Mila Schwartz

Mila Schwartz
Oranim Academic College of Education · Department of Research and Evaluation Authority

Prof.

About

118
Publications
62,670
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Introduction
My current research interests include studying language policy and models of early bilingual education; socio-cultural, language, and cognitive development of early sequential bilinguals; family language policy; and bilingual teachers' pedagogical development. In this research my focus is on two unique populations: second generation Russian-Hebrew speaking immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Arabic and Hebrew-speaking children enrolled in bilingual bi-national education in Israel.
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - August 2018
Oranim Academic College of Education
Position
  • Head of Lanugage Program MeD

Publications

Publications (118)
Article
Despite increasing popularity of early heritage language (HL) education, the HL education system faces challenges, such as engaging young children and tailoring teachers’ pedagogical approaches. The aim of the study was to explore a particular pedagogy (“a trip to the enchanted wood”) that provides accessibility to HL, and to analyze children’s beh...
Preprint
This is the first international Handbook that offers a comprehensive overview of findings from contemporary research, theory, and practice in early language education in various parts of the world and with different populations. This conceptual introductory chapter starts by tracing the chronicle of recent developments in theorizing early language...
Article
The current study was part of a large project focusing on bilingual development in the preschool classroom context. Its aim was to theorize free play as a social and language learning activity that provides opportunities for young learners to move towards second language production. The role of free play for language development in general, and its...
Article
The role of children as social agents in applied linguistics research has been mostly ignored to date. In this exploratory ethnographic study, we investigated how first-grade students experienced literacy acquisition in two Semitic languages (Arabic and Hebrew) simultaneously. We held dialogic conversations with seven children and observed their be...
Article
Limited research to date has addressed the language socialisation of transnational children during global movement with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of language socialisation for a transnational child experiencing a multilingual environment both at home and in preschool. This transnational English – and Spanish...
Preprint
Limited research to date has addressed the language socialization of transnational children during global movement with their parents. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of language socialization for a transnational child experiencing a multilingual environment both at home and in preschool. This transnational English-and Spanish-s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a theorization of language-conducive strategies (Schwartz, 2018) as a pedagogical concept, combining several types of teacher support in early language education. A twofold classification of language-conducive strategies is proposed: didactic and management strategies. These strategies are designed to induce preschool children...
Preprint
Full-text available
Drawing on two longitudinal case-studies, this study aimed to identify some salient characteristics of the agentic behaviour of two young emergent multilinguals in two different multilingual contexts: Luxembourg and Israel. Despite the fact that the studies were conducted independently, the two cases were analysed together owing to the similarities...
Article
Full-text available
M. Шварц оТРАженИе оРГАнИЗАЦИИ ЛеКСИКонА В ТоЛКоВАнИЯХ РУССКИХ СЛоВ ПЯТИ-ШеСТИЛеТнИМИ БИЛИнГВАМИ В статье обсуждаются определения русских слов, полученные в результате эксперимента по методике формальных определений, проведенного с израильтянами, ивритрусскими билинг-вами пятишестилетнего возраста (61 ребенок). На основе семантического анализа 784...
Chapter
Mila Schwartz 10 Strategies and practices of home language maintenance The more we know about micro-level features of the interaction between parent and child and their correlation with the successful acquisition of an otherwise unsupported minority language , the better we can give parents practical advice on factors which they have the power to m...
Article
This paper investigates teachers as agents within their attitudes, and personal practical knowledge toward multilingual students and their classroom practices in Israel through comparison between teachers with past immigration experiences and Israeli native-born teachers. The study applied linguistic ethnography to elicit attitudinal and personal i...
Article
EN This ethnographic study expands prior understanding of the intercultural encounter process by focusing on 29 Jewish and Arab children attending bilingual preschool and two preschool teachers during 16 class sessions. The findings shed light on a developmental stage at which the seeds of intercultural interaction begin to appear along the separat...
Article
Drawing on two longitudinal case-studies, this study aimed to identify some salient characteristics of the agentic behaviour of two young emergent multilinguals in two different multilingual contexts: Luxembourg and Israel. Despite the fact that the studies were conducted independently, the two cases were analysed together owing to the similarities...
