Min Chen

Min Chen
University of Oxford | OX · Department of Engineering Science

Doctor of Philosophy

About

238
Publications
60,764
Reads
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4,238
Citations
Introduction
Min Chen currently works at the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford. Min does research in Information Science, Human-computer Interaction and Computer Graphics. Their current project is 'EU H2020-MSCA-RISE NeEDS: Research and Innovation Staff Exchange Network of European Data Scientists'.

Publications

Publications (238)
Article
Visualization and virtual environments (VEs) have been two interconnected parallel strands in visual computing for decades. Some VEs have been purposely developed for visualization applications, while many visualization applications are exemplary showcases in general-purpose VEs. Because of the development and operation costs of VEs, the majority o...
Article
Full-text available
While many VA workflows make use of machine-learned models to support analytical tasks, VA workflows have become increasingly important in understanding and improving Machine Learning (ML) processes. In this paper, we propose an ontology (VIS4ML) for a subarea of VA, namely "VA-assisted ML". The purpose of VIS4ML is to describe and understand exist...
Book
This book explores Information theory (IT) tools, which have become state of the art to solve and understand better many of the problems in visualization. This book covers all relevant literature up to date. It is the first book solely devoted to this subject, written by leading experts in the field.
Article
In this paper, we present an empirical study designed to evaluate the hypothesis that humans’ soft knowledge can enhance the cost-benefit ratio of a visualization process by reducing the potential distortion. In particular, we focused on the impact of three classes of soft knowledge: (i) knowledge about application contexts, (ii) knowledge about th...
Article
The majority of display devices used in visualization are 2D displays. Inevitably, it is often necessary to overlay one piece of visual information on top of another, especially in applications such as multi-field visualization and geo-spatial information visualization. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for studying the mechanisms fo...
Article
Full-text available
The use of data has been essential throughout the unfolding COVID-19 pandemic. We have needed it to populate our models, inform our understanding, and shape our responses to the disease. However, data has not always been easy to find and access, it has varied in quality and coverage, been difficult to reuse or repurpose. This paper reviews these an...
Preprint
This paper introduces design patterns for dashboards to inform their design processes. Despite a growing number of public examples, case studies, and general guidelines there is surprisingly little design guidance for dashboards. Such guidance is necessary to inspire designs and discuss tradeoffs in screenspace, interaction, and information shown....
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on an ongoing collaboration between epidemiological modellers and visualization researchers by documenting and reflecting upon knowledge constructs -- a series of ideas, approaches and methods taken from existing visualization research and practice -- deployed and developed to support modelling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Structured indepen...
Article
Full-text available
The effort for combating the COVID-19 pandemic around the world has resulted in a huge amount of data, e.g., from testing, contact tracing, modelling, treatment, vaccine trials, and more. In addition to numerous challenges in epidemiology, healthcare, biosciences, and social sciences, there has been an urgent need to develop and provide visualisati...
Preprint
Grounded theory (GT) is a research methodology that entails a systematic workflow for theory generation grounded on emergent data. In this paper, we juxtapose GT workflows with typical workflows in visualization and visual analytics, shortly VIS, and underline the characteristics shared by these workflows. We explore the research landscape of VIS t...
Article
Full-text available
Many visual representations, such as volume-rendered images and metro maps, feature a noticeable amount of information loss due to a variety of many-to-one mappings. At a glance, there seem to be numerous opportunities for viewers to misinterpret the data being visualized, hence, undermining the benefits of these visual representations. In practice...
Article
Colormapping is one of the simplest and most widely used data visualization methods within and outside the visualization community. Uniformity, order, discriminative power, and smoothness of continuous colormaps are the most important criteria for evaluating and potentially improving colormaps. We present a local and a global automatic optimization...
Conference Paper
We propose a novel educational approach for teaching visualization, using a community-driven and participatory methodology that extends the traditional course boundaries from the classroom to the broader visualization community.We use a visualization community project, VisGuides, as the main platform to support our educational approach. We evaluate...
Preprint
Information theory can be used to analyze the cost-benefit of visualization processes. However, the current measure of benefit contains an unbounded term that is neither easy to estimate nor intuitive to interpret. In this work, we propose to revise the existing cost-benefit measure by replacing the unbounded term with a bounded one. We examine a n...
Preprint
Many visual representations, such as volume-rendered images and metro maps, feature a noticeable amount of information loss. At a glance, there seem to be numerous opportunities for viewers to misinterpret the data being visualized, hence undermining the benefits of these visual representations. In practice, there is little doubt that these visual...
Article
Just like the numerous applications of visualization, there are plenty of theoretical arguments for why visualization can aid in knowledge generation and communication. Meanwhile, to date, these arguments have been presented independently, which hinders the exploitation of underlying properties of visualization in practice. We present a network of...
