Min Liu

Min Liu
University of Texas at Austin | UT · Department of Curriculum and Instruction

Ed.D.

About

126
Publications
30,702
Reads
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3,664
Citations
Citations since 2016
29 Research Items
1949 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
In this study, we examined interaction behaviors between a small number of participants in two massive open online courses (MOOCs) and an FAQ chatbot, focusing on the participants’ native language markers. We used a binary native language marker (non-native English user vs. native English user) to distinguish between two groups in this multiple cas...
Article
In this design case, we describe our experience of designing and creating a teacher’s dashboard as an accompanying tool to support sixth-grade teachers who implement a technology-supported problem-based learning program on sixth-grade space science in their classrooms. We describe in detail the background of this design case, our motivation to crea...
Chapter
Full-text available
While the research on learning analytics (LA) has increased rapidly in recent years, many inquiries remain insufficiently answered including how to effectively visualize data to better promote teaching and learning. First, this chapter provides a systematic literature review on the current research and practice of using visualizations as an analyti...
Article
Full-text available
Augmented reality (AR) as an emerging technology has gradually been incorporated into educational contexts; however, the cases that incorporate AR into early childhood contexts are underrepresented and especially scant in the literacy domain. Aiming to measure the impact of AR on early childhood learning and motivation in the literacy domain, this...
Article
Research has repeatedly proven the importance of social interactions in online learning contexts such as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), where learners often reported isolation and a lack of peer support. Previous studies of social presence suggested that the ways learners present themselves socially online affect their learning outcomes. In o...
Chapter
Low engagement has been a longstanding problem in MOOCs. How- ever, engagement is crucial in social learning contexts. To further understand learners’ engagement in MOOC discussion forum, this study focuses on the perspective of social presence, an important factor that mediates learners’ positions within a learning network. To tackle the challenge...
Article
Full-text available
Literature on MOOCs has shown that understanding learners’ perspectives in taking MOOCs is critical if a MOOC needs to be successful. Now that MOOCs have been in wide use, in this study we took an updated look at learners’ perspective of taking MOOCs designed for working professionals and course aspects that these MOOC participants found beneficial...
Article
Literature has documented the benefits of problem-based learning (PBL), but also shown significant barriers to using PBL in K–12 education. Yet, the research describing why and how K–12 teachers implement PBL is insufficient. In this qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, we investigate why 25 middle school teachers chose to implement...
Article
More research is needed on how to best use analytics to support educational decisions and design effective learning environments. This study was to explore and mine the data captured by a digital educational game designed for middle school science to understand learners’ behavioral patterns in using the game, and to use evidence-based findings to i...
Article
Most of the previous problem-based learning (PBL) studies have been conducted with gifted or regular education students and have shown successes. However, little research on PBL exists for disadvantaged middle school students, especially students who are considered to be at risk of failing academically. In this study, we examined the use of a multi...
Chapter
In this study, we investigated how participants in a MOOC designed for working professionals interacted with various key course components of the MOOC (e.g., discussion forums, readings, videos, quizzes, optional resources) and the usage patterns connected to participants’ profiles and perceptions. The results showed an overall declining trend of u...
Chapter
The purposes of this chapter are three-fold: to (a) review the research on 3D immersive and interactive technology (or virtual reality, VR) conducted so far for educational purposes both in the earlier years of the technology and in more recent years, (b) discuss a few VR technology tools available today, and (c) describe three scenarios in science...
Article
This study examined 342 teachers' views of professional development (PD) provided by a large school district to support its iPad initiative. We were interested in investigating teachers' perceptions of this district-provided PD, any change in teachers' views, and how they used iPads in their instruction while/after receiving PD. The findings, using...
Conference Paper
Visual analytics have emerged as a way to allow researchers to understand big data in diverse learning contexts. We are interested in using visualization techniques to examine learners’ behavior patterns in an adaptive learning environment and explore the relationship between performance and behavior patterns. Participants were first-year students...
Article
Full-text available
There is much enthusiasm in higher education about the benefits of adaptive learning and using big data to investigate learning processes to make data-informed educational decisions. The benefits of adaptive learning to achieve personalized learning are obvious. Yet, there lacks evidence-based research to understand how data such as user behavior p...
Article
Educators agree on the benefits of adaptive learning, but evidence-based research remains limited as the field of adaptive learning is still evolving within higher education. In this study, we investigated the impact of an adaptive learning intervention to provide remedial instruction in biology, chemistry, math, and information literacy to first-y...
