Mitzi Nagarkatti

Mitzi Nagarkatti
University of South Carolina | USC · Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology

About

373
Publications
40,337
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12,413
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Publications

Publications (373)
Article
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Facial amphiphilicity is an extraordinary chemical structure feature of a variety of antimicrobial peptides and polymers. Vast efforts have been dedicated to small molecular, macromolecular and dendrimer-like systems to mimic this highly preferred structure or conformation, including local facial amphiphilicity and global amphiphilicity. This work...
Article
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Cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system have been well established to play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response. Also, emerging data from numerous investigations unravel the imperative role of gut microbiota and their metabolites in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and gut barrier integrity. In this review, we concisely...
Article
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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ubiquitously expressed ligand-activated transcription factor. While initially identified as an environmental sensor, this receptor has been shown more recently to regulate a variety of immune functions. AhR ligands vary in structure and source from environmental chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p...
Article
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which frequently occurs in the aftermath of a psychologically traumatic event is characterized by heightened inflammation. People with PTSD also suffer from a number of comorbid clinical and behavioral disorders that are related to chronic inflammation. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of enhanced inflammati...
Article
The pandemic of COVID-19 has caused >5 million deaths in the world. One of the leading causes of the severe form of COVID-19 is the production of massive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone/DNA methylation, miRNA, and long noncoding RNA, are known to play important roles in the regulation of inflammation. In...
Article
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Bacterial natural product biosynthetic genes, canonically clustered, have been increasingly found to rely on hidden enzymes encoded elsewhere in the genome for completion of biosynthesis. The study and application of lanthipeptides are frequently hindered by unclustered protease genes required for final maturation. Here, we establish a global corre...
Article
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Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease highly prevalent worldwide. Recent studies have suggested a role for microbiome-associated gut-lung axis in asthma development. In the current study, we investigated if Resveratrol (RES), a plant-based polyphenol, can attenuate ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine allergic asthma, and if so, the role of microbiome...
Article
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects the colon and is characterized by localized tissue injury and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Pathophysiology of UC includes genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, microbial dysbiosis, and environmental fac...
Article
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Mucosal antibodies maintain gut homeostasis by promoting spatial segregation between host tissues and luminal microbes. Whether and how mucosal antibody responses influence gut health through modulation of microbiota composition is unclear. Here, we use a CD19−/− mouse model of antibody-deficiency to demonstrate that a relationship exists between d...
Article
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic inflammatory disease that affects the colon and is characterized by localized tissue injury and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Pathophysiology of UC includes genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, microbial dysbiosis, and environmental fac...
Article
Emodin, a natural anthraquinone, has been shown to have anti-tumorigenic properties and may be an effective therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its clinical development has been hampered by a poor understanding of its mechanism of action. The purpose of this study was to 1) evaluate the efficacy of emodin in mouse models of intestinal/col...
Article
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder and patients diagnosed with PTSD often express other comorbid health issues, particularly autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Our previous reports investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from PTSD patients showed that these patients exhibit an increased inflammatory...
Article
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For decades, activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) was excluded from consideration as a therapeutic approach due to the potential toxic effects of AhR ligands and the induction of the cytochrome P450 enzyme, Cyp1a1, following AhR activation. However, it is now understood that AhR activation not only serves as an environmental sensor that re...
Article
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious lung condition characterized by severe hypoxemia leading to limitations of oxygen needed for lung function. In this study, we investigated the effect of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous cannabinoid, on Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-mediated ARDS in female mice. Single-cell RNA sequencing d...
Article
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Cannabidiol (CBD) is a bioactive compound isolated from Cannabis plants that has garnered attention within the medical community due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties. To better understand how CBD limits excessive neuroinflammation we administered CBD via oral gavage (20 mg/kg) in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS) known as experime...
Article
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2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a polyhalogenated planar hydrocarbon belonging to a group of highly toxic and persistent environmental contaminants known as “dioxins”. TCDD is an animal teratogen and carcinogen that is well characterized for causing immunosuppression through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study...
Article
This paper reports antimicrobial metallopolymers containing biodegradable polycaprolactone as the backbone with boronic acid and cobaltocenium as the side chain. While boronic acid promotes interactions with bacterial cells via boronolectin with lipopolysaccharides, cationic cobaltocenium facilitates the unique complexation with anionic β-lactam an...
Article
Vein graft failure (VGF) is associated with vein graft (VG) intimal hyperplasia, which is characterized by abnormal accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The majority of neointimal SMCs are derived from pre-existing vascular SMCs via a process of vascular SMC dedifferentiation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly underst...