Book
This is the first international and interdisciplinary handbook to offer a comprehensive and an in-depth overview of findings from contemporary research, theory, and practice in early childhood language education in various parts of the world and with different populations. The contributions by leading scholars and practitioners are structured to gi...
Article
The objective of two-way language programs is to promote intergroup communicative competence and cultural awareness. The purpose of the study was to explore teachers' strategies implemented to create a language-conducive classroom context. To address this purpose, we used triangulation of data sources: weekly classroom observations, video recording...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore patterns of children's agency enactment in second-language learning as reflected in their language learning and social interactions in a bilingual Arabic–Hebrew-speaking classroom. We examined the connection between these behaviour patterns and the children's L2 progress in the bilingual classroom. The study use...
Article
Full-text available
The study presented here has three goals: : (1) to identify types of errors in the noun inflectional morphology in Russian as a heritage language among Russian-speaking adolescents in Israel (n=11), the United States (n=11), Finland (n=14), and Germany (n=9), (2) to compare errors in speech production between these groups , and (3) to investigate t...
Article
The aim of this longitudinal ethnographic study was to explore how children's verbal and nonverbal behavior reflects their language awareness at a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew-speaking preschool in Israel. We adopted the perspective that children's L2 acquisition is situated within the social events and interactional practices of the classroom community...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The objective of two-way language programs is to promote intergroup communicative competence and cultural awareness. The purpose of the study was to explore teachers' strategies implemented to create a language-conducive classroom context. To address this purpose, we used triangulation of data sources: weekly classroom observations, video recording...
Article
The aim of the current study was two-fold. It aimed (i) to examine how a multi-component task, as well as more specific executive function (EF) tasks, are related to a wide range of early literacy (phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, word writing) and emergent mathematical abilities; and (ii) to broaden our understanding of the similar...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study we examined three questions. First: How does emergent bilingualism affect the development of metalinguistic awareness in kindergarten and first grade? We compared the changes in scores of tests of phonological awareness and morphological awareness from kindergarten to first grade, in two bilingual groups (Hebrew–Arabic and Arab...
Article
This study was conducted within the context of bilingual Arabic- Hebrew medium preschools in Israel which were established to incorporate instruction in the native languages of both majority and minority children in the classroom. Bilingual education in various settings produces a wide variety of outcomes in terms of language proficiency, cultural...
Article
Introduction to the Special Issue: "Early language development and education: Teachers, parents and children as agents"
Article
Van Lier's (2004) concept of ecology of language learning is applicable to our focus on children's active engagement in bilingual preschool classroom activities, which are conducive to language learning. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of relationships between these activities and phases in L2 progress and to identify the activities...
Chapter
In this chapter, I have chosen to write a conceptual introduction to this volume. The chapter starts with what I consider the general motivation for this volume followed by reasons for conceptualizing preschool bilingual education as a distinct research area. The chapter then provides the theoretical framework which underpins many of the studies pr...
Chapter
In the context of peer interaction and L2 learning in the classroom, Blum-Kulka and Snow (2004) distinguished between two types of peers: novice L2 learners and L2 experts. The latter are at a more advanced stage of competence and can play the role of L2 ‘teachers’. Through their interaction with L2 experts, the novices develop linguistic, cultural...
Chapter
Full-text available
Children's formal literacy instruction at school differs from their literacy exposure in the home context. At school, literacy is acquired through structured activities, whereas at home, the process may be supported in the informal context of spontaneous daily parentchild communications and games aimed primarily to provide emotional care and harmo...
Book
Full-text available
This volume provides an up-to-date collection of key aspects related to current preschool bilingual education research from a socio-linguistic perspective. Our focus is on preschool bilingual education in multilingual Europe, which is characterized by diverse language models and children's linguistic backgrounds. The book explores the contemporary...
Article
In this study, we asked how co-teachers in a bilingual preschool overcome challenges in the relationship-building stage, rethink their language education ideology, and coordinate language instruction strategies, and acknowledge their cultural and professional background. The participants in the study were two teachers: one Hebrew-speaking and one A...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We tested children attending bilingual Hebrew-Arabic kindergartens on a fast mapping task. These early sequential bilinguals included those with Hebrew as their home language (L1) and those with Arabic as L1. They were compared to monolingual Hebrew and Arabic speakers. The children saw pictures of unfamiliar objects and were taught pseudo...
