Mike Tipton

Mike Tipton
University of Portsmouth · School of Sport Exercise & Health Science

MBE, MSc, PhD, FTPS

About

376
Publications
180,455
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
5,812
Citations
Citations since 2016
136 Research Items
3528 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Interested in the physiological and pathophysiological responses to extreme environments and the selection, preparation and protection of those who enter these environments. - Governor, University of Portsmouth - Trustee, Surf Lifesaving GB - Chairman, Energy Institute Health Technical Committee - Medical Board, Ectodermal Dysplasia Society - Technical Advisory Group, English Institute of Sport - Editor-in-Chief, Experimental Physiology - Council, RNLI - Fellow: RSM & Physiological Society - MBE for research in extreme environments
Additional affiliations
October 1998 - October 2019
University of Portsmouth
Position
  • Professor (Full)
April 1998 - present
University of Portsmouth
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Professor of Human & Applied Physiology
October 1996 - April 2004
Institute of Naval Medicine
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (376)
Article
Professor Sir George Lindor Brown (1903–1971) is known for his pioneering research into cholinergic neuromuscular transmission. However, during WWII he worked in hyperbaric physiology and his research into underwater physiology greatly improved the safety of divers. It is perhaps fitting therefore that this review, which accompanies the Physiologic...
Article
Full-text available
Open water swimming (OWS), either ‘wild’ such as river swimming or competitive, is a fast growing pastime as well as a part of events such as triathlons. Little evidence is available on which to base high and low water temperature limits. Also, due to factors such as acclimatisation, which disassociates thermal sensation and comfort from thermal st...
Article
Full-text available
Cold water submersion can induce a high incidence of cardiac arrhythmias in healthy volunteers. Submersion and the release of breath holding can activate two powerful and antagonistic responses: the 'cold shock response' and the 'diving response'. The former involves the activation of a sympathetically driven tachycardia while the latter promotes a...
Article
Adaptation to an environmental stressor is usually studied in isolation, yet these stressors are often encountered in combination in the field, an example being cold and hypoxia at altitude. There has been a paucity of research in this area, although work with rodents indicates that habituation to repeated short cold exposures has a cross-adaptive...
Preprint
When exposed to ambient temperatures that cause thermal discomfort, a human’s behavioral processes are more effective than autonomic ones. These behavioral thermal responses are typically directed by an individual’s perception of the thermal environment. Existing evidence suggests that perception is a holistic amalgamation of human senses, and that...
Article
The prediction of survival time for those immersed in water remains a key element in the function of search and rescue organisations around the globe. The data on which such predictions are made come from laboratory studies and actual incidents. The UK National Immersion Incident Survey (UKNIIS) represents one of the largest surveys undertaken in t...
Article
Full-text available
International Journal of Exercise Science 15(6): 1295-1305, 2022. Since the inclusion in the Olympic Games (2008), open swimming races have attracted greater media attention and, therefore, have a greater number of practitioners, especially in Brazil, an extremely favorable country for this sport. However, increasing reports of fatal incidents in o...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study evaluated cognitive workload in soldiers undertaking a long duration march wearing different loads. Methods Military participants (n=12 men and n=10 women) performed four 3-hour loaded marches (12.25 km at 4.9 km/hour) wearing either 21 kg, 26 kg, 33 kg or 43 kg. During the march, accuracy and response time were measured usin...
Article
Introduction The volume, nature, and risks of paragliding are poorly quantified. More comprehensive understanding, including incident rates allowing comparison to similar disciplines, will help direct and appraise safety interventions. Methods Paraglider pilots were surveyed regarding experience, incidents, recordkeeping, and risk perception. The...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need to rapidly screen individuals for heat strain and fever using skin temperature (Tsk) as an index of deep body temperature (Tb). This study’s aim was to assess whether Tsk could serve as an accurate and valid index of Tb during a simulated heatwave. Seven participants maintained a continuous schedule over 9-days, in 3-day parts; pre-...
Article
A person, usually a child or young adult, dies by drowning every 90 seconds around the planet. Most drowning prevention initiatives do not assess the efficacy of the intervention. In this study, thirteen- to fourteen-year-olds had their level of water safety knowledge (covering cold shock, rips and tides) assessed before, just after, and 3-6 months...
Article
Full-text available
Internationally, drowning is a leading cause of accidental death that features in many legal cases. In these cases, possible mitigations and the ‘pain and suffering’ in terms of the duration and subjective experience of drowning are often pivotal in determining levels of compensation and outcome. As a result, there is a requirement to understand th...