Conference Paper
In this case study, we documented how four teachers, two at the elementary level and two at secondary level, used iPads in their teaching. These teachers were part of their district-wide mobile initiative and were given an iPad to use both inside and outside schools for one year. The results showed a wide variety of iPad uses. Using iPads to provid...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown how open-ended serious games can facilitate students' development of specific skills and improve learning performance through problem-solving. However, understanding how students learn these complex skills in a game environment is a challenge, as much research uses typical paper-and-pencil assessments and self-reported surveys or...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to conduct a systematic review of research on studies using analytics (particularly in-game data such as logs) in serious games (SG) to understand what research has been conducted and what research evidences there are in using analytics in SG to support teaching and learning. The findings of this review showed learner...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Serious Game (SG) is a virtual process designed for the purpose of real-world problem-solving. In SG analytics studies, learning processes are tracked using diverse techniques to support the personalization of instruction. However, it is a challenge to find potential meanings of each parameter of the tracking logs and define an appropriate indica...
Chapter
We examine the use of a ludic simulation designed for middle school space science to support students' learning and motivation. A total of 383 sixth graders and 447 seventh graders participated in this study. The findings showed that sixth- and seventh-graders perceived the simulation as having substantial ludic characteristics and educational valu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Given MOOCs being a relatively new format of online instruction, evidence-based research is needed to understand the role of MOOCs in changing the educational landscape, especially how students use the tools provided in MOOCs. This study investigated how students interacted with the discussion forum in a MOOC, and how they utilized Facebook and Twi...
Article
While there is evidence of the growing popularity of iPads and other tablets in K–12 education, little is understood about how teachers use these devices in their instruction. This study examines 342 teachers' comfort level with and perception toward iPad use and any changes that occurred over the implementation year. Using a mixed-methods design,...
Article
In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants’ learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed associ...
Chapter
The purposes of this chapter are three-fold: to (a) review the research on 3D immersive and interactive technology (or virtual reality, VR) conducted so far for educational purposes both in the earlier years of the technology and in more recent years, (b) discuss a few VR technology tools available today, and (c) describe three scenarios in science...
Article
Full-text available
Using a multi-case approach, we examined students’ behavior patterns in interacting with a serious game environment using the emerging technologies of learning analytics and data visualization in order to understand how the patterns may vary according to students’ learning characteristics. The results confirmed some preliminary findings from our pr...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, massive open online Courses (MOOCs) as an online instruction format have attracted educators’ attention in higher education. While there are many news reports and blog entries about MOOCs, evidence-based research is still emerging. Research examining the learners’ perspective on taking a MOOC is scarce but very much needed. This st...
Article
Full-text available
Although educators are excited about the potential of social network sites for language learning (SNSLL), there is a lack of understanding of how SNSLL can be used to facilitate teaching and learning for English as Second language (ESL) instructors and students. The purpose of this study was to examine the affordances of four selected SNSLL (LingQ,...
Chapter
This study intends to use data visualization to examine learners’ behaviors in a 3D immersive serious game for middle school science to understand how the players interact with various features to solve the central problem. The analysis combined game log data with measures of in-game performance and learners’ goal orientations. The findings indicat...
Chapter
In this chapter, we, the faculty from the Learning Technologies Program at The University of Texas at Austin, describe our research interests and share findings from our research conducted in past few years. Through multiple research projects examining various factors affecting technology use in K-16, we discuss the affordances of different technol...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined participants’ learning experiences in the context of a six-week massive open online course (MOOC) in journalism with five thousand students from 137 countries. Three research questions were asked: (1) Who are the students and why are they enrolled in this MOOC?, (2) How much time have the students spent in taking this MOOC and h...
Article
The purpose of this literature review is to examine data-based studies published on mobile learning in K–12 from 2007 to the present. In total, 63 studies from 15 refereed journals were selected for analysis. The findings are organized in four themes: (a) comparison studies, (b) nocomparison studies, (c) mobilized learning, and (d) academic content...
Article
Full-text available
Given the growing popularity of digital games as a form of entertainment, educators are interested in exploring using digital games as a tool to facilitate learning. In this study, we examine game-based learning by describing a learning environment that combines game elements, play, and authenticity in the real world for the purpose of engaging stu...
