Milene Gil

Milene Gil
Universidade de Évora | uevora · Laboratório HERCULES - Herança Cultural, Estudos e Salvaguarda

PhD
Researcher of Heritage Science, HERCULES Laboratory Ciência ID: E11E-AC92-94E9

About

58
Publications
16,465
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Citations
Introduction
Working on a new exciting project entitled Unveiling the mural painting art of Almada Negreiros (1938-1956): a technical, material and diagnostic scientific study as a guide for its future conservation and enjoyment. Check it out at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dyFAn6b0R9o and https://almadanegreiros.uevora.pt/. Subscribe our newsletter

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the first analytical approach carried out on two working palettes by Portuguese modernist master Almada Negreiros, found in 1991 behind old wood cabinets at the DN building in Lisbon. This is the only known occasion Almada left behind the color experiments done before starting to paint in the nearby walls and as such, it is a uni...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A review of the lime painting technique is made based on five Treatises and Construction Technical Manuals that were published in Portugal between 1880 and 1930 and were or became a reference in technical and professional education. The goal is to document the history of one of the most popular types of painting in Portuguese Building Heri...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the diagnostic research of deteriorated paint layers from three mural panels made by Almada Negreiros found in the Alcântara Maritime Station in Lisbon. The aim was to understand the main decay phenomena to aid future conservation works. The methodology comprised in-situ analyses by technical photography in Vis, Vis-RaK and UVF,...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the preliminary results of a comparative analysis of the effects of three consolidants on the color appearance of fresco paint layers affected by lack of cohesion. In vitro assays were performed with a laboratory-synthesized nanolime, a commercial nanolime (CaLoSiL® IP25), and a commercial acrylic resin (PrimalTM SF-016 ER®) appl...
Article
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This paper unveils for the first time the technical and material features of the mural painting entitled Pentecost's, executed by the Portuguese artist Julio Resende in 1955. The painting depicting twelve Apostles covers the altarpiece of a small church in the countryside of Évora (southern Portugal) and it was rediscovered in 2013 by art historian...
Article
This paper reports the results of a multi analytical research undertaken on a mural and on a panel painting altarpiece authored by José de Escovar in 1603, one of the most productive and controversial painters working for Évora Archiepiscopate at the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th century. The two paintings are among his first do...
Article
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The preservation of Cultural Heritage is undoubtedly important for the society, and Conservation Science must dedicate itself to attempts to minimize the inherent processes of degradation to which cultural assets are susceptible. In this context, the evaluation of the chemical aspects of the composition of the objects and their relation with the en...
Article
This article reports biocolonization assays carried out on yellow and red ochres and ultramarine blue pigments. These pigments have been most commonly used in traditional limewash of heritage buildings from southern Portugal (Alentejo) and, in the case of the yellow and red ochres, also in historical decorative wall paintings since Roman times. The...
Article
Full-text available
The identification of microorganisms involved in biodeterioration/biodegradation process is determinant to understand their effects on cultural assets, and furthermore, it is a crucial step to define an efficient strategy to protect monuments and artworks from microbiological recolonisation, in order to promote its preservation. The renaissance mur...
Research
Full-text available
Encontra-se aberto até dia 1 de Julho o call para o I Simpósio Ibérico "A cal na arte e no património edificado". Apelamos a todos os interessados que pretendam participar que enviem os seus resumos para o seguinte link ( http://www.hercules.uevora.pt/cal/organizacao.php) ou para o mail do evento (cal2017@uevora.pt).
Article
This work presents the results of the analysis of the organic materials (red lakes and binders) from the flesh tones, wings, and vests of the angels from the mural paintings from the Charola of the Convent of Tomar. Pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was selected for the identification of binders, and liquid ch...
Article
The present work aims to investigate for the first time the materials used in Ribeira Sacra's 16th century murals, as this knowledge would be valuable for research in Technical Art History and for interventions of conservation. A multi-analytical approach is proposed for the investigation of the pictorial palette and technique, and the degradation...
Article
This article reports the preliminary results of a technical and material study carried out on a 17th century panel painting located at the Chapel of the Souls in the main church of Vila Nova da Baronia (30 km away from Évora city, in southern Portugal). This painting is attributed to José the Escovar, a painter that worked for Évora Archiepiscopate...
Article
This article describes the results of a multi-analytical research carried out on the mural paintings from Évora Cathedral, one of the oldest and most prominent monuments of Évora city. The paintings were a late 16th Century addition to the cathedral's northern transept chapel and are attributed to the painter José de Escovar, whose painting worksho...