Article
Full-text available
Cold injury can result from exercising at low temperatures and can impair exercise performance or cause lifelong debility or death. This consensus statement provides up-to-date information on the pathogenesis, nature, impacts, prevention, and treatment of the most common cold injuries.
Article
Full-text available
Background Death by drowning is a leading cause of accidental death in the United Kingdom (UK) and worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that effective documentation of drowning is required to describe drowning frequency and to underpin effective drowning prevention intervention, thus improving the quality of data describing drownin...
Article
It has long been claimed that non-wetsuit cold water swimming (CWS) benefits health (1), and anecdotally cold-water swimmers claimed to suffer fewer and milder infections, though this was not directly measured. A boost to immunity is biologically plausible: stress hormones are released during cold-water immersion (2), and short-term stress may read...
Article
INTRODUCTION: The paragliding reserve parachute system is safety-critical but underused, unstandardized, and known to fail. This study aimed to characterize reserve parachute deployment under radial acceleration to make recommendations for system design and paraglider pilot training. METHODS: There were 88 licensed amateur paraglider pilots who wer...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Death by drowning is a leading cause of accidental death in the United Kingdom (UK) and worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that effective documentation of drowning is required to describe drowning frequency and to underpin effective drowning prevention intervention, thus improving the quality of data describing drowni...
Article
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and progressive insulin resistance, leading to macro and microvascular dysfunction. Passive heating has potential to improve glucose homeostasis and act as an exercise mimetic. We assessed the effect of acute passive heating before or during an oral glucose tolerance test (OG...
Article
Around the planet, in many different scenarios, skin temperature is being used as a surrogate measure of deep body (core) temperature in the assessment of whether an individual is infected with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2), which causes the coronavirus disease (Covid‐19, or C‐19), as indicated by the presence of...
Article
We investigated whether an 11-day heat acclimation programme (HA) enhanced endurance performance in a temperate environment, and the mechanisms underpinning any ergogenic effect. Twenty-four males (V̇O2max: 56.7±7.5 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed either: i) HA consisting of 11 consecutive daily exercise sessions (60-90 minutes·day⁻¹; n=16) in a hot envir...
Article
This short review was prompted by The Physiological Society's recent online symposium on variability. It does not deal with a specific methodology, but rather with the myth that certain environmentally-induced clinical conditions can be identified, quantified, simplified and monitored with a single methodology. Although this might be possible with...
Article
Surveillance is key to the lifesaving capability of lifeguards. Experienced personnel consistently display enhanced hazard detection capabilities compared to less experienced counterparts. However, the mechanisms which underpin this effect and the time it takes to develop these skills are not understood. We hypothesized that, after one season of ex...
Article
Full-text available
New findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the physiological interpretation of SpO2 fluctuations observed during normobaric hypoxia in healthy individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? There is a significant flow of information between SpO2 and other cardio-respiratory time-series during graded hypoxia. Analy...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? Does recreational cold exposure result in cold sensitivity and is this associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired sensory thermal thresholds? What is the main finding and its importance? Previous cold exposure was correlated with foot cold sensitivity which may indicate the develo...
Article
New findings: What is the topic of this review? The effect of extreme environments on the visual system. What advances does it highlight? The manner in which environmental stressors directly and indirectly affect the eye and vision. Abstract: Much is known about the physiology and anatomy of the eye. Much less is known about the impact of differ...
Article
Women can now serve in ground close combat (GCC) roles, where they may be required to operate alongside men in hot environments. However, relative to the average male soldier, female soldiers are less aerobically fit, with a smaller surface area ( AD ), lower mass (m) with higher body fat and a larger AD /m ratio. This increases cardiovascular stra...
Article
Background: The study is the first to evaluate the effects of graded normobaric hypoxia on SpO2 variability in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Twelve healthy males (mean [standard deviation] age 22 [4] years) were exposed to four simulated environments (fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2]: 0.12, 0.145, 0.17, and 0.21) for 45 minutes, in...
Article
Background: Dehydration is common in hospitals and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Clinical assessment and diagnostic measures of dehydration are unreliable. We sought to investigate the novel concept that individuals might control their own intravenous rehydration, guided by thirst. Methods: We performed a single-blind, co...