Article
Visual analytics enables the coupling of machine learning models and humans in a tightly integrated workflow, addressing various analysis tasks. Each task poses distinct demands to analysts and decision-makers. In this survey, we focus on one canonical technique for rule-based classification, namely decision tree classifiers. We provide an overview...
Preprint
Full-text available
The effort for combating the COVID-19 pandemic around the world has resulted in a huge amount of data, e.g., from testing, contact tracing, modelling, treatment, vaccine trials, and more. In addition to numerous challenges in epidemiology, healthcare, biosciences, and social sciences, there has been an urgent need to develop and provide visualisati...
Chapter
The core of data science is our fundamental understanding about data intelligence processes for transforming data to decisions. One aspect of this understanding is how to analyze the cost-benefit of data intelligence workflows. This work is built on the information-theoretic metric proposed by Chen and Golan for this purpose and several recent stud...
Preprint
Visualization guidelines, if defined properly, are invaluable to both practical applications and the theoretical foundation of visualization. In this paper, we present a collection of research activities for studying visualization guidelines according to Grounded Theory (GT). We used the discourses at VisGuides, which is an online discussion forum...
Preprint
Full-text available
Visualization is a useful technology in health science, and especially for community network analysis. Because visualization applications in healthcare are typically risk-averse, health psychologists can play a significant role in ensuring appropriate and effective uses of visualization techniques in healthcare. In this paper, we examine the role o...
Preprint
Many computer science disciplines (e.g., combinatorial optimization, natural language processing, and information retrieval) use standard or established test suites for evaluating algorithms. In visualization, similar approaches have been adopted in some areas (e.g., volume visualization), while user testimonies and empirical studies have been the...
Preprint
In each of the last five years, a few dozen empirical studies appeared in visualization journals and conferences. The existing empirical studies have already featured a large number of variables. There are many more variables yet to be studied. While empirical studies enable us to obtain knowledge and insight about visualization processes through o...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the variables that have been considered in the controlled and semi-controlled experiments for studying phenomena in visualization. As all controlled and semi-controlled experiments have explicitly defined independent variables, dependent variables, extraneous variables, and operational variables, a survey of the...
Chapter
In recent years, empirical studies have increasingly been seen as a core part of visualization research, and user evaluations have proliferated. It is broadly understood that new techniques and applications must be formally validated in order to be seen as meaningful contributions. However, these efforts continue to face the numerous challenges inv...
Chapter
In visualization, there are many different wisdoms and opinions about why visualization works, what makes a good visualization, and how to design and evaluate visualization. Collectively these wisdoms and options have shaped a landscape of the schools of thought in the field of visualization. In this chapter, we examine various schools of thought i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Preservation of data privacy and protection of sensitive information from potential adversaries constitute a key socio-technical challenge in the modern era of ubiquitous digital transformation. Addressing this challenge needs analysis of multiple factors: algorithmic choices for balancing privacy and loss of utility, potential attack scenarios tha...
Article
Preservation of data privacy and protection of sensitive information from potential adversaries constitute a key socio‐technical challenge in the modern era of ubiquitous digital transformation. Addressing this challenge needs analysis of multiple factors: algorithmic choices for balancing privacy and loss of utility, potential attack scenarios tha...
Preprint
Information theory can be used to analyze the cost-benefit of visualization processes. However, the current measure of benefit contains an unbounded term that is neither easy to estimate nor intuitive to interpret. In this work, we propose to revise the existing cost-benefit measure by replacing the unbounded term with a bounded one. We examine a n...
Book
This is the first book that focuses entirely on the fundamental questions in visualization. Unlike other existing books in the field, it contains discussions that go far beyond individual visual representations and individual visualization algorithms. It offers a collection of investigative discourses that probe these questions from different persp...
Article
Continuous colormaps are integral parts of many visualization techniques, such as heat-maps, surface plots, and flow visualization. Despite that the critiques of rainbow colormaps have been around and well-acknowledged for three decades, rainbow colormaps are still widely used today. One reason behind the resilience of rainbow colormaps is the lack...
Preprint
This archiving article consists of several short reports on the discussions between the two authors over the past two years at Oxford and Madrid, and their work carried out during that period on the upper bound of the Kullback-Leibler divergence and cross entropy. The work was motivated by the cost-benefit ratio proposed by Chen and Golan [1], and...
