Milan Kalas

Milan Kalas
KAJO

PhD in Hydrology

About

65
Publications
11,709
Reads
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739
Citations
Introduction
Flood forecasting, Disaster Risk Management, Exposure mapping, Social Media crowdsourcing in DRM, Volunteer Geographic Information H2020 projects: Anywhere, I-React, E2MC, Operandum, Polirural
Additional affiliations
October 1999 - February 2003
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava
Position
  • PhD research associate

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based Solutions function as an umbrella concept for ecosystem-based approaches that are an alternative to traditional engineering solutions for Disaster Risk Reduction. Their rising popularity is explained partly by their entailing additional benefits (so called co-benefits) for the environment, society, and economy. The few existing framewo...
Article
Full-text available
Floods can arise from a variety of physical processes. Although numerous risk assessment approaches stress the importance of taking into account the possible combinations of flood types (i.e. compound floods), this awareness has so far not been reflected in the development of early warning systems: existing methods for forecasting flood hazards or...
Preprint
Full-text available
Floods have devastating effects on lives and livelihoods around the world. Structural flood defense measures such as dikes and dams can help protect people. However, it is the emerging science and technologies for flood disaster management and preparedness, such as increasingly accurate flood early warning systems, high-resolution satellite monitor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Floods can arise from a variety of physical processes. Although numerous risk assessment approaches stress the importance of taking into account the possible combinations of flood types (i.e. compound floods), this awareness has so far not been reflected in the development of early warning systems: Existing methods for forecasting flood hazards or...
Article
Full-text available
Remotely sensed images have become an important source of information for actors involved in disaster management and satellite-based emergency mapping (SEM) is increasingly used to support the response phase in the first hours and days after a disaster occurs. The delivery timeliness of the crisis information is key to the success of SEM. In the Co...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Semantic Explorer is one of the outputs of the Polirural research project financed by the Horizon2020 Program of the EU. One of the objectives of the Polirural project is to bring solutions to policymakers to support European rural areas in responding to contemporary challenges. The tool has been developed to provide support to researchers and faci...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chapter 7 provides an overview of data types, sources and techniques for the generation of data to monitor and assess the impacts of NBS. An understanding of different types of data, their sources and use is core to the development of robust monitoring and evaluation plans.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nature-based solutions are increasingly implemented to tackle disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Their rising popularity over grey solutions is partially explained by their number of additional benefits (so called co-benefits) for the socio-ecological system (SES). Frameworks are available to monitor and assess co-benefits, howe...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) refer to the sustainable management, protection and use of nature to preserve the ecosystem and prevent the loss of biodiversity. Given the multiple environmental, social, and economic benefits they provide to society, NBS have been increasingly promoted and implemented in cities, especially for air pollution mitigation...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ambition of OPERANDUM is to provide science-based evidence for the usability of nature-based solutions (NBS) ranging from local to landscape scales, and to foster the market opportunities, upscaling and replication of NBS in Europe and other non-European territories. It is important to develop a set of co-designed, co-developed, deployed, and d...
Book
Full-text available
This document presents the contributions discussed at the second institutional workshop on Artificial Intelligence (AI), organized by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. This workshop was held on 05th July 2019 at the premises of the JRC in Ispra (Italy), with video-conference to all JRC's sites. The workshop aimed to gather...
Conference Paper
Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) refer to the sustainable management, protection and use of nature to mitigate risks and to preserve ecosystems, demonstrating environmental, social and economic benefits. The goal of the OPERANDUM project is to provide a science-based assessment of the usability and effectiveness of NBS. The assessment is complex consid...
Conference Paper
As part of H2020 OPERANDUM project, a multi-dimensional, open and user-friendly platform is being developed, named OPERANDUM Geospatial Information Knowledge Platform (GeoIKP), which enables stakeholders and end-users to improve their knowledge of nature-based solutions (NBS) as a long-term and sustainable measure for mitigation and reduction of fl...
Conference Paper
During the past decades, risk assessment experienced increasing interest in social science but also natural science and other disciplines. At the same time, risk reduction and mitigation gained in interest from local to global level due to the shift from reactive to proactive management. Hazard and risk assessment have been approached on different...
Article
Full-text available
Rural areas in Europe are at risk due to depopulation, failing generation renewal, and a multitude of influences ranging from market-based, regulatory, to societal and climate changes. As a result, current rural policy is no longer keeping pace with these changes. We propose an advanced rural policy development framework in order to deliver more ac...