Article
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The current spreading coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is highly infectious and pathogenic. In this study, we screened the gene expression of three host receptors (ACE2, DC-SIGN and L-SIGN) of SARS coronaviruses and dendritic cells (DCs) status in bulk and single cell transcriptomic datasets of upper airway, lung or blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy con...
Article
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been shown to be associated with extrahepatic comorbidities including neuronal inflammation and Alzheimer’s-like pathology. Environmental and genetic factors also act as a second hit to modulate severity and are expected to enhance the NAFLD-linked neuropathology. Using a mouse model of NAFLD, exposed to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Bacterial natural product biosynthetic genes, canonically clustered, have been increasingly found to rely on cryptic enzymes encoded elsewhere in the genome for completion of biosynthesis. The study and application of lanthipeptides are frequently hindered by cryptic proteases required for final maturation. Here, we establish a global correlation n...
Article
Full-text available
Atopic dermatitis (AD or eczema) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disorder worldwide. Ceramides (Cer) maintain skin barrier functions, which are disrupted in lesional skin of AD patients. However, Cer status during the pre-lesional phase of AD is not well defined. Using a variation of human AD-like preclinical model consisting of a 7-da...
Article
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Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptomatic illness that is associated with fatigue, pain, cognitive deficits, and gastrointestinal disturbances and presents a significant challenge to treat in clinics. Our previous studies show a role of an altered Gut–Brain axis pathology in disease development and symptom persistence in GWI. The presen...
Article
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Chronic inflammation is considered to be a silent killer because it is the underlying cause of a wide range of clinical disorders, from cardiovascular to neurological diseases, and from cancer to obesity. In addition, there are over 80 different types of debilitating autoimmune diseases for which there are no cure. Currently, the drugs that are ava...
Article
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Neuroinflammation leads to tissue injury causing many of the clinical symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). While T cells, specifically Th1 and Th17 cells, are the ultimate effectors of this disease, dendritic cells (DCs) mediate T cell polarization, activation, etc. In our previous study, Apige...
Article
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates T cell function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AhR ligands, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), on gut-associated microbiota and T cell responses during delayed-type hypersensitivity...
Article
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Burgeoning evidence has indicated that normal autophagy is required for nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)-mediated cardiac protection whereas autophagy inhibition turns on Nrf2-mediated myocardial damage and dysfunction in a setting of pressure overload (PO). However, such a concept remains to be fully established by a careful geneti...
Poster
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The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants will change the landscape of what we already know about COVID-19, making it even more important to understand the immunological and molecular mechanism of this illness. The virulent nature of the virus, disease outcomes and lack of suitable facilities for studying virus-infected samples has made the need for sma...
Article
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as a type of respiratory failure that is caused by a variety of insults such as pneumonia, sepsis, trauma and certain viral infections. In this study, we investigated the effect of an endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), on ARDS induced in the mouse by Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B (SEB). Administr...
Article
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While marine natural products have been investigated for anticancer drug discovery, they are barely screened against rare cancers. Thus, in our effort to discover potential drug leads against the rare cancer pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), which currently lacks effective drug treatments, we screened extracts of marine actinomycete bacteria against th...
Article
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is triggered by a variety of agents, including Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB). Interestingly, a significant proportion of patients with COVID-19, also develop ARDS. In the absence of effective treatments, ARDS results in almost 40% mortality. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that resve...
Poster
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The SARS-CoV-2 virus also known as COVID-19 has claimed the lives of over 240,000 Americans and 1,270,000 people worldwide. With cases consistently rising daily. Understanding the mechanisms behind this disease are vital at this time yet working directly with the virus is to be proceeded with caution. Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) induced Acut...
Article
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Maintenance of intestinal homeostasis requires the integration of immunological and molecular processes together with environmental, diet, metabolic and microbial cues. Key to this homeostasis is the proper functioning of epithelial cells originating from intestinal stem cells (ISCs). While local factors and numerous molecular pathways govern the I...
Article
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the prevalent neurological disorder which is drawing increased attention over the past few decades. Major risk factors for PTSD can be categorized into environmental and genetic factors. Among the genetic risk factors, polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is known to be associ...
Article
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Mauritius Island possesses unique plant biodiversity with a potential reservoir of biologically active compounds of pharmacological interest. In the current study, we investigated Mauritius endemic plant families Asteraceae, Ebenaceae, Sapotaceae, and Erythroxylaceae, for anti-cancer properties on T cell lymphoma and B16F10 Melanoma cells and immun...
Article
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), is a transcription factor and an environmental sensor that has been shown to regulate T cell differentiation. Interestingly, AhR ligands exert varying effects from suppression to exacerbation of inflammation through induction of Tregs and Th-17 cells, respectively. In the current study, we investigated whether the d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Emodin, a natural anthraquinone, has shown potential as an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of many diseases including cancer. However, its clinical development is hindered by uncertainties surrounding its potential toxicity. The primary purpose of this study was to uncover any potential toxic properties of emodin in mice at...