Article
Visualization has been deemed a useful technique by researchers and practitioners, alike, leaving a trail of arguments behind that reason why visualization works. In addition, examples of misleading usages of visualizations in information communication have occasionally been pointed out. Thus, to contribute to the fundamental understanding of our d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Empirical studies form an integral part of visualization research. Not only can they facilitate the evaluation of various designs, techniques, systems, and practices in visualization, but they can also enable the discovery of the causalities explaining why and how visualization works. This state-of-the-art report focuses on controlled and semi-cont...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Minimization of disclosure risks is a key challenge in publicly available visualizations that can potentially reveal personal information. Such risks are inherently dependent on the amount of information that adversaries can gain by manipulating visual representations and by using their background knowledge. Conventional risk quantification models...
Preprint
In human computer interaction (HCI), it is common to evaluate the value of HCI designs, techniques, devices, and systems in terms of their benefit to users. It is less common to discuss the benefit of HCI to computers. Every HCI task allows a computer to receive some data from the user. In many situations, the data received by the computer embodies...
Article
Full-text available
Cross entropy and Kullback–Leibler (K-L) divergence are fundamental quantities of information theory, and they are widely used in many fields. Since cross entropy is the negated logarithm of likelihood, minimizing cross entropy is equivalent to maximizing likelihood, and thus, cross entropy is applied for optimization in machine learning. K-L diver...
Article
For the past two years, researchers from the visualization community and the digital humanities have come together at the IEEE VIS conference to discuss how both disciplines can work together to push research goals in their respective disciplines. In this paper, we present our experiences as a result of this collaboration.
Chapter
Full-text available
Visualization is a human-centric process, which is inevitably associated with potential biases in humans’ judgment and decision-making. While the discussions on humans’ biases have been heavily influenced by the work of Daniel Kahneman as summarized in his book “Thinking, Fast and Slow’, there have also been viewpoints in psychology in favor of heu...
Article
Visualization and virtual environments (VEs) have been two interconnected parallel strands in visual computing for decades. Some VEs have been purposely developed for visualization applications, while many visualization applications are exemplary showcases in general-purpose VEs. Because of the development and operation costs of VEs, the majority o...
Chapter
This chapter introduces information processing perspectives from cognitive psychology, providing historical background content where it might prove useful. The hope is that this will provide readers enough of an understanding of psychology perspectives, theories, and methods that they can better apply crowdsourcing methods to understand the cogniti...
Article
Scatterplots have been in use for about two centuries, primarily for observing the relationship between two variables and commonly for supporting correlation analysis. In this paper, we report an empirical study that examines how humans’ perception of correlation using scatterplots relates to the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient (PP...
Article
Mapping a set of categorical values to different colors is an elementary technique in data visualization. Users of visualization software routinely rely on the default colormaps provided by a system, or colormaps suggested by software such as ColorBrewer. In practice, users often have to select a set of colors in a semantically meaningful way (e.g....
Article
Full-text available
There is little doubt that having a theoretic foundation will benefit the field of visualization, including its main subfields. Because there has been a substantial amount of work on taxonomies and conceptual models in the visualization literature and some recent work on theoretic frameworks, such a theoretic foundation is not a foolish or impracti...
Article
Visualizing time series is a ubiquitous aspect of many applications from science to business. The conventional designs of line graphs and temporal parallel coordinates plots focus on the depiction of the temporal context, but typically fail to convey the spatial information associated with data values at each time step. In this paper, we present a...
Article
The design of effective glyphs for visualisation involves a number of different visual encodings. Since spatial position is usually already specified in advance, we must rely on other visual channels to convey additional relationships for multivariate analysis. One such relationship is the apparent order present in the data. This paper presents two...
Article
Full-text available
In many applications of spatial or temporal visualization, glyphs provide an effective means for encoding multivariate data. However, because glyphs are typically small, they are vulnerable to various perceptual errors. In information theory, Hamming distance underpins the study of codes that support error detection and correction by the receiver w...
Conference Paper
This research measures human performance in inferring the functional types (i.e., home, work, leisure and transport) of locations in geo-location data using different visual representations of the data (textual, static and animated visualizations) along with different amounts of data (1, 3 or 5 day(s)). We first collected real life geo-location dat...
Article
In many large engineering enterprises, searching for files is a high-volume routine activity. Visualization-assisted search facilities can significantly reduce the cost of such activities. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Search Provenance Graph (SPG), and present a technique for mapping out the search results and externalizing the proven...
Article
Detecting similarity between texts is a frequently encountered text mining task. Because the measurement of similarity is typically composed of a number of metrics, and some measures are sensitive to subjective interpretation, a generic detector obtained using machine learning often has difficulties balancing the roles of different metrics accordin...
Conference Paper
The design of effective glyphs for visualisation involves a number of different visual encodings. Since spatial position is usually already specified in advance, we must rely on other visual channels to convey additional relationships for multivariate analysis. One such relationship is the apparent order present in the data. This paper presents two...
