Research Items (32)
- May 2018
Rivers on territory of the Republic of Serbia can be separated to three sea drainage basins: Black, Adriatic and Aegean. Majority of rivers belong to the Black Sea drainage basin. The Danube is the most important river in Serbia and one of the most important rivers of Europe. All rivers investigated in this paper represent direct or indirect tributaries of the Danube River and as that, they are belonging to the Black Sea drainage basin. In this study, the water quality status and the spatial and temporal trends of seven major rivers in Serbia were assessed through the application of ten parameters of Water Quality Index. Ten year (2004–2013) public database of environmental data was used. Into considerations were taken differences between every river individually and difference between sample positions on every single river. Based on the chemical parameters of water quality, it can be seen that the biggest rivers in Serbia show different values of WQ parameters. The highest WQ value is measured on the Drina River, while the lowest value is measured on the Južna Morava and the Tisza River. Analyses of parameters per period of year show that there is a statistically significant difference between values during warm and cold periods.
Risk assessment and mapping methodologies for heat waves as frequently occurring hazards in central and southeastern Europe were applied in this study, and the impact of heat waves on the mortality of urban populations was determined as part of the assessment. The methodology for conducting the heat wave risk assessment is based on European Commission’s Guidelines for Risk Assessment and Mapping. The Novi Sad (Serbia) urban area was studied during summer 2015, which was one of the hottest summers in the last few decades. In situ air temperature measurements from urban stations and mortality of urban populations were used. Nocturnal urban heat island (UHI) intensity values between the various built-up zones and natural surrounding areas were used for the hazard level calculation. Temperature data from 9 PM to 5 AM were used because during the night, the UHI intensity reached its maximum values. The average daily number of deaths by LCZs was used to define the impact level of the vulnerability index. Calculations for both hazard levels were completed during two intensive heat waves (in July and August 2015) when it was expected that there may be a high level of risk. The results and maps show that the urban area is complex and the heat wave risk on the population is not uniform. The most densely built-up areas (LCZs 2, 5 and 6) have very high or high risk values that are influenced by a higher rate of mortality. The obtained results and maps can be used by local authorities to prevent and mitigate climate-related hazards, for medical institutions as well as urban planners and for ancillary local, regional or national services. According to these results, the local authorities could define hot spots where they can place medical and rescue teams and install points with water supplies, etc.
This paper examines temporal and spatial patterns of annual and seasonal maximum temperatures (Tmax) in Slovenia and their relationship with atmospheric circulation patterns. A significant increase in maximum temperature (Tmax; from 0.3°C to 0.5°C∙decade−¹) was observed throughout the country at the annual scale in the period 1963–2014. Significant positive trends are observed on all stations in summer (from 0.4°C to 0.7°C∙decade−¹) and spring (from 0.4°C to 0.6°C∙decade−¹). The results indicate significant correlations between the mean annual maximum temperature (Tmax) and the East Atlantic Oscillation (EA) (from 0.5 to 0.7), the Arctic Oscillation (AO) (from 0.4 to 0.7) and the Scandinavian Oscillation (SCAND) (from −0.3 to −0.4) throughout the country. A significant EA influence is observed in all seasons, while the AO influence is noticed in winter and spring, SCAND in spring and summer, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) in winter, the East Atlantic/Western Russia Oscillation (EA/WR) in summer and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in autumn.
This paper examines temporal and spatial variability and trends of annual and seasonal precipitation in Slovenia and their relationship with three atmospheric circulation patterns represented by their indices: North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOi), Mediterranean Oscillation index (MOi) and Western Mediterranean Oscillation index (WeMOi). Data from 45 precipitation stations was used for the period 1963-2012. Mean annual precipitation vary from 736 mm in eastern Slovenia to 2,518 mm in northwestern Slovenia. Significant annual precipitation decrease (from -3% to -6% per decade) is observed in western Slovenia. Significant negative trends are observed in southwestern Slovenia in summer (from -4% to -10% per decade) and near the Adriatic coast in spring (from -6% to -10% per decade). Non-significant negative and positive trends are observed in winter and autumn, respectively. Results indicate significant correlations between winter precipitation and MOi (from -0.3 to -0.7), NAOi (from -0.3 to -0.6) and WeMOi (from 0.3 to 0.6). Significant WeMOi influence is observed in spring and autumn, while NAOi and MOi influence has not been detected. Annual precipitation and WeMOi are significantly correlated in central and eastern Slovenia, while significant NAOi and MOi influence is observed in western Slovenia (with larger area covered by MOi influence).
