Miriam Law Smith

Miriam Law Smith
University of Limerick | UL · Department of Psychology

BSc, MSc, PhD, DClinPsych

About

43
Publications
36,510
Reads
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3,124
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2015 - February 2019
University of Limerick
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2008 - present
Health Service Executive, Ireland
Position
  • Medical Professional
July 2007 - September 2008
Trinity College Dublin

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Objectives: This study aims to investigate the impact of a therapeutic horse riding (HR) intervention and an audiovisual (AV) intervention comprising exposure to equine rhythm and motion on developmental parameters of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Design: The study design was a pretest/post-test. Settings/location: T...
Article
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial expressions of basic emotions is conflicting. Many studies reporting no deficits have used stimuli that may be too simple (with associated ceiling effects), for example, 100% 'full-blown' expressions...
Article
Full-text available
While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), the contribution of common variation to the risk of developing ASD is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has implicated the involvement of androgens in sex-role orientation in males, from studies of 2 nd to 4 th digit ratio (a purported marker of prenatal testosterone). The present pilot study investigates the relationship between salivary testosterone levels and sex-role orientation using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) scores in adul...
Article
Previous studies have shown that women with higher maternal tendencies are shorter and have lower testosterone levels than those with lower maternal tendencies. Here we report two studies that investigated the relationships between maternal tendencies and two further measures of physical masculinization/feminization; urinary estrogen metabolite (es...
Article
Full-text available
The debate over changing ideals of beauty in Western society remains unresolved more than 20 years after Singh’s (1993) seminal study [1] suggesting there was a universal male preference for a female body shape with a low waist to hip ratio (circa 0.7), which relates to maximum fecundity. Subsequent research has supported this universal preference...
Article
We tested for individual differences in women's preferences for cues to intelligence in male faces in accordance with hormonal status (i.e. menstrual cycle phase and use of hormonal contraceptives), relationship status and context, and self-rated intelligence. There were no effects of hormonal or relationship status (Studies 1 and 2) on preferences...
Article
The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornament...
Article
The link between femininity and attractiveness in the female face is attributed to the value placed on fertility in attractiveness judgements of women. This is supported by relationships between femininity, health and age, although relatively little research has systematically tested the contribution of each to femininity, or individual differences...
Article
Full-text available
The stress-linked immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (SL-ICHH) of sexual selection incorporates a role of the stress hormone corticosterone (C; cortisol in humans) in relationships between testosterone (T), immunity and secondary sexual trait expression. In support of this, C has been shown to mediate and moderate relationships between T and immu...
Article
Full-text available
The prevailing view on the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on emotion is that it dampens emotional experience due to a loss of peripheral bodily feedback, with the higher the lesion on the spinal cord the greater the reduction in the intensity of emotional experience. This view persists despite many studies showing an absence of such an emotion...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous researchers have examined the effects of skin condition, including texture and color, on the perception of health, age, and attractiveness in human faces. They have focused on facial color distribution, homogeneity of pigmentation, or skin quality. We here investigate the role of overall skin color in determining perceptions of health from...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the current studies was to test an assumption that variation in female preferences for sexually dimorphic male facial characteristics reflects strategic optimisation of investment in offspring. A negative relationship was predicted between ideal number of children and preferences for masculine male face shapes, as the benefits of securin...
Data
Full-text available
Effects of the analysis of face sex and participant sex on amount of colour change applied. An effect of participant ID was found for oxygenated and deoxygenated trials, suggesting that participants behave differently from each other. 70% of participants increase deoxygenated blood colouration and 97% of participants increase oxygenated blood colou...
Data
Effects of face ethnicity and participant ethnicity of colour change applied in the cross-cultural study. (0.01 MB PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Colour transform applied to produce the high colour endpoint image. The sign is changed for the low colour endpoint image. (0.02 MB PDF)
Data
Colour changes along component CIELab axes and total colour change (ΔE). Mean change across participants and faces (±SE) in the single-axis pigment transforms to maximize health. (0.02 MB PDF)
Data
Effects of participant ID and initial face colour on colour change applied to optimise healthy appearance. (0.01 MB PDF)
Data
Full-text available
