M.J. Metzger

M.J. Metzger
The University of Edinburgh | UoE · School of GeoSciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

155
Publications
55,961
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10,876
Citations

Publications

Publications (155)
Article
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The draft Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework commits to achievement of equity and justice outcomes and represents a “relational turn” in how we understand inclusive conservation. Although “inclusivity” is drawn on as a means to engage diverse stakeholders, widening the framing of inclusivity can create new tensions with regard to how to manage...
Article
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1. Envisioning processes enable protected area managers to chart a course for future management to reach desired goals, but unexpected changes that could affect future visions are not usually considered. The global COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to explore changes in stakeholder visions, the values that underpin the visions, and their pe...
Article
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The path for bringing millions of people out of poverty in Africa is likely to coincide with important changes in land use and land cover (LULC). Envisioning the different possible pathways for agricultural, economic and social development, and their implications for changes in LULC, ecosystem services and society well-being, will improve policy-ma...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has impaired wellbeing and highlighted the importance of open, local greenspaces in supporting healthy lifestyles and providing safe social spaces. Community woodlands, environments managed by and for communities, offer a wealth of individual and communal wellbeing benefits which are likely to have been affected by COVID-19 re...
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There are increasing concerns for the ecological health of rivers, and their ability to provide important ecosystem services. Frameworks describing the character and condition of rivers have been developed in many parts of the world but rarely include river ecosystem services. South East Asia is a region with some of the world’s great rivers—Mekong...
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Aim We use ecological niche models and environmental stratification of palaeoclimate to reconstruct the changing range of the lion ( Panthera leo ) during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Location The modern (early 21st century) range of the lion extends from southern Africa to the western Indian Subcontinent, yet through the 20th century this r...
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Achieving sustainable development as an inclusive societal process in rural landscapes, and sustainability in terms of functional green infrastructures for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services, are wicked challenges. Competing claims from various sectors call for evidence-based adaptive collaborative governance. Leveraging such approach...
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Context Maintaining functional green infrastructures (GIs) require evidence-based knowledge about historic and current states and trends of representative land cover types. Objectives We address: (1) the long-term loss and transformation of potential natural forest vegetation; (2) the effects of site productivity on permanent forest loss and emerg...
Preprint
We aim to 1) understand the synergies and trade-offs in ecosystem services generated by woodland expansion under alternative visions, and 2) understand how novel governance mechanisms could influence woodland expansion and ecosystem service provision. We simulate previously developed visions for woodland expansion within a spatially explicit agent-...
Article
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Context The 25th anniversary of the founding of the UK chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology (ialeUK) was marked in 2017. Objectives To assess trends in UK landscape ecology research over ialeUK’s first 25 years, to compare these trends to changes elsewhere in the world, and to consider how ialeUK can continue to support l...
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Context The 25th anniversary of the founding of the UK chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology (ialeUK) was marked in 2017. Objectives To assess trends in UK landscape ecology research over ialeUK's first 25 years, to compare these trends to changes elsewhere in the world, and to consider how ialeUK can continue to support la...
Article
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Through changes in policy and practice, the inherent intent of the ecosystem services (ES) concept is to safeguard ecosystems for human wellbeing. While impact is intrinsic to the concept, little is known about how and whether ES science leads to impact. Evidence of impact is needed. Given the lack of consensus on what constitutes impact, we differ...
Article
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Managed realignment of shorelines to manage floods and restore wetland can be difficult to implement without the support and involvement of local communities. Ecosystem service valuation tools, such as choice experiments, can be used to engage citizens in planning these sustainable transitions, yet citizens need to know their local shoreline and th...
Article
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With climate change, coastal areas are faced with unprecedented sea level rise and flooding, raising questions as to how societies will choose to adapt. One option is to strengthen existing sea walls to maintain current land uses; however, scientists, policy-makers and conservationists increasingly see the benefits of managed realignment, which is...
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The ecosystem services framework has now been embodied in policy and practice, creating the need for governance structures that allow science, policy and practice to come together and facilitate shared learning. We describe five years of progress in developing an Ecosystem Services Community of Practice in Scotland, which brings together over 600 i...
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Globally, cities in developing countries are urbanising at alarming rates, and a major concern to hydrologists and planners are the options that affect the hydrologic functioning of watersheds. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been recognised as a key sustainable development tool for mitigating the adverse impacts of planned developments,...
Article
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Context Despite woodland expansion being advocated via a number of Scottish policy documents, barriers to woodland creation remain. These include contested views about land use, concerns about trade-offs between ecosystem services, and a lack of synergy between policies and plans. Objectives To use existing published sources and stakeholder feedba...