- Dec 2016
Great Bačka Canal (GBC) is part of the canal system that connects two rivers, the Danube and the Tisza. It extends through Vojvodina (northern Serbia) and remains to be insufficiently exploited as an agricultural resource. With the aim of fostering agricultural development and sustainable management, the standpoints of the local population as regards the utilisation of the GBC for irrigation and drainage was analyzed. The presented results were obtained through theone-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Scheffe's test covering a sample of 500 interviewees from ten settlements. The results of the survey were compared tothe results of the GBC water quality as per control points (CP). The quality of the watercourses was determined using the Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI) method. The results show that the GBC includes sections which are pure and entirely suitable to be used for irrigation and drainage (CP 1, 2, 3 and 5; SWQI >70 in most cases) and a section which is completely degraded and unusable (control point 4, SWQI <37 in most cases). The local population has a positive standpoint when it comes to the functions of irrigation and drainage, which differ depending on their place of residence. The residents of Vrbas stand out for their highly negative standpoints that correspond to the water quality results, which were noted to be extremely bad.
- Jul 2015
The Danube, the Sava and the Tisa rivers belong to the Black Sea river basin and they flow through many European countries, while in Serbia they flow through the Pannonian flatland. The water quality of these rivers, which is affected by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors, is one of important factors that are taken into account in the evaluation of development sustainability of this region. Using the correlation analysis in this paper we tested the impact of air temperature as a natural factor on certain parameters indicating the water quality. A significant correlation was found between air temperature and total nitrogen oxides in the Danube of up to -0.744, namely of -0.740 on the Tisa and -0.299 on the Sava. A significant correlation was found in electrical conductivity - up to -0.793 on the Danube, -0.226 on the Tisa, and 0.380 on the Sava. Correlation links were found between air temperature and O2, BOD, as well as suspended matters saturation percentage, but their correlation values are significantly lower. Based on the results of the research it was concluded that air temperature had low effect on changes in water quality during the year and that anthropogenic impact was far more dominant.
This paper evaluated exposure to road traffic noise in the city of Novi Sad, the second largest city in the Republic of Serbia. It has been investigated using analysis and systematization of the results on noise intensity in the city of Novi Sad, whether this parameter is within the approved limits for noise intensity during the day and night and whether it is in accordance with provisions of national norms of permissible noise levels in the environment, that is whether this parameter endangers people or not. In this work were used data from the Institute for Public Health of Vojvodina-Department of Residential Hygiene, which were obtained by measuring the noise intensity at 18 points in the city. Levels of noise, during the period of analysis, are usually higher than permitted and range from 1dB(A) to 8dB(A) during the day, and from 1db(A) to 9dB(A) at night. It has been determined that the noise intensity is in strong positive correlation (r(s) = 0.73) with the number of vehicles in traffic. Even though the noise intensity in the period observed has a decreasing trend, the fact that it is still higher than permitted in school and residential zones is particularly worrying. It has also been determined that traffic noise is one of the leading urban problems in the city of Novi Sad, and therefore it is necessary to implement some of the plans for protection, mentioned in the work, for its reduction.
The Drina River is the biggest tributary of the Sava River, created by the merger of the Tara and Piva rivers at Scepan Polje. The Drina represents the border between Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Water quality index (WQI) is a numeric expression used to evaluate the quality of water bodies and make it more easily understood by managers. In this study, the water quality status and the spatial and temporal trends along the Drina were assessed through the application of seven WQI parameters, to an eight-year public database of environmental data (2004-11). Water quality of the Drina is one of the significant factors taken into consideration in evaluation of sustainability of the development of this region and it is controlled by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors. Values of pH grew steadily from CP1 to CP3, but on CP4 values of pH were lower (8.11) than on two previous control points (CP2 8.14 and CP3 8.16). 02 saturation shows highest values at CP1 121.3%, while the lowest values were observed at CP3 101.8%. BOD5 at all four CPs shows that water quality of the Drina can be classified as I class (<2 mg/l). According to statistical data processing we can state that Drina water quality at all four control points allows for its exploitation.
