Mitchel Resnick

Mitchel Resnick
Massachusetts Institute of Technology | MIT · MIT Media Lab

PhD

About

132
Publications
82,498
Reads
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15,749
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1992 - present
Education
September 1985 - June 1992
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (132)
Conference Paper
This paper explores personal fabrication as a means of engaging new audiences in the creation of electronic devices, which play an ever-increasing role in our lives but which most people have little involvement in creating. We describe a six-session workshop in which eight participants made wifi-connected devices through the design and fabrication...
Article
This paper explores personal fabrication as a means of engaging new audiences in the creation of electronic devices, which play an ever-increasing role in our lives but which most people have little involvement in creating. We describe a six-session workshop in which eight participants made wificonnected devices through the design and fabrication o...
Conference Paper
We present the Scratch extension system, a toolkit that enables anyone to extend the vocabulary of the visual Scratch programming language through custom programming blocks written in JavaScript. The extension system is designed to (i) enable innovating on the Scratch programming language itself, in addition to innovating with it through projects,...
Conference Paper
ScratchJr is a graphical programming language based on Scratch and redesigned for the unique developmental and learning needs of children in kindergarten to second grade. The creation of ScratchJr addresses the relative lack of powerful technologies for digital creation and computer programming in early childhood education. ScratchJr will provide s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This special session aims to provoke discussion about new strategies for engaging young people in computer programming, drawing on experiences of educators and young people using the Scratch programming environment and online communities. The session will combine several different formats, including research presentations and analysis by two member...
Chapter
As young people design interactive media, they go through an iterative process of imagining, creating, playing, sharing, and reflecting. In this chapter, we describe how this iterative design process is ideally supported by having access to other people. We illustrate this through case studies of young people using the Scratch programming environme...
Article
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Mass collaboration is a present-day Internet practice with far-reaching implications for education and for a knowledge society in general. The goal of this symposium is to establish the concept of mass collaboration as a relevant topic in CSCL by presenting related research conducted with multifaceted perspectives from different labs. Several prese...
Conference Paper
Dual-Space Drawing is an interface that enables children to express their drawing ideas in both the digital and real worlds. It supports creative and reflective drawing experiences using two layers: a transparent layer and a screen layer. The interface takes a user's drawing movements on the transparent display unobtrusively and then projects the m...
Article
To become full and active participants in today's technologically saturated society, young people need to become creators (and not just consumers) of interactive media. Developing the requisite abilities and capacities is not a wholly individual process; it is important for young people to have access to communities where they can collaborate and s...
Article
Full-text available
Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the Scrat...
Article
Full-text available
This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the...
Article
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"Digital fluency" should mean designing, creating, and remixing, not just browsing, chatting, and interacting.
Article
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When Moshe Vardi, Editor-in-Chief of CACM, invited us to submit an article about Scratch, he shared the story of how he learned about Scratch: A couple of days ago, a colleague of mine (CS faculty) told me how she tried to get her 10-year-old daughter interested in programming, and the only thing that appealed to her daughter (hugely) was Scratch....
Conference Paper
Young people interact with games, animations, and simulations all of the time. But few of them are able to create interactive media. The obstacle: traditional programming languages are too difficult to learn and understand. This panel brings together a group of researchers, developers, and educators who are aiming to democratize the activity of pro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a convergence in recent theories of creativity that go beyond characteristics and cognitive processes of individuals to recognize the importance of the social construction of creativity. In parallel, there has been a rise in social computing supporting the collaborative construction of knowledge. The panel will discuss the challenges and o...
Article
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Traduccion libre de Eleonora Badilla-Saxe Publicado en su version original en ingles en Learning & Leading with Technology, December/January 2007–08 Copyright © 2007, ISTE (International Society for Technology in iste @ iste.org , www.iste.org
Article
Full-text available
The Scratch project from MIT Media Lab aims to empower children to create and share interactive stories, games, and animations on the web, in the participatory spirit of Web 2.0. Users, with scratch programming, snap together graphical programming blocks to control the actions and interactions of rich media content, including photos, graphics, musi...