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Ecosystem services inherently involve people, whose values help define the benefits of nature's services. It is thus important for researchers to involve stakeholders in ecosystem services research. However, a simple and practicable framework to guide such engagement, and in particular to help researchers anticipate and consider key issues and chal...
Article
Being open to multiple interpretations allows the ecosystem services concept to operate as a boundary object, facilitating communication and cooperation between different user groups. Yet there is a risk the resultant pluralism limits the capacity of ecosystem services assessments to directly inform decision and policy making, and that the concept...
Article
Woodland expansion is a key component of Scottish land use policy, with targets to increase woodland cover from 18% towards 25% of land area by 2050. However, to date there has been little assessment of whether forestry policy is achieving its objectives. Here, we present an evaluation of woodland grant schemes based on site suitability modelling f...
Article
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Cities in developing countries are urbanising at a rapid rate, resulting in substantial pressures on environmental systems. Among the main factors that lead to flooding, controlling land-use change offers the greatest scope for the management of risk. However, traditional analysis of a "from-to" change matrix is not adequate to provide information...
Data
The data are deposited in the NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. This dataset is embargoed and will be made available by 24 March 2019 at the latest. Full details following the DOI. Data comprise causal diagrams which show links between aspects that influence the well-being of rural inhabitants (e.g. good quality of food, good family rela...
Data
The data are deposited in the NERC Environmental Information Data Centre. This dataset is embargoed and will be made available by 24 March 2019 at the latest. Full details following the DOI. Data comprise scenarios of how land use can be in the future and how will it affect ecosystem services in rural Mozambique. The scenarios were constructed fr...
Article
Despite the growing body of evidence highlighting how human activity both depends on and keeps deteriorating natural resources, traditional development models have failed to bring about conservation solutions to this contradiction. The twin concepts of ecosystem services and natural capital (ES/NC) have been coined to bridge this cognitive gap, by...
Article
The Ecosystem Approach introduced in 1994 through the Convention on Biological Diversity, together with related Ecosystem-based Management and Landscape Approaches, are frequently called upon to improve ecological impact assessment. Current practice typically does not have such a systems focus and we explore the potential for explicitly adopting an...
Technical Report
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There is a growing recognition amongst policy-makers, conservation NGOs and the private sector that funding for land management needs to be increased and diversified to protect and restore biodiversity and natural capital in Scotland. However, effective mechanisms for enabling private investment by companies who do not manage land themselves are po...
Article
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The article Mapping mountain areas: learning from Global, European and Norwegian perspectives, written by Martin F. PRICE, Tor ARNESEN, Erik GLØERSEN and Marc J. METZGER, was originally erroneously published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on May 21st 2018 without open access. When the mistake was discover...
Article
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Defining the spatial extent of mountain areas has long been a challenge. In the present century, the availability of digital elevation models (DEMs) incorporated into geographic information systems (GIS) has allowed the definition of mountain areas based on topographic and other criteria. This paper presents the various delineations of mountains th...
Technical Report
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The summary report provides a synthesis of the the OPERAs project, a five year research project funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. FP7-ENV-2012-308393.
Article
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Assessments of land-system change have dominantly focused on conversions among broad land-use categories, whereas intensity changes within these categories have received less attention. Considering that both modes of land change typically result in diverse patterns and trajectories of land-system change, there is a need to develop approaches to red...
Article
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Attempts to influence the development of land systems are often based on detailed scenarios that constrain relevant factors, describe a range of divergent but plausible futures and identify potential pathways to visions of desirable conditions. However, a number of assumptions are usually made during this process, and one of the most substantial is...
Article
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The aspirations, motivations and choices of individual European citizens are a major driver of the future of global, European and local land use. However, until now no land use study has explicitly attempted to find out how the general public wants to live in the future. This paper forms a first attempt to survey European citizens to understand the...
Article
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Understanding agreement and differences between land use visions forms a first step for assessing and comparing alternative pathways towards a sustainable future. This study presents an analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews with representatives of the principal land use sectors in Scotland. The aim was to understand what, in their ideal vision,...
Article
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The continuously growing global demands on a finite land resource will require better strategic policies and management of trade-offs to avoid conflicts between different land-use sectors. Visions of the future can support strategic planning by stimulating dialogue, building a consensus on shared priorities and providing long-term targets. We prese...
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Charcoal is an important source of energy and income for millions of people in Africa. Its production often drives forest degradation and deforestation which have impacts on the local people that remain poorly understood. We present a novel methodology for analysing the contribution of woodland ecosystem services (ES) to rural well-being and povert...
Article
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Ecosystem services (ES) are the benefits that people receive from ecosystems. Understanding the impact of forest management on their supply can inform policy and practice for meeting societal demand. The objectives of this paper are to identify and review the effect of management intensity on priority ES supply and identify synergies and trade-offs...