This paper identifies the results of a questionnaire designed to measure service quality in spa hotels in the Republic of Serbia. Service quality was measured with a model based on the original SERVQUAL model. Due to the fact that many previous research papers have shown that SERVQUAL is insufficient to identify and measure all determinants of service quality in hospitality, the original SERVQUAL model has been slightly changed. Namely, this modified version of SERVQUAL was adjusted to measure a large number of tangible and intangible elements of the service quality in spa hotels. Based on the research results, seven dimensions of the service quality were identified: assurance, food and benefits, empathy, entertainment, recreation facilities and wellness, responsiveness and reliability. After applying the modified SERVQUAL model, an Importance – Performance Analysis (IPA) was performed. By using an Importance – Performance Analysis (IPA), this paper examines the efficiency of hotel resources allocation and the possibility of designing management strategies to improve the quality of hotel service.
According to different relevant climate research water shortage hazard become increasingly frequent natural hazard across Serbia. In Serbia, especially in Vojvodina, drought is a natural hazard with increasing frequency of occurrence. Vojvodina is predominantly agricultural area with 11% of agricultural population. As such agricultural population is highy sensitive to natural hazards, especially to occurrence of drought which is typical for the territory of Vojvodina. Drought has influence on the environment and human activities, i.e. it has social and economic consequences, such as drinking water shortage or decline in crop yield. Therefore this paper has several aims. First goal is to explore socio demographic profiles and agricultural characteristic of agricultural population and stakeholders in research area. Secondly to examine farmers' attitudes to possible damage prevention and adaptive measures to climate change in the sector of agricultural production. Third goal is to analyze respondent's opinion toward drought prediction. Finally the study examines opinion of respondents on the role of government institutions in providing assistance and support to farmers and to agricultural development in the region. In depth semi structural interviewing were carried out. Results show lack of knowledge among respondents that water shortage can be precisely and in time predicted to help agriculture prepare and prevent possible draft damages. As the main problems in agriculture , the local agricultural population lists absence of strategic planning and management of agrarian policy, as well as absence of state support to farmers in agriculture development. Necessary assistance for alleviation of adverse drought consequences includes subsidies for irrigation, improvement and reconstruction of the existing irrigation systems; organized and planned state management of agrarian policy; creating precise methods of forecast of drought periods and timely informing agricultural population and agricultural firms.
As a significant urban area, the climate of Novi Sad is under influence of urban heat island (UHI), an area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. Novi Sad is one of the main urban tourism destinations in Serbia. Turnover in catering trade and number of tourist arrivals and overnight stays indicate significant increase during warmer part of the year in Novi Sad. This paper investigates the spatial distribution of tourism resources in UHI of Novi Sad, as spatial patterns of tourism activities are closely related to zones with higher temperature intensity. The research focuses on tangible resources, including key attractors in a destination and accommodation facilities. Novi Sad is located in the northern part of Serbia and according to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, the region around Novi Sad is categorised as Cf climate (temperate warm climate with a rather uniform annual distribution of precipitation). GIS analysis is based on nine different zones of annual mean UHI temperature intensity in area of Novi Sad (0ºC, +0.5ºC, +1ºC, +1.5ºC, +2ºC, +2.5ºC, +3ºC, +3.5ºC and +4ºC) determined by Unger et al. and Popov and Savic. It is believed that understanding spatial distribution of tourism resources in context of UHI can help tourism officials to more effectively make decision in strategic tourism development of an urban destination.