Article
This case study investigated a m-learning initiative by a large school district in the United States to provide iPod touch devices 24/7 to teachers and students of English Language Learners. We described the initiative and presented the research findings of its implementation for two years at elementary and middle school levels. The results reveale...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the design and development process used to create Alien Rescue, a multimedia-enhanced learning environment that supports problem-based learning (PBL) in middle school science. The goal of the project is to further our understandings of technology, pedagogy, and instructional theories as they relate to the application of PBL wit...
Article
Full-text available
Educators have become increasingly interested in the learning benefits that mobile technology can provide to students in and out of classrooms. While mere is considerable enthusiasm for using mobile devices to support learning with their multimedia capabilities, portability, connectivity, and flexibility, there is a paucity of research evidence abo...
Article
Full-text available
This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study....
Article
In this paper, the authors describe a ludic simulation designed for middle school space science and examine its use to support students' learning and motivation. The participants were 383 sixth graders and 447 seventh graders. The findings of this study showed that sixth-and seventh-graders perceived the simulation as having substantial ludic chara...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown cognitive tools have the potential to facilitate knowledge construction, support conceptual understanding, and, most importantly, scaffold higher-order cognitive tasks within complex learning environments. For learners who lack well-developed knowledge structures and problem-solving strategies, cognitive tools can provide essenti...
Article
Mobile technology has been noted as a valuable resource for students in K-12 education and potentially for English Language Learners (ELL). ELL students enter schools with different levels of English proficiency and teaching such a population often presents a daunting academic challenge. Using mobile devices for learning, holds certain potentials a...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how a group of ten middle school teachers implemented a technology enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment. The goal was to understand their motivation, document their implementation techniques, and identify factors that teachers considered important in using technology-based PBL tools in their teaching. The analysis i...
Article
The purpose of this study is to better understand users' multitasking behavior patterns and to extract design implications based on user experience and user testing evaluation. To understand users' multitasking strategies, we conducted a user testing and post-session interviews. Our preliminary results show that each user has different strategies f...
Article
While mobile devices have become very popular for communication and entertainment, there is a lack of research about how these devices can contribute in educational settings. This chapter describes an effort to use iPod touch devices as a teaching tool in middle school English Language Learner classes. The authors explore the affordances of the iPo...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter examines the various cognitive tools embedded in a multimedia-enriched PBL environment for middle school science known as Alien Rescue and shares the research findings of the use of these cognitive tools in assisting young learners’ problem solving. The goal of this chapter is to illustrate strategies for designing media-rich cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines middle school students’ learning and motivation as they engaged in a new media enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment for middle school science. Using a mixed-method design with both quantitative and qualitative data, we investigated the effect of a new media environment on sixth graders’ science learning, their motiv...
Article
This study examined the impact of animation interactivity on novices’ learning of introductory statistics. The interactive animation program used in this study was created with Adobe Flash following Mayer’s multimedia design principles as well as Kristof and Satran’s interactivity theory. This study was guided by three main questions: 1) Is there a...
Article
This study examined the learning experiences of 478 middle school science students using a problem-based ludic simulation over a 3-week period to learn space science. Findings from both quantitative and qualitative data revealed that use of the simulation supported student learning and that knowledge gains helped reduce gender-based achievement gap...
Article
This paper presents a cognitive model of how interactive multimedia authoring (IMA) affect novices' cognition in objectoriented programming. This model was generated through an empirical study of first year computer science students at the university level being engaged in interactive multimedia authoring of a role-playing game. Clinical interviews...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examines middle school students' learning and motivation as they engaged in a multimedia enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment for middle school science. Using a mixed-method design with both quantitative and qualitative data, we investigated the effect of a multimedia environment on sixth graders' science learning, their lev...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we explore students’ engagement in a new media enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment and investigate the characteristics of these environments that facilitate learning. We investigated both student experiences using a new media enhanced PBL environment and the specific elements students found most supportive of their learn...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue, and to find out in what ways students consider Alien Rescue motivating. Alien Rescue is a PBL environment for students to learn science. Fifty-seven sixth-grade students were interviewed. Analysis of th...
Article
Dr. William Michael “Mike” Reed was an accomplished, dedicated, and recognized educator in instructional technology. Strongly rooted in the classroom, Mike was driven in the early 1980 s and 1990 s to explore the uses of computers in education beyond computer literacy itself. His work evolved from the possible connections between computer literacy...