Article
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Despite progress in impact modelling, communicating and understanding the implications of climatic change projections is challenging due to inherent complexity and a cascade of uncertainty. In this letter, we present an alternative representation of global climate change projections based on shifts in 125 multivariate strata characterized by relati...
Article
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Charcoal production constitutes a key ecosystem service in Mozambique, with an estimated market value of US$400 million a year. Due to the central role the charcoal industry plays in local livelihoods, availability of suitable wood for charcoal production has decreased because of changes in land use and land cover (LULC). This paper applied a proba...
Technical Report
Within the framework of an ecosystem service assessment, social valuation has the potential to make people ́s opinions, beliefs and preferences visible in the decision-making processes. Set up a tailor-made social valuation procedure for your specific problem: Be clear about the purpose and specific objectives for your specific problem. Identify t...
Article
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Environmental stratifications provide the framework for efficient surveillance and monitoring of biodiversity and ecological resources, as well as modelling exercises. An obstacle for agricultural landscape monitoring in Estonia has been the lack of a framework for the objective selection of monitoring sites. This paper describes the construction a...
Article
Even though most cities are exposed to more than one hazard, local planners and decision-makers still have a limited understanding of the exposure and sensitivity to and the spatial distribution of hazards. We examine the impact of multiple hazards in the Concepción Metropolitan Area (CMA), Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy logic...
Article
Biosphere reserves have been studied around the world, but methods to elicit community's values, worldviews and perceptions are missing. A greater understanding of these can help avoid tension and improve successful management. This paper used a mixed-methods survey to elicit local community's environmental values, ecological world views and percep...
Article
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Mountain and upland regions provide a wide range of ecosystem services to residents and visitors. While ecosystem research in mountain regions is on the rise, the linkages between sociocultural benefits and ecological systems remain little explored. Mountainous regions close to urban areas provide numerous benefits to a large number of individuals,...
Article
Despite the growing number of studies focusing on urban vulnerability to climate change, adaptive capacity, which is a key component of the IPCC definition of vulnerability, is rarely assessed quantitatively. We examine the capacity of adaptation in the Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile. A flexible methodology based on spatial fuzzy modelling was...
Article
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The concept of ecosystem services has received increased attention in recent years, and is seen as a useful construct for the development of policy relevant indicators and communication for science, policy and practice. Soil erosion is one of the main environmental problems for European Mediterranean agro-forestry systems, making soil erosion preve...
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Context Policy decisions form a major driver of land use change, with important implications for socially and environmentally susceptible regions. It is well known that there can be major unintended consequences, especially where policies are not tailored to regionally specific contexts. Objectives In this paper we assess the implications of 60 yea...
Article
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Context The Eurasian crane (Grus grus) is an iconic and sensitive species. It is therefore necessary to understand its landscape ecology in order to determine threats. Objectives (1) To map the distribution of cranes and then model their habitat requirements in Estonia, linked to the current level of protection. (2) To determine the environmental c...
Article
The Scottish Government has clearly stated its intention to increase woodland cover from 18% towards 25% of land area by 2050. This will rely heavily on publicly funded grant schemes to encourage woodland creation on private land. However, at present required rates of woodland expansion are not being met. Moreover, the benefits of new woodland are...
Book
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The landscapes of Europe have altered rapidly over the last few decades, with profound changes in the ways we use the land to support a growing, and increasingly affluent and urban population. The past 50 years have seen significant and unprecedented human impacts on our landscapes and we have now entered a critical decision space: a window of seve...
Book
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In response to the need and an intergovernmental commission for a high resolution and data-derived global ecosystem map, land surface elements of global ecological pattern were characterized in an ecophysiographic stratification of the planet. The stratification produced 3,923 terrestrial ecological land units (ELUs) at a base resolution of 250 met...
Article
Understanding the importance of cross-sectoral implications of climate and socio-economic change in Scotland is essential for adaptation policy. This study explored the direct and indirect sectoral impacts of future change using the CLIMSAVE Integrated Assessment Platform. There is great spatial diversity in projected impacts across Scotland, and i...
Article
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Current spatially explicit approaches to map and assess ecosystem services are often grounded on unreliable proxy data based on land use/cover to derive ecosystem service indicators. These approaches fail to make a distinction between the actual service provision and the underlying eco- system capacity to provide the service. We present an integrat...
Article
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Rapidly accelerating climate change in the Himalaya is projected to have major implications for montane species, ecosystems, and mountain farming and pastoral systems. A geospatial modeling approach based on a global environmental stratification is used to explore potential impacts of projected climate change on the spatial distribution of bioclima...