Veliki bački kanal is one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia and it is frequently the central topic of the analysis of huge ecological issues in Serbia. It was dug at the turn of the 19th century with the main purpose to drain the wetland areas in central Bačka and to enhance economic growth of the settlements that had been colonized several times during the 18th century. Although it is being studied mostly from environment protection perspective at present, it has been changing the features of the landscape and the environment in this area. The issue of intensive pollution, predominantly from food industry, has been increasing since the second half of the 20th century. This type of pollution completely diminished the canal functions planned by the project designers. Current and future canal functions are: drainage and flood protection, irrigation, water supply, wastewater recipient, canal traffic, fish farming, tourism (recreation) and nature protection. Remediation is crucial and fundamental prerequisite for sustainable use or Veliki bački kanal resources
The WQI method is most frequently used in expert and scientific research and basically it provides a mechanism for cumulative representation, numeric expression and defining a certain level of water quality. This paper aims to assess water quality of the Tisa River in Vojvodina (North Serbia) for the 2003-2012 period. Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI) was used for assessment of the river water quality. WQI is expressed as a single value ranging from 0 to 100 (best quality) derived from numerous physical, chemical, biological and microbiological parameters. The results of SWQI for the Tisa River were mainly rated as good. Also, in this study it is noticed a clear decrease in water quality during warmer period of the year. Also, this study shows that water quality along the Tisa River decreases slightly but steadily downstream, from Martonoš to Titel station and all along the length of the river provides values that according to SWQI descriptive quality indicator has been defined as good (72-83). The main problem of SWQI used in this paper is that it does not involve parameters of heavy metals concentration.
Veliki bački kanal is one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia and it is frequently the central topic of the analysis of huge ecological issues in Serbia. It was dug at the turn of the 19th century with the main purpose to drain the wetland areas in central Bačka and to enhance economic growth of the settlements that had been colonized several times during the 18th century. Although it is being studied mostly from environment protection perspective at present, it has been changing the features of the landscape and the environment in this area. The issue of intensive pollution, predominantly from food industry, has been increasing since the second half of the 20th century. This type of pollution completely diminished the canal functions planned by the project designers. Current and future canal functions are: drainage and flood protection, irrigation, water supply, wastewater recipient, canal traffic, fish farming, tourism (recreation) and nature protection. Remediation is crucial and fundamental prerequisite for sustainable use or Veliki bački kanal resources.
A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a numeric expression used to evaluate the quality of water bodies and make it easier understood by managers. This paper aims to assess water quality of Sava River in Vojvodina (North Serbia) for the 2004 – 2011 period. For this purpose authors applied: Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI) assessment. WQI value is dimensionless, single number ranging from 0 to 100 (best quality) derived from numerous physical, chemical, biological and microbiological parameters. For the Sava River SWQI was mainly rated as very good. This study shows a clear decrease in water quality during warmer periods of the year. Additionaly, this study shows that water quality along Sava River decreases slightly downstream, of Sremska Mitrovica station but it still provides values that according to SWQI descriptive quality indicator have been defined as good (72–83) and very good (84 – 89). Also, this study shows an increase of SWQI downstream of the confluence of Drina River into Sava River. This methodology includes parameters for assessment of organic loading, but does not involve parameters of heavy metals concentration.
A Water Quality Index (WQI) is a numeric expression used to evaluate the quality of water bodies and make it easier understood by managers. This paper aims to assess water quality of Drina River in Serbia for the 2004 – 2011 period. For this purpose authors applied: Serbian Water Quality Index (SWQI). WQI value is dimensionless, single number ranging from 0 to 100 (best quality) derived from numerous physical, chemical, biological and microbiological parameters. For the Drina River SWQI was mainly rated as excellent. This study shows a clear decrease in water quality during summer period. Additionaly, this study shows that water quality along Drina River decreases slightly downstream, but it still provides values that according to SWQI descriptive quality indicator have been defined as excellent (90–100). This methodology includes parameters for assessment of organic loading, but does not involve parameters of heavy metals concentration.