Presentation
Full-text available
Research Questions: 1- Which teaching strategies are conducive to L2 use? 2- Which classroom-related factors are conducive to the children’s willingness to use L2 (Arabic)?
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we explored how major theoretical principles and concepts in the mediation strategies of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory are realized in an Arabic−Hebrew-using preschool in Israel. The aim of this study was to examine how teachers encourage children to use their L2 during teacher−child conversations. In particular, as a response to r...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of dual language development and cross-linguistic influence on morphological awareness in young bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2). We examined whether (a) the bilingual children (L1/L2 Arabic and L1/L2 Hebrew) precede their monolingual Hebrew- or Arabic-sp...
Book
https://benjamins.com/catalog/bct.89 This book represents concurrent attempts of multiple researchers to address the issue of cross-linguistic transfer in literacy. It includes broad spectrum of languages and reflects a new generation of conceptualizations of cross-linguistic transfer, offering a different level of complexity by studying children...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to examine the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis in new script acquisition by comparing the performance of Circassian L1 speaking children who are emerging quadri-literates with Hebrew L1 speaking children who are emerging biliterates. Tests in decoding and spelling various English target conventions were condu...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to examine the pedagogical implications of the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis. This hypothesis claims that the similarities and differences between first and additional languages and scripts help or hinder the acquisition of literacy in the novel language. In this study we examined the impact of Arabic language and...
Article
Language-focused listening to young children’s talk provides insight into their internal thinking mechanisms regarding language as they engage in language learning. The aim of this exploratory longitudinal study was to examine and analyze children’s meta-linguistic talk and its main characteristics in a bilingual Arabic–Hebrew-speaking preschool. T...
Article
Full-text available
Bilingual preschool education is under researched compared with bilingual school education. There is also a lack of research on bilingual preschool teachers’ agency and how they negotiate between two languages in the classroom. We examined the language practices of five bilingual preschool teachers working within three different socio-linguistic se...
Article
Full-text available
Educators and researchers increasingly recognize the impact of language policies on bilingual education. The present study examined the similarities and differences in how the teachers and principals in two different contexts, a Mandarin-English bilingual program in a Canadian kindergarten and elementary school and a Russian-Hebrew bilingual presch...
Research
Full-text available
Language-focused listening to young children's talk provides insight into their internal thinking mechanisms regarding language as they engage in language learning. The aim of this exploratory longitudinal study was to examine and analyze children's meta-linguistic talk and its main characteristics in a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew-speaking preschool. T...
Research
Full-text available
Language-focused listening to young children's talk provides insight into their internal thinking mechanisms regarding language as they engage in language learning. The aim of this exploratory longitudinal study was to examine and analyze children's meta-linguistic talk and its main characteristics in a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew-speaking preschool. T...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this exploratory study is to examine bilingual Russian–Hebrew-speaking children’s performance on the complex Case System in Russian. The speech of six early sequential bilinguals and three simultaneous bilinguals is analyzed for the quality and quantity of errors. Monolingual data came from two sources. The first source was the error rat...
Article
Full-text available
Aim and Objectives/Purpose/Research Questions The main goal of this study was to examine noun–adjective gender agreement in Russian by comparing bilingual children with diverse L2 backgrounds (English, Finnish, German, and Hebrew) with age-matched monolingual children and monolinguals one year younger. This comparison was made to investigate the in...
Conference Paper
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Article
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The focus of the present study was the trajectory of the acquisition of noun pluralization in Hebrew as a window into the development of inflectional morphology among early sequential Russian-Hebrew speaking bilinguals. Our participants were six early sequential bilingual children between 36 and 42 months of age at the beginning of the study, who a...
Article
Full-text available
Aim and Objectives/Purpose/Research Questions: The main goal of this study was to examine noun–adjective gender agreement in Russian by comparing bilingual children with diverse L2 backgrounds (English, Finnish, German, and Hebrew) with age-matched monolingual children and monolinguals one year younger. This comparison was made to investigate the i...