Overall CIELab and ΔE colour change in two-dimensional pigment trials. (0.02 MB PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated...
Conference Paper
Background: The ability to recognise the emotional expressions of others forms an essential part of successful social functioning. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial emotions is equivocal. Some studies have shown individuals with ASD...
Article
Full-text available
While many studies of face preferences have emphasized high agreement among individuals about the types of faces they consider attractive and unattractive, other studies have demonstrated systematic variation in face preferences. Here, we review the evidence that women's preferences for masculinity, apparent health, and self-resemblance in faces ch...
Article
Full-text available
Women's preferences for masculinity in men's faces, voices and behavioral displays change during the menstrual cycle and are strongest around ovulation. While previous findings suggest that change in progesterone level is an important hormonal mechanism for such variation, it is likely that changes in the levels of other hormones will also contribu...
Article
Findings from previous studies of hormone-mediated behavior in women suggest that raised progesterone level increases the probability of behaviors that will reduce the likelihood of disruption to fetal development during pregnancy (e.g. increased avoidance of sources of contagion). Here, we tested women's (N=52) sensitivity to potential cues to nea...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the socioeconomic and familial background of Irish Catholic priests born between 1867 and 1911. Previous research has hypothesized that lack of marriage opportunities may influence adoption of celibacy as part of a religious institution. The present study traced data from Irish seminary registries for 46 Catholic priests born in...
Article
A number of sex differences in mate preferences have been reported across cultures. Women prefer partners who are older than them whereas men prefer partners who are younger than them. Women have stronger preferences for resource-acquisition characteristics whereas men have stronger preferences for physical attractiveness. Recently, studies have re...
Article
Men with low testosterone (feminine men) invest in relationships and offspring more than men with high testosterone (masculine men). Women's attraction to testosterone dependent traits (e.g. masculine face shape) is enhanced during the late-follicular, fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Attractive, feminine women have stronger preferences for ma...
Article
Full-text available
Although many accounts of facial attractiveness propose that femininity in women's faces indicates high levels of oestrogen, there is little empirical evidence in support of this assumption. Here, we used assays for urinary metabolites of oestrogen (oestrone-3-glucuronide, E1G) and progesterone (pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, P3G) to investigate the r...
Article
Previous research has linked testosterone levels with sex-specific personality traits within women. The present study investigates the relation between salivary testosterone levels and specifically maternal personality traits in healthy adult women. Twenty-seven young women completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Additional questions were aske...
Article
Previous research has shown that variation in sex-specific personality traits in women can be predicted by measures of physical masculinisation (second to fourth digit ratio and circulating testosterone). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that certain sex-specific traits in women (maternal tendencies and career orientation) could be predicted...
Article
Previous studies of changes in women's behavior during the menstrual cycle have offered insight into the motivations underpinning women's preferences for social cues associated with possible direct benefits (e.g., investment, low risk of infection) and indirect benefits (e.g., offspring viability). Here we sought to extend this work by testing for...
Article
The attractiveness of women's faces, voices, bodies, and odors appear to be interrelated, suggesting that they reflect a common trait such as femininity. We invoked novel approaches to test the interrelationships between female vocal and facial attractiveness and femininity. In Study 1, we examined the relationship between facial-metric femininity...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies demonstrating changes in women's face preferences have emphasized increased attraction to cues to possible indirect benefits (e.g. heritable immunity to infection) that coincides with periods of high fertility (e.g. the late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle). By contrast, here we show that when choosing between composite fac...
Article
Physical condition (e.g., health, fertility) influences female mate preferences in many species, with females in good condition preferring "higher quality" (e.g., healthier) mates. In humans, condition may comprise both physical (e.g., health and fertility) and psychological factors (e.g., stress, anxiety, and depression). We found that women with...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
a) Development, Validation and Application of ELISA methods for the estimation of Steroids in Biological fluids b) Validity of the different methods of collecting saliva to accurately measure Steroid hormones. c) Correlation of salivary steroid hormone levels with those in plasma samples ( e.g. daily rhythm, gender effect and stress-induced)
Project
Determine the relationship between health variables - fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, blood pressure etc - and apparent health and attractiveness of faces and bodies