Raw Data
Detail Curriculum vitae_2016
Article
Full-text available
This study presents results on a developed methodology to characterize ground layers in Portuguese workshops.In this work a set of altarpieces of the 15th and 16th centuries, assigned to Coimbra painting workshop was studied, overall the masters Vicente Gil (doc. Coimbra 1498-1525), Manuel Vicente (doc. Coimbra 1521-1530) and Bernardo Manuel (act....
Article
The biodeterioration/biodegradation process is an important issue for the conservation of cultural heritage that needs urgent answers to their rehabilitation. In this way, the role of microorganisms in surfaces alteration was exploited. This work revealed a strong relationship between the microbiological proliferation and the damaged areas, evidenc...
Article
Full-text available
At the end of the 15th century, Évora was a cosmopolitan town whose importance was increasing in cultural and artistic terms. Throughout the 16th century, and until the first half of 17th century, the town experienced a golden age, welcoming many Portuguese and foreign artists, who were closely following the royal court. Among them there were paint...
Article
The present study characterizes the main deterioration mechanisms affecting the early 17th frescoes of Casa de Fresco, the only known example in Portugal of a semi-underground leisure room richly decorated with a balcony over a water well. Frescoes from the vault are at risk due to salt weathering and biodeterioration. The aim of the research was i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A cycle of 18 th century mural paintings was revealed in 2012 during maintenance works in the Crucifix Chapel of the Mother Church in Aci Sant'Antonio. The paintings have survived along the corners of the originally square chapel that was altered in the early 20 th century, acquiring the current octagonal-shaped construction. All of the murals exce...
Article
The present paper describes the characterization and comparative study carried out on the 16th century murals of Casas Pintadas of the so-called Vasco da Gama House in the town of Évora, Southern Portugal. Even today, the two existing paintings in the porch vaulted cloister raise many questions about the pictorial techniques and materials that were...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of documentary research for art history studies in Cultural Heritage is unquestionable to ascertain the date of a masterpiece, confirmation of authorship and acknowledgement or dismissal of its historical theories. Most of the research pertaining to paintings and painters has been conducted by art historians, but what kind of novel i...
Article
Full-text available
A cycle of 18th century frescoes, depicting the last days of Christ on earth, were recently discovered in Aci Sant’Antonio (Sicily). The paintings survive along the corners of an originally square chapel that was altered in the early 20th century, acquiring the current octagonal plan. This paper presents the results of the technical photography doc...
Article
The early 17th century mural paintings set from the low-choir of the extinct Dominican Convent of Nossa Senhora da Saudação in the town of Montemor-o-novo were analyzed by a setup comprising visible spectra-colorimetry and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) complemented with optical microscopy (...
Article
The aim of this work is the material characterization of wall paintings and biodegradation assessment, including the analysis of microbial growth and the effect of microbial proliferation, in view of their conservation. The methodology was applied to the study of frescoes dated from 1531, located in the ancient parish church of Santo Aleixo, Southe...
Article
Full-text available
The systematic characterization of the painting’s palette and technique applied on the execution of the mural paintings of the Batalha Monastery (Batalha, Leiria, Portugal) is presented. These are the oldest mural paintings known in Portugal (apart from Roman frescoes) and represent the beginning of an artistic Portuguese tradition that continues u...
Article
Oxalate film formation is a pathology that often occurs in mural paintings and may result from the concomitant action of microorganisms and environmental conditions. Low Choir of the Convent of Nossa Senhora do Saudacao (Portugal) has mural paintings with an extraordinary beauty, which over time have been suffered polychromy degradation and biofilm...
Article
This article describes a study carried out on the emblematic mural painting so-called ‘fresco of the good and bad judge’ located at the medieval village of Monsaraz (southern Portugal). This painting, with two distintic narratives, is thematically unique in Portugal and rare in the context of European Renaissance art. Scientific research was undert...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter we will describe the capabilities of Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to characterize illuminated manuscripts. As complementary techniques, Raman and SEM-EDS Spectroscopy will be also described. The use of these techniques is essential for the understanding of the artists working methods, which aids conservation and restorat...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we present the results of an analytical method developed for detailed pigment identification, stratigraphy, and degradation of the paint layers of mural paintings applied in the study of the 17th century frescoes from the Misericordia Church of Odemira (Southwest Portugal). In situ X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analyses were perform...
Article
Full-text available