Article
Full-text available
Rural areas in Europe are at risk due to depopulation, failing generation renewal, and a multitude of influences ranging from market-based, regulatory, to societal and climate changes. As a result, current rural policy is no longer keeping pace with these changes. We propose an advanced rural policy development framework in order to deliver more ac...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This deliverable describes the role of text mining in the PoliRural project and the technical specifications of Semantic Explorer-the maintool for supporting pilots in the processes of needs gathering and policy assessment. The core semantic model will be built and "trained"on the corpus of EU texts, before being adapted to regional contexts and la...
Book
Full-text available
This document presents the contributions presented at the first internal workshop on Artificial Intelligence (AI), organized by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. This workshop was held on 23rd May at the premises of the JRC in Ispra (Italy), with video-conference to all JRC's sites. The workshop aimed to gather JRC special...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of this document is twofold. First, it presents the characterisation of extreme events occurred in the last 30 years (1989-2018) in the OPERANDUM OALs (in Europe and abroad): after a selection of cases, with criteria established according to hazard and site, the analysis is carried on by looking at their meteorological settings, availab...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper describes a prototype system that integrates social media analysis into the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). This integration allows the collection of social media data to be automatically triggered by flood risk warnings determined by a hydro-meteorological model. Then, we adopt a multilingual approach to find flood-related messa...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper describes a prototype system that integrates social media analysis into the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). This integration allows the collection of social media data to be automatically triggered by flood risk warnings determined by a hydro-meteorological model. Then, we adopt a multi-lingual approach to find flood-related mess...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a role-playing experiment to explore the value of modern impact-based weather forecasts on the decision-making process to (i) issue warnings and manage the official emergency response under uncertainty and (ii) communicate and trigger protective action at different levels of the warning system across Europe. Here, flood or stron...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a role-playing experiment to explore the value of modern impact-based weather forecasts on the decision-making process to (i) issue warnings and manage the official emergency response under uncertainty and (ii) communicate and trigger protective actions at different levels of the warning system across Europe. Here, flood or stro...
Article
Full-text available
In the first hours of a disaster, up-to-date information about the area of interest is crucial for effective disaster management. However, due to the delay induced by collecting and analysing satellite imagery, disaster management systems like the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) are currently not able to provide information products u...
Article
Full-text available
The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real-time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted flo...
Poster
European wildfires are a seasonal natural hazard that many regions must battle regularly. However, as European urbanization continues to encroach on natural areas and the climate changes it is likely that the frequency of wildfires will increase likewise the number of areas prone to wildfires. It is therefore paramount not only to increase public a...
Chapter
Within Europe, the most severe flood events are often cross-border and may need to be managed by several responsible authorities in different countries and administrative districts. In these situations, flood risk management becomes challenging as inconsistent or erroneous information may arise, for example, from lacking or incomplete communication...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Flooding is one of the major natural hazards that occur frequently, resulting in significant impacts both to human settlements and the environment. In addition to social and economic damage, floods can also have severe secondary consequences if they impact industrial installations storing, processing, or transporting hazardous substances. Flood wat...
Article
Full-text available
The development of methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is a key step to increase the usefulness of flood early warning systems, and is crucial for effective emergency response and flood impact mitigation. Currently, flood early warning systems rarely include real–time components to assess potential impacts generated by forecasted fl...
Presentation
Full-text available
Social and mainstream media monitoring is being more and more recognized as valuable source of information in disaster management and response. The information on ongoing disasters could be detected in very short time and the social media can bring additional information to traditional data feeds (ground, remote observation schemes). Probably the b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Social and mainstream media monitoring is being more and more recognized as valuable source of information in disaster management and response. The information on ongoing disasters could be detected in very short time and the social media can bring additional information to traditional data feeds (ground, remote observation schemes). Probably the b...
Conference Paper
The availability of a real-time operational system for mapping flood hazard and assessing potential consequences might be extremely useful to help emergency response and management and to mitigate the impact of large flood events. This work describes the development of an experimental procedure for rapid flood risk assessment within the European Fl...
Presentation
Full-text available
Social and mainstream media monitoring is being more and more recognized as valuable source of information in disaster management and response. The information on ongoing disasters could be detected in very short time and the social media can bring additional information to traditional data feeds (ground, remote observation schemes). The contributi...