Article
Full-text available
In this longitudinal study, we examined bilingual children’s acquisition of definiteness in Hebrew (L2). Hebrew distinguishes between definite and indefinite nouns by marking definiteness by article. We recorded the speech of nine bilingual Russian–Hebrew-speaking children ranging in age from three to four years old in monthly sessions over a perio...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to examine the linguistic and orthographic proximity hypothesis in new script acquisition by comparing the performance of Circassian L1 speaking children who are emerging quadri-literates with Hebrew L1 speaking children who are emerging biliterates. Tests in decoding and spelling various English target conventions were cond...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this study was to investigate the language-teaching strategies used in a bilingual Arabic–Hebrew kindergarten in Israel. We used an ethnographic approach by applying a mixed methods design. The results demonstrate that the language-teaching strategy most frequently used by teachers was flexible bilingualism, through translanguaging that...
Article
Full-text available
Taking into account the effect of diglossia in Arabic and its orthographic complexity, this study is aiming to investigate differences between Arabic-speaking (L1) and Hebrew-speaking (L1) parents' self-reports on their children's language practice at home within the framework of Family Language Policy. Additionally, we (the researchers) aim to exa...
Chapter
Full-text available
Parents’ choices regarding bilingual education are not arbitrary. Parents have background motives, related to their family language and cultural policy, which drive them to integrate their child in a bilingual and bicultural environment. It is inevitable that this choice will have some impact on their child’s linguistic, cognitive and social develo...
Chapter
Full-text available
A family faces various challenges in its attempt to bring up a bilingual or sometimes multilingual child. For example, there are identity conflicts, time pressure restraints in negotiating conflicting language demands and the negative effects of macro-level social processes such as state language policy. Yet, even in these difficult circumstances,...
Chapter
Many educators and parents believe that successful multilingualism is a valuable resource for any society. This is not only because of its role in the successful integration of migrants, but also because of its cognitive potential and the opportunity that it provides to enrich the society’s economic, intellectual and cultural life. The main aim of...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to identify the specific contribution of executive functions to pre-academic skills (emergent literacy, phonological awareness and orthographic knowledge, and emergent mathematic knowledge) over and above cognitive and linguistic underpinning abilities such as naming, short-term memory and vocabulary. The study was designe...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the First Language First model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4–5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of educational instruc...
Data
The development of script schema, as a source of narrative knowledge, is an essential stage in this knowledge construction. This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of script schema knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among Russian/Hebrew-speaking children in Israel. The preschool b...
Article
Full-text available
It has been found that parents, searching for external control of a supporting sociolinguistic environment for L1 and L2 development, can plan several relevant strategies and implement them as a part of their family language policy. The choice of bilingual education serves as an important link in the practical realization of family language ideolog...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many educators and parents believe that successful multilingualism is a valuable resource for any society. This is not only because of its role in the successful integration of migrants, but also because of its cognitive potential and the opportunity that it provides to enrich the society's economic, intellectual and cultural life. The main aim of...
Book
This book presents the forefront of research in the emerging field of family language policy. This is the first volume to explore the link between family language policy, practice and management in the light of state and community language policy in more than 20 ethno-linguistic communities worldwide. Contributions by leading scholars from eight co...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on the role of bilingual versus monolingual preschool education in the development of lexical knowledge in Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among second-generation Russian-Hebrew speaking immigrants in Israel. The study was designed as a longitudinal and comparative study. The lexical knowledge of children was measured three times du...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue of Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal contains nine papers by researchers who presented at the Language and Reading Comprehension for Immigrant Children (LARCIC) conference, which took place at OISE/University of Toronto in 2009. The first set of five papers focuses on the contribution of cognitive factors to readi...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents data on factors influencing vocabulary acquisition in the first and second language among second generation immigrants from families emigrated from the former Soviet Union to Israel. The obtained data are presented in light of existing evidence on the role of socio-cultural background of immigrant parents in countries traditiona...
Chapter
The past 20 years have seen an unprecedented upsurge of interest in bilingualism and multilingualism. A major reason for this is no doubt the acknowledgement by a growing number of researchers that the use of two or more languages is far more common than was previously thought, and may perhaps even be the norm. There are no exact data on the number...
Article
Full-text available
This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...
Book
As populations become more mobile, so interest grows in bi- and multilingualism, particularly in the context of education. This volume focuses on the singular situation in Israel, whose complex multiculturalism has Hebrew and Arabic as official languages, English as an academic and political language, and tongues such as Russian and Amharic spoken...