Samples of blue wall paint layers from selected 15th to 18th century religious mural paintings from southern Portugal (Alentejo) have been analyzed using a multi-analytical methodology involving the combination of in situ visible spectro-colorimetry with microanalytical techniques such as optical and scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectrosc...
Article
A series of colour assays were conducted taking into account old bibliographic recommendations and oral testimony regarding traditional lime painting technology from the Alentejo (South Portugal) region. The main objectives were: (a) the colorimetric analysis of paintings made with different limewash preparation methods; (b) the comparison between...
Article
Full-text available
Colored earth pigments sourced from Alentejo, Portugal, can be geologically categorized as either weathered carbonate rocks (terra rossas), schist units, or weathered iron ore deposits. The material was used until the mid-1900s by local residents as an ingredient in their traditional lime wash paintings and possibly in the production of artistic mu...
Article
Full-text available
In order to protect the hydraulic heritage of Évora, a restoration project was carried on eighteen structures with different typologies (wall fountains, free standing fountains, drinking fountains) characterized by their diversity in historical value and state of conservation. The main objectives of this work promoted by the Municipality of Évora a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Au sud de Portugal, la finition la plus courante des immeubles qui constituent le patrimoine urbain se composait simplement d'un lait de chaux ou d'une peinture à base de chaux. La couleur était normalement obtenue par l'adjonction de pigments naturels (plus tard synthétiques) dans la chaux, notamment de terres minérales á base d'oxi-hydroxides de...
Article
Full-text available
An experimental campaign took place between 2004 and 2006 in Alentejo in order to identify the pigments used in the traditional limewash and analyze pictorial techniques. The samples were collected in the exterior finishes of buildings localized in the historical centers of 47 municipalities (distributed among the districts of Évora, Beja, Portaleg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to value the hydraulic heritage of Évora, it took place the restoration project of eighteen fountains (wall fountains, free standing fountains, drinking fountains), with different typologies, protection degrees, heritage value and state of conservation. In this intervention the fountains of “Largo de São Mamede” and “Rua de Alconchel” are...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a study carried out on a mural painting in the Convent of Santo António dos Capuchos in the town of Estremoz (southern Portugal). Experimental work was undertaken to identify pigments and to elicit hypothesis about their local origin. Another aim was to ascertain the painting technique (binders, stratigraphy) and to try to in...
Article
Full-text available
Pigments used in traditional limewashing paintings in Alentejo urban Heritage are inorganic materials and can be grouped into four categories: a) reds – red ochre (from terras rossas, red schists and iron ore deposits weathering), almagres, terra roxa (natural processed red ochres) and synthetic red iron oxides; b) yellows – yellow ochre (from schi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A series of color essays were conducted taking into account old bibliographic recommendations and oral testimony regarding traditional lime painting technology from Alentejo (south Portugal) region. The main objectives were: a) the colorimetric analysis of the final painting results of several limewash preparation methods; b) the comparison between...
Article
Full-text available
Three different yellow and red ochre pigments geological sources from Alentejo—Terras rossas, schist units and weathered iron ore deposits—were studied by elemental and phase analysis complemented with Munsell and CIELAB colour parameters. Central aims were to underline the mineralogical and chemical distinctiveness of natural pigment sources and e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The onset of the problematic of colour significance and conservation in architectural heritage is quite recent, and a consequence of the evolution of urban conservation and rehabilitation theories, which were put to practice since the 80's in some European countries. The façades chromatism is of great importance as regards the composition and expre...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster apresentado a convite do Congresso: Física 2006. Aveiro, 4-7 de Setembro, Portugal

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
The Mora sample collection project is the result of a close collaboration between ICCROM and HERCULES laboratory , which began in 2018. The project’s overall objective was to systematically record and describe all the samples, to re-organize, re-house, and create a digital collection catalogue for conservation and research purposes. Three main goals of the project are: 1) DOCUMENT the collection by gathering all available associated information, systematically photographing and compiling an individual documentary record of every sample; 2) SAFEGUARD the collection through undertaking a diagnostic survey of all samples to assess their condition and conservation needs, and to re-organise and re-house the entire collection. The information gathered during this step will also form the basis for development of the future conservation strategy and protocols governing access to the collection; 3) SHARE the collection through the creation of an open access digital collection catalogue available via ICCROM’s website . project promotion trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2walt5k04Y