Article
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This paper suggests new strategies for introducing students to robotics technologies and concepts, and argues for the importance of providing multiple entry points into robotics. In particular, the paper describes four strategies that have been successful in engaging a broad range of learners: (1) focusing on themes, not just challenges; (2) combin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on the programming learning experiences of urban youth ages 8-18 at a Computer Clubhouse located in South Central Los Angeles. Our analyses of the 536 Scratch projects, collected during a two-year period, documents the learning of key programming concepts in the absence of instructional interventions or experienced mentors. We discuss the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes Scratch, a visual, block-based programming language designed to facilitate media manipulation for novice programmers. We report on the Scratch programming experiences of urban youth ages 8-18 at a Computer Clubhouse—an after school center—over an 18-month period. Our analyses of 536 Scratch projects collected during this time d...
Article
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We created FlowBlocks to enable children to manipulate abstract structures of sequential processes. We wanted to design a system that could "grow with the child", starting with preschoolers making their first steps in counting and quantity, and continuing with high school or college students struggling with calculus and statistics. FlowBlocks is de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper argues that the "kindergarten approach to learning" - characterized by a spiraling cycle of Imagine, Create, Play, Share, Reflect, and back to Imagine - is ideally suited to the needs of the 21st century, helping learners develop the creative-thinking skills that are critical to success and satisfaction in today's society. The paper disc...
Article
In recent years, a growing number of educators and psychologists have expressed concern that computers are stifling children's learning and creativity and engaging children in mindless interaction and passive consumption. They have a point: today, many computers are used in that way. But that should not be the case. This chapter presents an alterna...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, ed...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1992. Includes bibliographical references (p. 165-170). by Mitchel Resnick. Ph.D.
Conference Paper
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This paper introduces a new framework for thinking about tangible interfaces in education, with specific focus on abstract problem domains. Manipulatives are physical objects specifically designed to foster learning. We offer a new classification of Manipulatives: "Froebel-inspired Manipulatives" (FiMs) and "Montessori-inspired Manipulatives" (MiMs...
Article
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In this paper, we present ten guiding principles for designing construction kits for kids, informed by our experiences over the past two decades:* Design for Designers* Low Floor and Wide Walls* Make Powerful Ideas Salient -- Not Forced* Support Many Paths, Many Styles* Make it as Simple as Possible -- and Maybe Even Simpler* Choose Black Boxes Car...
Article
When people see patterns in the world, they often assume that there is some type of centralised control, even when it does not exist. This 'centralised mindset' could act as a braking function on the spread of organic networks — if people are not able to think about and understand the decentralised interactions that underlie organic networks, they...
Article
Full-text available
This panel will address pedagogical needs for revisiting the role of computer programming for student learning. We will explore advances in programming platforms that enable students to create compelling projects with new technologies, and discuss the affordances of these new initiatives. We will address how these tools and techniques can be integr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scratch is a networked, media-rich programming environment designed to enhance the development of technological fluency at after-school centers in economically-disadvantaged communities. Just as the LEGO MindStorms robotics kit added programmability to an activity deeply rooted in youth culture (building with LEGO bricks), Scratch adds programmabil...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scratch is a networked, media-rich programming environment designed to enhance the development of technological fluency at after-school centers in economically-disadvantaged communities. Just as the LEGO MindStorms robotics kit added programmability to an activity deeply rooted in youth culture (building with LEGO bricks), Scratch adds programmabil...
Article
Full-text available
We present the latest prototype of System Blocks, a new interactive learning environment that facilitates hands-on modeling and simulation of systems concepts. System Blocks, by making processes visible and manipulable, can help students learn about the core concepts of systems at a younger age. K-12 schools rarely introduce students to core concep...