Article
Full-text available
Tryptamine is a naturally occurring monoamine alkaloid which has been shown to act as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist. It is produced in large quantities from the catabolism of the essential amino acid tryptophan by commensal microorganisms within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of homeothermic organisms. Previous studies have establishe...
Article
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a potent ligand for AhR and a known carcinogen. While AhR activation by TCDD leads to significant immunosuppression, how this translates into carcinogenic signal is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that activation of AhR by...
Article
Background and Aims Cannabinoid receptor (CB) activation can attenuate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in experimental models and human cohorts. However, the role of the microbiome, metabolome, or the respective contributions of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells in the anti-colitic effects of cannabinoids has yet to be determined. Methods...
Article
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Background: The association between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk has been well established. This relationship appears to be more significant in men than in women, which may be attributable to sex hormones. However, controlled animal studies to substantiate these claims and the mechanisms involved are lacking. Materials and methods: M...
Article
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Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder accompanied by chronic peripheral inflammation. What triggers inflammation in PTSD is currently unclear. In the present study, we identified potential defects in signaling pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals with PTSD. Methods RNAseq (5 sa...
Article
Full-text available
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. A significant proportion of COVID-19 patients develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) resulting from hyperactivation of the immune system and cytokine storm, which leads to respiratory and multi-or...
Article
Full-text available
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was identified in the early 1970s as a receptor for the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin), which is a member of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). TCDD was found to be highly toxic to the immune system, causing thymic involution and suppression of a variety...
Article
Nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) may either ameliorate or worsen diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein we report a novel mechanism of Nrf2-mediated myocardial damage in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Global Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2KO) hardly affected the onset of cardiac dysfunction in...
Article
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Background: Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists are known to modulate the immune system and ameliorate various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in animal models, including colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are also gaining traction as potential therapeutic agents or diagnostic...
Article
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) causes up to 40% mortality in humans and is difficult to treat. ARDS is also one of the major triggers of mortality associated with coronavirus-induced disease (COVID-19). We used a mouse model of ARDS induced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), which triggers 100% mortality, to investigate the mechanis...
Article
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The 1991 Persian Gulf War veterans presented a myriad of symptoms that ranged from chronic pain, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances, and cognitive deficits. Currently, no therapeutic regimen exists to treat the plethora of chronic symptoms though newer pharmacological targets such as microbiome have been identified recently. Toll-like receptor...
Article
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key players in the regulation of inflammatory responses. In this study, two natural molecules, namely, sparteine sulfate (SS) and harpagoside (Harp), were investigated for their ability to induce Tregs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from healthy volunteers and grown in the pre...
Article
Background: Staphylococcal enterotoxin-B (SEB) is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects by inducing cytokine storm. When SEB is inhaled, it can cause Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which is often fatal and currently there are no effective treatment modalities. Experimental approach: We use...
Article
Clinical studies implicated an increased risk of intestinal fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous studies have shown that microcystin-LR (MC-LR) exposure led to altered gut microbiome and increased abundance of lactate producing bacteria and intestinal inflammation in underlying NAFLD. This led us to furth...
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Intestinal disequilibrium leads to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and chronic inflammation predisposes to oncogenesis. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages can tip the equilibrium towards tolerance or pathology. Here we show delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) attenuates colitis-associated colon cancer and colitis induced by a...
Article
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important regulatory roles in gene expression, from histone modification to protein stability. However, the functions of most identified lncRNAs are not known. In this study, we investigated the role of an lncRNA called AW112010. The expression of AW112010 was significantly increased in C...
Article
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Background: Recent clinical and basic research implicated a strong correlation between NAFLD/NASH phenotypes with ectopic manifestations including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, but the mediators and critical pathways involved are not well understood. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is one of the important mediators exclusively produced in the liver...
Article
Evidence from pediatric studies show that infants and children are at risk for early exposure to microcystin. The present report tests the hypothesis that early life exposure to microcystin (MC), a principal component of harmful algal blooms followed by a juvenile exposure to high-fat diet feeding potentiate the development of nonalcoholic fatty li...
Article
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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects millions of people worldwide and increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We have previously shown that American ginseng (AG) can treat colitis and prevent colon cancer in mice. We further fractionated AG and identified the most potent fraction, hexane fr...
Article
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known to significantly increase the risk for development of colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting inflammation and cancer development are closely intertwined. Thus, agents that suppress inflammation may prevent the onset of cancer. In the current study, we used resveratrol, an anti-inflammatory stilbenoid, to study...