The river Danube belongs to the Black Sea basin and it flows through ten European countries. It also flows through 35 larger cities including Novi Sad in Serbia. The water quality of the Danube is one of significant factors that are taken into consideration in evaluation of sustainability of the development of this region and it is controlled by complex anthropogenic activities and natural factors. With the assistance of correlation analysis, the paper studied the impact of natural factors such as water temperature, air temperature and precipitation rate on certain parameters indicating the water quality. Based on the results of the study it has been determined that natural factors affect changes in water quality throughout the year and that water temperature affects most the concentration of nitrogen oxide.
A large number of civil war refugees migrated to Vojvodina in the period 1991-1996. Each of nine immi - gration municipalities received over 10,000 refugees. This article will try to prove that refugees changed age structure of these municipalities in the negative sense. Demographic indicators such as median age and age index are higher and unfavorable in municipalities which received the largest number of refu - gees than in non-immigration municipalities which received the smallest number. The most unfavora - ble indicators due to the arrival of refugees has Sombor municipality and the best indicators has Stara Pazova municipality. In period 1991-2002. Immigrating municipalities shows higher ageing of population then non-immigrating.
The focus of this research is Special nature reserve Carska bara that is situated in the area of central Banat (Vojvodina, Serbia). The whole territory of the Reserve and the surrounding area represents space that has been under the influence of human activities since the very beginning of the development of human communities. Another great influence comes from the process of melioration of the whole area and mainly of the river Begej, which consequently results in changes in sediments and their quality. Sediment has a strong influence on numerous goals and functions of protection. It changes the characteristics of the landscape and ecosystems. That is why the process of sediment remediation, through the process of demudding, is of crucial importance for the protection of this area and its natural values. Remediation influences some important aims of managing the area such as nature protection, education and tourism.
Veliki Backi Kanal (VBK) is a very important waterway in Serbia and part of the Danube-Tisza-Danube hydro-system. VBK runs through the central part of Backa, connecting the rivers of Danube and Tisza, and as such possesses high unused tourism potential. In order to develop tourism in this region, local residents' attitudes are being investigated in relation to the use of VBK for recreational and tourism purposes. The data obtained are analyzed in the statistical program SPSS. The sample comprised 500 respondents in ten settlements. In order to use a particular water surface for recreation and tourism development, it is necessary to have water of adequate quality. Water quality of watercourses is determined on the basis of the water quality index (WQI), a qualification system for describing water quality of surface waters. The research results showed that along the entire course of VBK, there are sections which are clean and entirely suitable for tourism development and sections which are completely degraded. Local residents have positive attitudes towards tourism development of VBK, in particular towards rural and ecotourism development. The results obtained offer an opportunity to determine guidelines which can influence tourism development in these and similar areas.
- Feb 2012
Veliki Bački canal (VBC) in Serbia is one of the most polluted water flows in Europe. This paper observes, statistically analyses and describes certain chemical parameters as dissolved O2, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxigen demand (COD), suspended solids and amount of coliform bacteria, which show canal water quality during the period of ten years (2000-2009). Authors have applied WQI (water quality index) as the most reliable indicator of the watercourses pollution for setting of surface waterflow quality. These parameters are collated to the results of SWQI set of parameters for 2009 as a control year. Results were obtained in different statistical analyses: descriptive statistical analysis, t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance. Post-hok Scheffe test was applied for definition of difference significance between certain groups. Results shows very bad water quality at one observed Control point (4), near setllement Vrbas. All parameters at Control point 4 are out of permissible range, dissolved O2 2.07 mg/l, BOD5 93.57 mgO2/l, COD 42 mgO2/l, suspended solids 46.37 mg/l and amount of coliform bacteria 197545.45 n/l. Downstream from Vrbas setllement (Control point 4), SWQI set parameters of water quality at other Control points, are in range from bad to quite good.