Article
Full-text available
Snow is an important component of the water cycle, and its estimation in hydrological models is of great significance concerning the simulation and forecasting of flood events due to snow-melt. The assimilation of Snow Cover Area (SCA) in physical distributed hydrological models is a possible source of improvement of snowmelt-related floods. In thi...
Article
Using reliable observed data is important for performing real-time flood forecasts or hydrological simulation in order to calibrate parameters or to update model variables. Satellite snow products can be one of these data, since snow is a water reservoir with a high impact on the quality of discharge simulation. The satellite Snow Cover Area produc...
Poster
Full-text available
LISFLOOD is a distributed, semi-physical rainfall-runoff model designed for the simulation of hydrological processes in medium to large scale river basins. This model is used at the European Commission Joint Research Centre for studying floods, global hydrological changes and droughts. LISFLOOD is the basis of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using reliable observed data is important for performing real-time flood forecasts or hydrological simulation. Observed data are necessary for calibrating or updating many variables of the models. Satellite snow data can be one of these data, since snow is a water reservoir with a high impact on the quality of discharge simulation. The satellite Sn...
Article
Full-text available
The quality control, validation and verification of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS) are described. EFAS is designed as a flood early warning system at pan-European scale, to complement national systems and provide flood warnings more than 2 days before a flood. On average 20–30 alerts per year are sent out to the EFAS partner network which c...
Presentation
Full-text available
LISFLOOD is a semi-physical rainfall-runoff model that allows the simulation of hydrological processes in medium to large scale river basins. This model is used at the European Commission Joint Research Centre for studying floods, hydrological global changes and droughts. LISFLOOD is the basis of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS), which is a p...
Article
Full-text available
Snow is an important component of the water cycle and its estimation in hydrological models is of great importance concerning snow melting flood events simulations and forecasting. The LISFLOOD model is a spatially distributed hydrological model designed at the Joint Research Centre for large European river basins. It is used for a variety of appli...
Conference Paper
The European Flood Alert System is under development at the European Commission Joint Research Centre since 2003 to foster international information exchange on early flood warning within Europe. The aim of EFAS is to provide catchment wide flood forecasts indicating the probability of upcoming events between 3-10 days in advance with emphasis on t...
Poster
Full-text available
LISFLOOD is a semi-physical rainfall-runoff model that allows the simulation of hydrological processes in medium to large scale European river basins. This model is used at the European Commission Joint Research Centre for studying floods, hydrological global changes and droughts. LISFLOOD is the basis of the European Flood Alert System (EFAS), whi...
Article
Streamflow predictions most often show multiscale errors with unknown source and statistical structure that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness of the forecasts. According to the fact that the errors between observed and simulated series, occurs across many different time-scales and across different levels of resolution, t...
Article
The hydrological community is looking increasingly at the use of ensemble prediction systems instead of single forecasts to increase flood warning times. International initiatives and research projects such as THORPEX, HEPEX, PREVIEW, or MAP-DPHASE foster successfully the interdisciplinary dialogue between the meteorological and hydrological commun...
Article
This paper describes a case study that explores the limits of the predictability of floods, by combining forecasts with multiple spatial and temporal resolutions. Monthly, medium- and short range numerical weather prediction (NWP) data are input to the European Flood Alert System for a flood event that affected rivers in Romania in October 2007. Th...
Article
The hydrological community is looking increasingly at the use of ensemble prediction systems instead of single (deterministic) forecasts to increase flood warning times. International initiatives and research projects such as THORPEX, HEPEX, PREVIEW, or MAP-DPHASE foster successfully the interdisciplinary dialogue between the meteorological and hyd...
Article
The European Flood Alert System (EFAS) prototype has been running pre-operationally for all of Europe since 2005. EFAS is now providing 3–10 day probabilistic hydrological forecasts for 22 national hydrological services. Recently, the forecasts were also made accessible in real time to the EFAS partners via an interactive password-protected web-bas...
Article
Within the EU Project PREVention, Information and Early Warning (PREVIEW), ensembles of discharge series have been generated for the Danube catchment by the use of various weather forecast products. Hydrological models applied for streamflow prediction often have simulation errors that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness o...