Article
Objective: To determine the thermal demand of simulated Flood Rescue tasks and impacts on performance. Methods: Ten participants undertook two simulations: ‘Cold’ (4 °C)-participants stood in knee height moving water (4.8km·h⁻¹), with simulated wind and rain for 60 min. ‘Warm’ (20 °C)-participants performed 6x7 min walking in knee height moving wat...
Article
This study investigated the ergonomics of three simulated 120 m vertical ladder ascents and differences between novice (NC) and experienced climbers (EC). Seven EC and 10 NC undertook three 120 m climbs; comprising of four 30 m climbs. Ascending 120 m was reported as a high physical demand, supported by high peak HRs (~173 b.min-1 across the three...
Chapter
The impact of environmental conditions is often overlooked in sport, where the pre-occupation is generally with nutrition and training. However, inappropriate preparation and strategy for the thermal conditions of an event can not only significantly impact on performance, but it can also threaten athlete health and safety. Thus, those organising, s...
Article
Full-text available
A s the popularity of open water swimming continues to grow, so do the number of people 'pushing the boundaries' at the extremes of distance and temperature. We spoke to some leading experts on cold water swimming and gained some advice about the effects it has on the body, how to look out for signs of hypothermia and a few general pointers if you'...
Article
Full-text available
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare genetic disorder occurring as a consequence of gene mutations that code for the ectoderm of the developing embryo and results in numerous disorders of varying severity. The lack of functioning sweat glands in those affected with ED leads to high infant mortality and frequent complaints of hyperthermia. Temperatur...
Chapter
The impact of environmental conditions is often overlooked in sport, where the pre-occupation is generally with nutrition and training. However, inappropriate preparation and strategy for the thermal conditions of an event can not only significantly impact on performance, but it can also threaten athlete health and safety. Thus, those organising, s...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Paragliding is an emerging discipline of aviation, with recreational pilots flying distances over 100 km. It remains risky. Accidents typically relate to pilot error rather than equipment failure. We measured cognition and physiological responses during simulated flight, to investigate whether errors might be due to pilot impairment,...
Article
PURPOSE: To develop a Physical Employment Standard (PES) for the British Royal Air Force Regiment (RAF Regt). METHOD: Twenty-nine RAF Regt personnel completed eight critical tasks wearing Combat Equipment Fighting Order (31.5 kg) while being monitored for physical and perceptual effort. A PES was developed using task simulations, measured on 61 inc...
Article
Physiology is the “science of life” and, as physiologists, we are interested in the function and survival of diverse lifeforms including humans. The Physiological Society's recent “Extreme Environmental Physiology” meeting addressed the impact of the external environment on human physiology – fascinating papers from this event will appear in Experi...
Article
Full-text available
This narrative review discusses the evidence relevant to key aspects of drowning, which is defined by the World Health Organization as the process of respiratory difficulty caused by submersion/immersion in liquid. The length of time the victim is submerged is a key factor in survival and neurologic damage. Although respiratory distress and hypoxia...
Article
Full-text available
This narrative review discusses the evidence relevant to key aspects of drowning, which is defined by the World Health Organization as the process of respiratory difficulty caused by submersion/immersion in liquid. The length of time the victim is submerged is a key factor in survival and neurologic damage. Although respiratory distress and hypoxia...
Article
Background: To establish whether an organization has a valid Physical Employment Standard (PES), it is important to determine those aspects of the job that are critical to operational success. Objective: To determine the tasks of the Offshore Wind Industry (OWI) and whether the ability to undertake these tasks is adequately assessed. Methods:...
Article
Background: If current population and health trends continue, workplace demographics will look significantly different by the turn of the century. Organizations will no longer have a steady pipeline of younger workers and will likely need to rely on older workers to remain competitive in the global marketplace. The future multi-generational workfo...
Article
New findings: What is the central question of this study? What are the mechanisms responsible for the decline in cognitive performance following exposure to acute normobaric hypoxia? What are the main findings and their importance? We found that 1) performance of a complex central executive task (n-back) was reduced FiO2 0.12; 2) there was a stron...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of load carriage on pulmonary function was investigated during a treadmill march of increasing intensity. 24 male infantry soldiers marched on six occasions wearing either: no load, 15 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg or 50 kg. Each loaded configuration included body armour which was worn as battle-fit or loose-fit (40 kg only). FVC and FEV1 were reduce...