Article
In this work, we present a study that traces the technical and cognitive processes in two visual analytics applications to a common theoretic model of soft knowledge that may be added into a visual analytics process for constructing a decision-tree model. Both case studies involved the development of classification models based on the 'bag of featu...
Article
In this paper, we present an abstract model of visualization and inference processes and describe an information-theoretic measure for optimizing such processes. In order to obtain such an abstraction, we first examined six classes of workflows in data analysis and visualization, and identified four levels of typical visualization components, namel...
Article
Previous empirical studies for comparing parallel coordinates plots and scatter plots showed some uncertainty about their relative merits. Some of these studies focused on the task of value retrieval, where visualization usually has a limited advantage over reading data directly. In this paper, we report an empirical study that compares user perfor...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the integration of a family of visual analytics techniques for analyzing high-dimensional, multivariate network data that features spatial and temporal information, network connections, and a variety of other categorical and numerical data types. Such data types are commonly encountered in transportation, shipping, and logisti...
Article
Organizing sport video data for performance analysis can be challenging, especially when this involves multiple attributes, and the criteria for sorting frequently changes depending on the user's task. In this work, we propose a visual analytic system to convert a user's knowledge on rankings to support such a process. The system enables users to s...
Article
Full-text available
In many data acquisition tasks, the placement of a real camera can vary significantly in complexity from one scene to another. Optimal camera positioning should be governed not only by least error sensitivity, but in addition to real-world practicalities given by various physical, financial and other types of constraints. It would be a laborious an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we reflect on the use of visualization techniques for analyzing electronic health record data with privacy concerns. Privacy-preserving data visualization is a relatively new area of research compared to the more established research areas of privacy-preserving data publishing and data mining. We describe the opportunities and challe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes a visual analytics method for visual-izing the effects of multiple anomaly detection models, ex-ploring the complex model space of a specific type of de-tection method, namely Query with Conditional Attributes (QCAT), and facilitating the construction of composite mod-els using multiple QCATs. We have developed a proto-type sys...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a visual analytics method for visualizing the effects of multiple anomaly detection models, exploring the complex model space of a specific type of detection method, namely Query with Conditional Attributes (QCAT), and facilitating the construction of composite models using multiple QCATs. We have developed a prototype system t...
Conference Paper
Crowdsourcing platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), are providing visualization researchers with a new avenue for conducting empirical studies. While such platforms offer several advantages over lab-based studies, they also feature some "unknown" or "uncontrolled" variables, which could potentially introduce serious confounding effec...
Article
Full-text available
The process of rigorous training and coaching is one that is essential to any sports player aiming to develop their abilities further. From the novice player through to professional athletes, it is vital to maintain and assess their level of performance in order to progress to a higher standard. However, traditional practice routines can often be n...
Article
Evaluation, solved and unsolved problems, and future directions are popular themes pervading the visualization community over the last decade. The top unsolved problem in both scientific and information visualization was the subject of an IEEE Visualization Conference panel in 2004. The future of graphics hardware was another important topic of dis...
Article
In this chapter, we consider the need in multifield visualization to depict information contained in two or more fields in a compositional manner. There are many different visual channels, some of which are more commonly seen in visualization than others. Channel fusion occurs when two or more visual entities have to share the same screen space. By...
Article
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. However, it is a time-consuming and cognitively demanding task to interpret, identify and compare various motion characteristics based on watching CMR imagery. In this work, we focus on the problems of visualising imagery resulting...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
1 bits 0 2.16 4.32 R 2 R 3 4 H C 5 6 7 S C 8 G 9 R 10 T 11 Y 12 H 13 14 15 F 16 N 17 P 18 P 19 K 20 V 21 E 22 G 23 K 24 D C 25 D 26 27 T C 28 G 29 E 30 31 L 32 33 Q 34 R 35 36 D bits 0 2.16 4.32 Figure 1: A) A 'traditional' sequence logo from [Bio13] showing: top -the consensus across 1809 protein sequences; middle -gram negative bacteria; and bott...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Glyphs have been successfully used in poetry visualization for depicting the characteristics and positions of each phonetic articulation in relation to the human vocal system. While existing glyph designs provide visual repre-sentations for detailed observation and external memorization of the dynamics throughout a poem, they are less effective for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Collaborative Virtual Environment (CVE) provides opportunity for users in a distant location to share and access Information and Communication Technology resources. In this paper, we propose the design of architectural framework of CVE based on cloud computing based paradigm in order to improve the effectiveness of the conventional CVE. The propose...
Article
Full-text available
In computer science, an ontology is essentially a graph-based knowledge representation in which each node corresponds to a concept and each edge specifies a relation between two concepts. Ontological development in biology can serve as a focus to discuss the challenges and possible research directions for ontologies in visualization. The principle...
Article
Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicat...