Milind M Gore

Milind M Gore
Indian Council of Medical Research | ICMR · Unit for Gorakhpur

Ph D

About

158
Publications
6,765
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1,724
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Publications

Publications (158)
Article
The circulation of flaviviruses, dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile (WN) viruses, and others, is generating a major concern in many countries. Both JE along with DEN have been endemic in large regions of India. WN virus infection, although circulating in southern regions for many years, in recent years, WN encephalitis patients...
Article
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Objectives: We estimate the effectiveness of Japanese encephalitis (JE) SA 14-14-2 live-attenuated vaccination single dose campaign among children aged 1-15 years in India during 2006-07. Methods: Acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases hospitalized following vaccination campaigns during the years 2006-08 were investigated retrospectively. The l...
Article
The etiological agent remained unidentified in a large number of patients hospitalized for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in 2008-2009 in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, north India. All patients were found to present with fever and altered sensorium, while 28%, 19% and 13% showed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and meningeal signs, respectively. Involvemen...
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Background: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) is a pressing public health problem in Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Japanese Encephalitis (JE), which has been endemic in this region, has shown a declining trend. AES not due to JE (Non JE) constitutes more than 75% of all cases and is associated with non-neurological clinical manifestations also. The...
Article
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious public health concern in most of Asia. The disease is caused by JE virus (JEV), a flavivirus transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Several vaccines have been developed to control JE in endemic areas as well as to protect travellers and military personnel who visit or are commissioned from non-endemic to endemic ar...
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Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two doses of JE vaccine ( first during 9-12 months and second during 16-24 months of age) are administered under the Universal Immunization Programme. We conducted surveys to estimate the coverage...
Article
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major seasonal health problem in many rural areas in India and other parts of Asia. Transmission of virus is through mosquito vectors biting followed by peripheral multiplication site and exposed to host immune response before it succeeds in invasion of CNS. Thus protection from viral infection is a complex in...
Article
Background: Each year more than 2000 AES cases are admitted in BRD Medical College, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India with about 20-25 per cent mortality. Out of the survivors many develop neurological sequel after discharge. There is little information on the extent of disabilities, and no published literature on the subsequent follow-up of the surv...
Article
Japanese encephalitis (JE) and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are endemic in estern part of Uttar Pradesh in India and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). JE vaccination and mass drug administration for JE and LF management is being undertaken respectively. In addition to this, indoor residual spraying and fogging are used for the cont...
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Background. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vaccine-preventable acute disease. We report the results of a phase 2/3 trial of JENVAC, a Vero cell–derived vaccine developed using an Indian strain of JE virus (JEV). Methods. JENVAC was administered in 2 doses 28 days apart, and immunogenicity was compared to that from a single dose of SA-14-14-2, the...
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To the Editor: Kakkar et al. recently concluded that the low-quality surveillance data on acute encephalitis syndrome (AES)/Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Kushinagar District, India, provide little evidence to support development of prevention and control measures and to estimate the effect of interventions (1). Analysis of the surveillance data, ho...
Article
•JE is an important cause of acute encephalitis in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India.•JE vaccine was introduced in immunization programme in 2011, targeting children aged 16-24 months.•Our survey indicated low coverage (51%) of JE vaccine in Gorakhpur division.•Effectiveness of 1-dose vaccination was comparable with studies conducted in othe...
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Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection results in acute encephalitic illness. The affinity of JEV to different regions of brain and temporal changes in viral load have not been studied. This study was conducted to describe localization of JEV to different regions of the brain at different stages of disease in a rat mod...
Article
Vaccination is the most important measure available to control the spread of Japanese encephalitis virus. We have previously described the in silico design, in vitro and primary in vivo analyses of polytope construct (P-JEV). Present study indicates that, P-JEV induces significant specific humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice. Mice...
Article
In India, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains one of the major causative agents of pediatric encephalitis. Macrophages support various neurotropic viruses and influence the immune response. However, the functional status of human macrophages during JEV infection remains unidentified. In this study, we examined the cytokine response and co-sti...
Article
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) remains one of the major causative agents of pediatric encephalitis. Interaction of dendritic cells (DCs) with innate lymphocytes (NK and NKT) represents a crucial event during anti-viral innate immune response. In the current study, we have tried to understand the interaction between JEV, human monocyte derived DC...
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A cross-sectional study was done on 100 consecutive paediatric patients presenting with acute encephalitis syndrome. The clinico-laboratory features of all patients were recorded in a prestructured performa. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples were tested for: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus; Chandipura virus; coxsackie virus; dengue virus; ente...
Article
Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a major public health threat with vaccination as the only measure for its prevention. Epitope-based vaccination is a promising approach for achieving protective immunity and avoid immunopathology in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection due to flavivirus cross-reactivity. We have mapped B-cell epitopes from...
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Fast, specific identification and surveillance of pathogens is the cornerstone of any outbreak response system, especially in the case of emerging infectious diseases and viral epidemics. This process is generally tedious and time-consuming thus making it ineffective in traditional settings. The added complexity in these situations is the non-avail...
Data
Read Statistics. Excel file containing detailed information on various read statistics.
Data
List of Variations. Microsoft DOC file containing table on variations identified in Japanese Encephalitis genome (NC_001437).
Data
RT-PCR validations. JPG image depicting reverse transcriptase validation for Japanese encephalitis.
Article
West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the members of JEV serocomplex group are pathogens of global health concern. The co-circulation of these viruses poses challenges in effective diagnostics due to antigenic similarity between the E-protein of these viruses. The present study aimed to design chimeric peptides and study the...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis, with ~50,000 cases reported annually worldwide. Vaccination is the only measure for prevention. Recombinant vaccines are an efficient and safe alternative for formalin inactivated or live attenuated vaccines. Nowadays, incorporation of molecular adjuvants has been the mai...
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Full-text available
Antigen presentation by non professional antigen presenting cells (APC) can lead to anergy. In genetic vaccines, targeting the macrophages and APC for efficient antigen presentation might lead to balanced immune response. One such approach is to incorporate APC specific promoter in the vector to be used. Three promoters known to be active in macrop...
Article
The Envelope glycoprotein (E-protein) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major structural component on the virion surface and is a primary target for the host immune system. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) NHA-I (IgG2b) and NHA-II (IgM) against JEV (Indian strain 733913) were earlier developed in the authors' laboratory and found to be cr...
Article
In order to understand the factors influencing pathogenicity of a virus, two neutralization escape (NE) variants were selected from wild type lineage 1 West Nile virus (WNV) 68856 strain pathogenic by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) route using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against envelope (E) protein. Both NE IF1A7 1.1 and NE IVC3F10 1.2 were resistant to...
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To the Editor: Seasonal outbreaks of fatal acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) occur regularly in several parts of India. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has been the major and consistent cause of these outbreaks in the Gorakhpur region of Uttar Pradesh State, accounting for >>10%-15% of total AES cases annually (1-3). In India, vaccinations agains...
Article
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induces an acute infection of the central nervous system, the pathogenic mechanism of which is not fully understood. To investigate host response to JEV infection, 14-day-old mice were infected via the extraneural route, which resulted in encephalitis and death. Mice that received JEV immune splenocyte transfer wer...
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Full-text available
During investigations into the outbreak of encephalitis in 1996 in the Kerala state in India, an arbovirus was isolated from a Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquito pool. It was characterized as a Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus cross-reactive arbovirus by complement fixation test. A plaque reduction-neutralization test was performed using hyp...
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Full-text available
Japanese encephalitis is an acute infection of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The importance of an effective humoral response in preventing JEV infection has already been established, although the contribution of cellular immunity remains unclear. This study used an experimental murine model to understand th...
Article
Full-text available
An outbreak of viral encephalitis occurred in northern India in 2006. Attempts to identify an etiologic agent in cerebrospinal fluid by using reverse transcription-PCR showed positivity to enterovirus (EV) in 66 (21.6%) of 306 patients. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of PCR products from 59 (89.3%) of 66 specimens showed similarity with EV-89...