Article
Full-text available
Low water temperature (<15 °C) has been faced by many organizers of triathlons and swim-runs in the northern part of Europe during recent years. More knowledge about how cold water affects athletes swimming in wetsuits in cold water is warranted. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the physiological response when swimming a fu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Te atreves a ignorar los desencadenantes obvios que pueden precipitar tu muerte por ahogamiento? Gran Canaria-III Congreso Internacional-V Congreso Nacional de Seguridad, Emergencias y Socorrismo: La calidad desde La prevención y la primera intervención". Abril 2019, book of abstracts Los caminos sociales, fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos que conduc...
Article
Swimming authorities must enforce minimum temperature rules in open water swimming because some open water swimmers—particularly those who are well acclimatised to cold—are unable to judge how cold they are
Article
Objectives To provide a rationale for minimum water temperature rules for elite and subelite marathon swim racing and highlight factors that make individuals vulnerable to excessive cooling during open water swimming. Methods 12 lean competitive swimmers swam for up to 2 hours, three times in different water temperatures between 14°C and 20°C, wea...
Article
Human physiological responses to heat, cold, hypoxia, microgravity, hyperbaria, hypobaria and fasting are well studied in isolation. However, in the natural world these stressors are often combined or experienced sequentially (Tipton, 2012). Studies examining human responses to these more realistic, yet relatively complex, circumstances remain spar...
Article
Are humans becoming "thermostatic"?
Article
Objectives: The study was undertaken to compare the thermal and biochemical responses to a heat tolerance test (HTT) of malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptible individuals, volunteers who have suffered heat illness (HI) and control volunteers. Methods: Three groups of male volunteers (n = 6 in each group) were recruited to the study: MHS — civilian...
Article
The pros and cons of collaboration
Chapter
Cold water can, somewhat arbitrarily, be defined as water at a temperature of less than 15°C. Immersion in cold water represents one of the greatest stresses to which the body can be exposed and immersion is the second most common cause of accidental death in many countries of the world. However, it is a relatively hidden killer with many of the ov...
Article
A 24-year-old woman with symptoms of major depressive disorder and anxiety had been treated for the condition since the age of 17. Symptoms were resistant to fluoxetine and then citalopram. Following the birth of her daughter, she wanted to be medication-free and symptom-free. A programme of weekly open (cold) water swimming was trialled. This led...
Article
Article for children on the demands on pilots of flying fast jets.
Article
Working in chemical biological (CB) protective equipment causes thermoregulatory strain by restricting evaporative cooling. We quantified which impermeable ancillary items [gloves(G), body armour liner(BAL), respirator(R), overboots(OB)] imposed the greatest and least thermoregulatory strain through restricting evaporative cooling. The study was a...
Article
The study investigated if incidences of death by drowning in the UK could have been prevented through the use of lifejackets over a ten year period. This study was a retrospective analysis of fatal maritime incident data collected by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) between the years 2007 and 2016. A Casualty Review Panel (CRP) met annually...
Article
Sudden cardiac death on immersion https://journals.lww.com/em-news/blog/BreakingNews/pages/post.aspx?PostID=390
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To provide a scientific rationale for lower water temperature and wetsuit rules for elite and subelite triathletes. Methods 11 lean, competitive triathletes completed a 20 min flume swim, technical transition including bike control and psychomotor testing and a cycle across five different wetsuit and water temperature conditions: with w...
Article
Full-text available
Background It has been suggested that pacing is a thermoregulatory behaviour. We investigated the effect of competition on pacing, performance and thermophysiological strain during exercise in the heat and the psychological factors mediating competition effects. Method Eighteen males (maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] 3.69 [0.44] L min−1) undertook a...
Article
Full-text available
We therefore urge all authors to describe drowning incidents using the terminology advised by ILCOR and the WHO. Those who survive the initial incident should be considered to have survived a non-fatal drowning.
Article
Introduction. Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. In cold-water, sudden skin cooling triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR). The CSR comprises tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, hypertension, inspiratory gasp, and hyperventilation with the hyperventilatory component inducing hypocapnia and increasing risk of as...
Article
Aim To investigate inter-individual variance in adaptive responses to heat acclimation (HA). Methods 17 males (VO2max=58.8(8.4) mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) undertook 10-days (exercise + heat-stress [40 °C, 50%RH]) HA. Adaptation was assessed by heat stress tests (HST; 60–minutes cycling, 35% peak power output) pre- and post-HA. Results Inter-individual variab...