Article
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The world is complex and dynamic. Our lives and environment are constantly changing. We are surrounded by all types of interconnected, dynamic systems: ecosystems, financial markets, business processes, and social systems. Nevertheless, research has shown that people’s understanding of dynamic behavior is extremely poor. In this thesis I present Sy...
Article
A review on ecological strategy that solves math problems was discussed. The TREE strategy is discussed as test randomly, evaluate and elect the best direction to move based on the information from the roots. The most important benefits of introducing ecological thinking in classrooms are to help students learn multiple ways of thinking about solvi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the System Blocks, a new physical interactive system that makes it easier for kids to explore dynamic systems. A set of computationally enhanced children blocks, made of wood and electronics, the System Blocks can assist K-12 educators to teach the complex concepts of system dynamics and causalities. System dynamics and system thinking a...
Article
Both computers and calculators are limited by architecture, operating system, and software, to some predetermined level of precision within decimal number presentation and calculation. Rational fractions produce either terminating or repeating decimal ...
Article
The Adventures in Modeling Project aims to introduce students and teachers to the process of designing, creating, and analyzing their own models of complex, dynamic systems. Our goal is to engage learners in authentic science practice by giving them the tools and the ability to pose, investigate, and answer their own questions. Using StarLogo, a si...
Article
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The article argues that declining costs of computation will make digital technology accessible to everyone in all parts of world, but a serious fluency gap would remain. There will be a need to bridge the digital divide in the world. Fluency with new technologies means knowing how to make things of significance with those tools. Computer should be...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we introduce Folk Computing: an approach for using technology to support co-present community building inspired by the concept of folklore. We also introduce a new technology, called “i-balls,” whose design helped fashion this approach. The design of the i-ball environment is explained in terms of our effort to simultaneously preserv...
Book
This work investigates the effect of ecological interactions between organisms on the evolutionary dynamics of a community. A spatially explicit, individual-based model is presented, in which organisms compete for space and resources. We investigated ...
Article
Stories take hundreds of different forms and serve many functions. They can be as energetic as an entire life story or as simple as a case of directions to a favorite beach. Storytelling processes are challenged and changed by technological developments in the worlds of text and image manipulation. The invention of writing changed the story from an...
Article
When people think about computers, they often think about information. They talk about information technology, the information age, the information superhighway. They discuss how computers enable people to send, access, and manipulate information in many new ways. Note: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated is distrib...
Article
Five experts from various disciplines provide their perspectives on the role of computers in children's lives, discussing ways to ensure that computer technology is used equitably, effectively, and ethically to promote positive child development. Suggestions include training teachers, parents, and caregivers; developing new online content; viewing...
Article
Full-text available
When does something stop being a machine and become a creature? From a very early age, children find movement captivating. For centuries, we have been fascinated by the inanimate brought to life. The Jewish legend of the Golem, a hunk of clay brought to life by God, has been succeeded by the story of Frankenstein, mechanical automatons, 2001's Hal,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we describe the material of a construction kit designed to allow children to build their own handheld and wearable devices to meet their interests and passions. Children don't work with these machines, they learn, play and grow with them. Informed by the types of projects that children have done with this material in the context of ed...
Article
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The concept of emergent "levels" (i.e., levels that arise from interactions of objects at lower levels) is fundamental to scientific theory. In this paper, we argue for an expanded role for this concept of levels in science education. We show confusion of levels (and "slippage" between levels) as the source of many of people''s deep misunderstandin...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At the center of an intellectual community, members draw upon their knowledge of shared assumptions to have nuanced discussions about complex ideas. Newcomers to the conversation, who are on the edge of this "interpretive community," do not partake in the common ground necessary to join these discussions and can find themselves in a trapped state....
Article
The Era of Decentralization It seems fair to say that we live in an era of decentralization. Almost every time you pick up a newspaper, you can see evidence of the growing interest in decentralized systems. On the front page, you might read an article about the transition of the former Communist states from centrally planned economies to market-bas...