Veliki Bački canal (VBC) in Serbia is one of the most polluted water flows in Europe. This paper observes, statistically analyses and describes certain chemical parameters as dissolved O2, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxigen demand (COD), suspended solids and amount of coliform bacteria, which show canal water quality during the period of ten years (2000-2009). Authors have applied WQI (water quality index) as the most reliable indicator of the watercourses pollution for setting of surface waterflow quality. These parameters are collated to the results of SWQI set of parameters for 2009 as a control year. Results were obtained in different statistical analyses: descriptive statistical analysis, t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance. Post-hok Scheffe test was applied for definition of difference significance between certain groups. Results shows very bad water quality at one observed Control point (4), near setllement Vrbas. All parameters at Control point 4 are out of permissible range, dissolved O2 2.07 mg/l, BOD5 93.57 mgO2/l, COD 42 mgO2/l, suspended solids 46.37 mg/l and amount of coliform bacteria 197545.45 n/l. Downstream from Vrbas setllement (Control point 4), SWQI set parameters of water quality at other Control points, are in range from bad to quite good. Key words: Serbia, SWQI, Veliki Bački canal, water pollution, water quality
Border region of Northern Banat consists of three Banat municipalities. These municipalities are bordering with Romania and they occupy the ultimate eastern, peripheral position in Serbia. The number of inhabitants in border municipalities shows the declining tendency and a high unemployment rate is one of the causes of constant decline in the number of inhabitants. Halting of emigration process from the territories of border municipalities would contribute to stabilisation of their demographic status. This type of migratory processes can be efficiently affected through timely professional orientation. The problem of unemployment in the territories of border municipalities of Northern Banat could be regulated primarily with elaboration of a long-term plan. The results of the research, which was conducted in the period from January 2007 to December 2009, show that the number of unemployed persons was reduced in all border municipalities of Northern Banat at the end of the observed period compared to the beginning of 2007. Municipality of Coka has the largest percentage of unemployed persons in the total number of working-age population. Older categories with lower level of education dominate in the structure of unemployed persons.
The population of the municipalities in Western Backa records a decreasing trend, this is one of the reasons for that is the lack of economic development. The development of alternative forms of economy, such as tourism would contribute to the stabilization of the demographic situation. The foundation of Mali Stapar settlement is related to the construction of the oldest canal in Bačka, and as such has a large unexploited tourist potential. In order to develop tourism in this area authors will examine the attitudes of local residents regarding the use of the Grand Canal in recreational and tourism purposes. The results presented in this paper are obtained by statistical analysis using the application of chi-square test, descriptive statistical analysis and one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. A post-hoc Scheffe's test was used to determine the significance of differences between groups. The sample included 100 subjects in the two villages, Sivac and Mali Stapar. The results showed that local people have a positive attitude when it comes to tourism development on the section of the Grand Canal at Mali Stapar, with special emphasis on the development of rural and ecotourism. The results of the research provide the possibilities for creating guidelines that may affect the development of tourism in this and similar areas. Rezumat. Dezvoltarea turismului din Mali Stapar ca una dintre posibilităţile de reducere a depopulării din vestul districtului Bačka (Voivodina, Serbia). Populaţia comunelor din Backa de Vest înregistrează o tendinţă descrescătoare, acesta fiind unul dintre motivele pentru care se înregistrează lipsa de dezvoltare economică. Dezvoltarea unor forme alternative ale economiei, cum ar fi turismul, ar putea contribui la stabilizarea situaţiei demografice. Fondarea aşezării Mali Stapar este legată de construcţia celui mai vechi canal din Bačka, şi, ca atare are un mare potenţial turistic neexploatat. Pentru a dezvolta turismul în această zonă autorii vor examina atitudinile rezidenţilor locali în ceea ce priveşte utilizarea Marelui Canal în scopuri de agrement şi turism. Rezultatele prezentate în această lucrare sunt obţinute prin analiza statistică, folosind metoda pătratelor, analiza descriptivă statistică şi un mod de analiză a varianţei ANOVA. Un test Scheffe a fost utilizat pentru a determina semnificaţia diferenţelor dintre grupuri. Eşantionul a inclus 100 de subiecţi din cele două sate, Sivac şi Mali Stapar.Rezultatele au aratat că localnicii au o atitudine pozitivă atunci când vine vorba de dezvoltarea turismului de-a lungul Marelui Canal din Mali Stapar, punându – se accent pe dezvoltarea agroturismului şi a ecoturismului. Rezultatele de cercetare furnizează posibilităţi orientative care ar putea conduce la dezvoltarea turismului în acest areal şi în alte areale similare.