Article
ABSTRACT This paper examines,how,to design interactive multimedia,learning environments,to provide necessary support for developing,higher level cognitive skills. We looked at one approach of engaging learners as multimedia designers using a project-based learning approach. We described this learner-as-multimedia-designer environment and synthesize...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a technology-enhanced learning environment, Alien Rescue, which has been modified specifically to support approaches for conducting design-based research (DBR). DBR is an approach to research that emphasizes the generation of theory by evaluating reiterative enhancements to an instructional innovation within...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To help students learn the critical thinking skills and the essential strategies for being engaged citizens in a technology-and media-suffused 21st century, digital technologies are often used to create enriched learning environments. Although learning problem-solving skills is typically deemed as important, acquiring skills needed to solve ill-str...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To help students learn the critical thinking skills and the essential strategies for being engaged citizens in a technology- and media-suffused 21st century, digital technologies are often used to create enriched learning environments. Although learning problem-solving skills is typically deemed as important, acquiring skills needed to solve ill-st...
Article
This paper presents the results of an online survey and a usability test performed on three foreign language learning websites that use Web 2.0 technology. The online sur-vey was conducted to gain an understanding of how current users of language learning websites use them for learning and social purposes. The usability test was conducted to gain a...
Conference Paper
This paper discusses a cognitive study of how interactive multimedia authoring (IMA) affects novice computer science students' conceptual understanding of object-oriented programming (OOP). In this study, interactive multimedia authoring refers to the construction of a role-playing game using a game template developed with Adobe Flash CS3 and Actio...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate students' engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue, and to find out in what ways students consider Alien Rescue motivating. Alien Rescue is a PBL environment for students to learn science. Fifty-seven sixth-grade students were interviewed. Analysis of th...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to use multiple data sources, both objective and subjective, to capture students' thinking processes as they were engaged in problem solving, examine the cognitive tool use patterns, and understand what tools were used and why they were used. The findings of this study confirmed previous research and provided clear emp...
Article
Full-text available
A Web mashup is an application that combines data and functionality from more than one source. By bringing disparate data to-gether in ways that enable users to do new things or accomplish common tasks with newfound efficiency, mashups are rapidly increasing in number and may offer exciting new possibilities for classroom instruction. How-ever, in...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the...
Chapter
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate students’ engagement with a multimedia enhanced problem-based learning (PBL) environment, Alien Rescue, and to find out in what ways students consider Alien Rescue motivating. Alien Rescue is a PBL environment for students to learn science. Fifty-seven sixth-grade students were interviewed. Analysis of th...
Article
As technology evolves rapidly, users of technology products and interactive computing systems are no longer only satisfied with the levels of product efficiency and effectiveness. Users are also looking for emotional satisfaction from using and interacting with the products. With powerful interactive features technology can potentially deliver more...
Article
Universities increasingly expect faculty to integrate technology in their teaching and deliver instructional materials in innovative ways. The responsibility for creating technology-enhanced instruction typically falls on faculty who want to deliver instruction more effectively and efficiently and on students who are hired or assigned to assist the...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of using computer databases as cognitive tools to share learners' cognitive load and facilitate learning in a multimedia problem-based learning (PBL) environment designed for sixth graders. Two research questions were: (a) can the computer database tool share sixth-graders' cognitive load? and (...
Chapter
Universities increasingly expect faculty to integrate technology in their teaching and deliver instructional materials in innovative ways. The responsibility for creating technology-enhanced instruction typically falls on faculty who want to deliver instruction more effectively and efficiently and on students who are hired or assigned to assist the...
Article
Much research exists on how problem-solving in hypermedia is assisted through the use of navigational aids. However, as hypermedia becomes more pedagogically rich, the structural characteristics of hypermedia no longer serve merely as navigational aids, but often as cognitive tools. When cognitive tools are embedded in problem-solving hypermedia en...
Article
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to posttest and also retained much of what they...
Article
In this study, we examined the use of cognitive tools provided in a problem-based hypermedia learning environment for sixth graders. Purposes were to understand how the built-in tools were used, and if tool use was associated with different problem-solving stages. Results showed that tools supporting cognitive processing and sharing cognitive load...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the connection between sixth graders' cognitive tool use and the cognitive processes they engage in as they solve a complex problem in a hypermedia learning environment. The three research questions were: 1) Which cognitive tools are used for which cognitive processes? 2) Is there a relationship between the...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a problem-based hypermedia learning environment on sixth graders' performance and attitudes. We were interested in finding the ways hypermedia technology could be used as cognitive tools to share the responsibilities of teachers to provide necessary scaffolding