined as a System-of-Systems (SoS), where its Constituent Systems (CSs) are Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). A main challenge in integrating CPSoS to function as a single integrated system is the autonomy of its components, which may result in conflicts due to the lack of coordination among its CPSs...
Chapter
Road transport system is one of the essential infrastructures in the world, where the majority of the population use its facilities on a daily basis. That is why ensuring their safety has been always a growing concern for most authorities. The automotive industry is already aware of that, and the ISO 26262, a standard for developing functional safe...
Article
Full-text available
Our society heavily depends on various interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CIs), where their disruptions may result in significant consequences for the society as a whole. Therefore, their dependability is a main concern to both governments and citizens. Information plays a key role in the coordination, cooperation, and collaboration of interd...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) components are increasingly adopted in many automated systems. Their ability to learn and work with novel input/incomplete knowledge and their generalization capabilities make them highly desirable solutions for complex problems. This has motivated the inclusion of ML techniques/components in products for many industrial domai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Machine learning (ML) components are increasingly adopted in many automated systems. Their ability to learn and work with novel input/incomplete knowledge and their generalization capabilities make them highly desirable solutions for complex problems. This has motivated the inclusion of ML techniques/components in products for many industrial domai...
Article
Full-text available
Many business processes (BPs) involving critical decision-making activities require good-quality information for their successful enactment. Despite this fact, existing BP approaches focus on control flow and ignore the complementary information perspective, or simply treat it as a technical issue, rather than a social and organizational one. To ta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Privacy has been frequently identified as a main concern for systems that deal with personal information. However, much of existing work on privacy requirements deals with them as a special case of security requirements, thereby overlooking key aspects of privacy. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing an ontology for privacy requireme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Road transport system is an essential infrastructures in the world, where the majority of the population use its facilities on a daily basis. That is why ensuring their safety has been always a growing concern for most authorities. The automotive industry is already aware of that, and the ISO 26262, a standard for developing functional safety syste...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
During the last decade, the integration of smart devices into humans' lives has witnessed an exponential increase. This has led to a new paradigm, namely Cyber-Physical-Social Systems (CPSS), which consists of cyber components (computer systems), physical components (controlled objects) and social components (humans and their interactions). Althoug...
Conference Paper
During the last decade, the integration of smart devices into humans' lives has witnessed an exponential increase. This has led to a new paradigm, namely Cyber-Physical-Social Systems (CPSS), which consists of cyber components (computer systems), physical components (controlled objects) and social components (humans and their interactions). Althoug...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A System-of-Systems (SoS) is an integration of a finite number of Constituent Systems (CSs), which are networked together for achieving a certain higher goal. Therefore, integration is the key viability of any SoS. Although the integration of CSs can be achieved by the exchange of information, no existing work has considered the quality of such inf...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Privacy has been frequently identified as a main concern for system developers while dealing with/managing personal information. Despite this, most existing work on privacy requirements deals with them as a special case of security requirements. Therefore, key aspects of privacy are, usually, overlooked. In this context, wrong design decisions migh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information practices and systems that make use of personal and health-related information are governed by European laws and regulations to prevent unauthorized use and disclosure. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations results in huge monetary sanctions, which both private companies and public administrations want to avoid. How to compl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Requirements Engineering (RE) community recognizes the importance of trust proposing several approaches to model and analyze trust requirements. However, such approaches mainly focus on trust as social relations without relating them to the requirements of the sys-tem's components. We propose a belief-based trust approach based on an extended v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information Quality (IQ) is particularly important for the successful and efficient execution of any Business Process (BP). Despite this, most existing BP approaches either ignore IQ needs, or they deal with them as mere technical issues, without considering the social and organizational aspects that underlie such needs. In this paper, we propose a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information Quality (IQ) is particularly important for the efficient performance of any system. Despite this, most of the Requirements Engineering (RE) frameworks either ignore IQ needs, or they deal with them as mere technical issues, i.e., they do not consider the social and organizational aspects that underlie such needs. This paper summarizes t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information Quality (IQ) has been a growing concern for most organizations, since they depend on information for managing their daily tasks, make important decisions, etc., and relying on low quality information may negatively influence their overall performance. Despite this, most of the Requirements Engineering approaches either ignore or loosely...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organizational and social aspects are key factors for the analysis of Information Quality (IQ) requirements. This is particularly true in the case of complex socio-technical systems where computerized components coexist with humans and social structures and effective IQ policies can be defined only as a combination of all these factors. Although, s...
Thesis
Information Quality (IQ) has been always a growing concern for most organizations, since they depend on information for managing their daily tasks, delivering their services to their costumers, making important decisions, etc., and relying on low-quality information may negatively influence their overall performance, or even disasters in the case o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information Quality (IQ) is a key success factor for the efficient performance of any organization. Despite this, most Requirements Engineering frameworks either ignore or loosely define IQ requirements. To this end, we propose a novel conceptual framework for modeling and analyzing IQ requirements of the system-to-be.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
[Context and motivation] Information Quality (IQ) is a key success factor for the efficient performance of any system, and it becomes a vital issue for critical systems, where low-quality information may lead to disasters. [Question/problem] Despite this, most of the Requirements Engineering frameworks focus on “what” and “where” information is req...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Information Quality (IQ) is a key success factor for the efficient performance of any system, and it becomes a vital issue for critical systems, where low-quality information may lead to disasters. Despite this, most of the Requirements Engineering frameworks loosely define, or simply ignore such requirements, which may lead to different conflicts...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In safety critical systems one important aspect of information quality is ensuring information integrity. Typically, information integrity is a problem handled at technical level through solutions such as checksumming, integrity constraints, and integrity correction techniques. However, information integrity cannot be considered only as a technical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organizations' assets are subject to different threats; which are addressed, usually, by different security solutions. Nonetheless i* modeling language was not developed with security in mind, which motivated the development of other languages (e.g., SI*) that focused on capturing the security requirements (e.g., privacy) of the system-to-be, but f...

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