Article
Full-text available
Discusses authenticity as it is applied to educational interventions and argues that the concept should be analyzed more closely. Describes four kinds of authenticity; analyzes how computational media are well-suited to support different aspects of authentic learning; and discusses connectivity, modeling, and pluralism. Contains 75 references. (Aut...
Conference Paper
At the center of an intellectual community, members draw upon their knowledge of shared assumptions to have nuanced discussions about complex ideas. Newcomers to the conversation, who are on the edge of this "interpretive community," do not partake in the common ground necessary to join these discussions and can find themselves in a trapped state....
Article
Full-text available
In kindergartens and early-elementary classrooms, manipulative materials (such as Cuisenaire Rods and Pattern Blocks) play an important role in childrens learning, enabling children to explore mathematical and scientific concepts (such as number, shape, and size) through direct manipulation of physical objects. But as children grow older, and learn...
Article
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In research about the Internet, too much attention is paid to its ability to provide access to information. This thesis argues that the Internet can be used not just as a conduit for information, but as a context for learning through community-supported collaborative construction. A "constructionist" approach to use of the Internet makes particular...
Article
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Meme Tags are part of a body of research on GroupWear: a wearable technology that supports people in the formative stages of cooperative work. Conference participants wear Meme Tags that allow them to electronically share memes - succinct ideas or opinions - with each other. Alongside of the person-to-person transactions, a server system collects i...
Article
If the sciences of complexity are ever to enter the business mainstream, we will need more than good new science; we will need to get people to see the world differently. The lessons of complexity—and perhaps most notably the phenomenon of self-organization—challenge fundamental prejudices people have about how the world works. This article propose...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the design of a new type of name tag--- a GroupWear tag---that is capable of displaying information related not simply to an individual, but rather to an interaction between two people (for example, a measure of how much they have in common). These GroupWear tags are discussed as an instance of "thin-layer" social technology: so...
Article
Full-text available
We have built a set of computationally-augmented name-tags capable of providing information about the relationship between two people engaged in a face-to-face conversation. This paper puts forward criteria useful for the design of such interpersonal augmentation, experiences that inform the principles, and initial evidence of their success.
Article
There is a growing interest in role-playing activities, both in school classrooms and in the culture at large. Despite this growing interest, role-playing activities are rare in mathematics and science classrooms. In social-studies activities, a major goal is to help students adopt the perspective of another person. However, mathematics and science...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest in role-playing activities, both in school classrooms and in the culture at large. Despite this growing interest, role-playing activities are rare in mathematics and science classrooms. In social-studies activities, a major goal is to help students adopt the perspective of another person. But mathematics and science clas...
Article
The stereo has many attractions: it is easier to play and it provides immediate access to a wide range of music. But "ease of use" should not be the only criterion. Playing the piano can be a much richer experience. By learning to play the piano, you can become a creator (not just a consumer) of music, expressing yourself musically in ever-more com...
Article
The conventional name tag automatically dispenses information at a time when it is useful and relevant. The name of the person wearing the tag is visible in a face-to-face encounter. The information presented on a name tag changes according to who is wearing the name tag, but it does not depend on who is viewing the name tag. This paper presents a...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the applications and implications of the Programmable Brick-a tiny, portable computer embedded inside a LEGO® brick, capable of interacting with the physical world in a large variety of ways. We describe how Programmable Bricks make possible a wide range of new design activities for children, and we discuss experiences in...
Article
This paper presents studies that relate to a new MIT Media Laboratory initiative called Things That Think. In this initiative, researchers are focusing on physical 'things', embedding computational capabilities into everyday objects such as toys, clothing, furniture, and even balloons. The goal is not simply to create 'neat gadgets' or time-saving...
Article
The gap between the technological "haves" and "have-nots" is widening, leading to dangerous economic and cultural rifts in our society. But access to technology alone is not enough to bridge this gap. This paper describes a new model of a learning community, called the computer clubhouse, that breaks away from the traditional computer lab. at the c...