Article
Full-text available
In catchments characterized by spatially varying hydrological processes and responses, the optimal parameter values or regions of attraction in parameter space may differ with location-specific characteristics and dominating processes. This paper evaluates the value of semi-distributed calibration parameters for large-scale streamflow simulation us...
Article
Full-text available
In catchments characterized by spatially varying hydrological processes and responses, the optimal parameter values or regions of attraction in parameter space may differ with location-specific characteristics and dominating processes. This paper evaluates the value of semi-distributed calibration parameters for large-scale streamflow simulation us...
Article
From 29th March to 09th April 2006, the Morava catchment in the Danube River basin was hit by severe flooding caused by snow melting and rainfall. The floods affected settlements and agricultural lands in Slovakia, Czech Republic and Austria. In the downstream Morava, 100-year flood and more peak discharges were observed. The European Flood Alert S...
Article
From 29th March to 09th April 2006, the Morava catchment in the Danube River basin was hit by severe flooding caused by snow melting and rainfall. The floods affected settlements and agricultural lands in Slovakia, Czech Republic and Austria. In the downstream Morava, 100-year flood and more peak discharges were observed. The European Flood Alert S...
Article
For the purpose of assessing flood hazard in the Upper Danube Basin in Central Europe under current and projected future climate conditions, we evaluated data from a recent experiment with the regional climate model HIRHAM at a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The climate simulations were used to drive the hydrological model LISFLOOD a...
Article
In the paper a methodology for estimating monthly potential evapotranspiration (E0) as an input for hydrological balance modelling in the upper Hron River basin was developed. Four different methods were used to calculate monthly potential evapotranspiration in 6 climate stations in the basin – the Tomlain method based on equations of energy balanc...
Article
In the paper uncertainties in assessing the hydrological impacts of climate change for selected regions in Slovakia were analysed. A conceptual spatially-lumped hydrologi- cal rainfall-runoff model was chosen for modelling river runoff in a monthly time step. The model was calibrated using observed rainfall, temperature, air humidity, sun shine dur...
Article
In the case of the absence of measured runoff optimization techniques cannot be used to estimate the parameters of rainfall-runoff models. In such a case usually empiri- cal regression methods were used for relating the model parameters to the catchment characteristics in a given region. In the paper a different method for the regional cali- bratio...
Article
In the case of the absence of measured runoff optimisation techniques cannot be used to estimate the parameters of monthly rainfall-runoff models. In such a case usually empirical regression methods were used for relating the model parameters to the catchment characteristics in a given region. In the paper a different method for the regional calibr...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the EFAS activity is to develop a prototype of a European Flood Alert System providing early flood alerts across Europe (De Roo & Thielen, this issue). At present EFAS is set-up and running for the whole of Europe on a 5km grid. In order to evaluate the benefit of grid resolution and high-resolution data, for a number of test catchments...
Article
The paper reviews recent climate change impact studies for the Slovak National Climate Program (SNKP). Basic adaptation strategies are also discussed. Priorities for future research within the SNKP are suggested.

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
The aim of EFAS is to support preparatory measures before major flood events strike, particularly in the large trans-national river basins and throughout Europe in general. EFAS is the first operational European system monitoring and forecasting floods across Europe. It provides complementary, added-value information (e.g. probabilistic, medium range flood forecasts, flash flood indicators or impact forecasts) to the relevant national and regional authorities. Furthermore, EFAS keeps the Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) informed about ongoing and possibly upcoming flood events across Europe.
Project
The Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS), jointly developed by the European Commission and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), is a global hydrological forecast and monitoring system independent of administrative and political boundaries. It couples state-of-the art weather forecasts with a hydrological model and with its continental scale set-up provides downstream countries with information on upstream river conditions as well as continental and global overviews. GloFAS produces daily flood forecasts (since 2011) and monthly seasonal streamflow outlooks (since November 2017). GloFAS has been fully operational as a Copernicus Emergency Management Service since April 2018.
Project
PoliRural will provide a set of knowledge resources including an inclusive learning environment where rural populations, researchers and policymakers come together to address common problems; an evaluation exercise that uses text mining to assess the perceived effectiveness of past or planned policy interventions; and a foresight study that will collect the development trajectory of agriculture and its allied sectors until 2040 using several scenarios in which the evolution of rural populations occupies a central place. As a result of these activities, PoliRural will leave decision makers at different levels of government better equipped to tackle existing and emerging rural challenges, rural populations more empowered and rural areas more resilient.