Mike Rayner

Mike Rayner
University of Oxford | OX · Nuffield Department of Population Health

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289
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (289)
Article
Background: Evidence based health policy, such as that put forward in the European Food and Nutrition Action Plan 2015-2020 and the WHO Global Action Plan on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, has a role in curbing the consumption of unhealthful foods and drink. We ask how countries are performing in the adoption of these poli...
Article
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Background As the World Health Organization urges countries to strengthen their noncommunicable disease monitoring and surveillance activities, setting-specific innovations are emerging. Diet – a key, modifiable risk factor for chronic diseases – is particularly challenging to capture reliably. By socially validating self-report dietary survey tool...
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Sustainable food profiling models (SFPMs) are the scientific basis for the labelling of food products according to their environmental and nutritional impact, allowing consumers to make informed choices. We identified ten SFPMs that score individual foods according to at least two environmental indicators, with the most common being greenhouse gas...
Article
Background Nutrient profile models (NPMs) are algorithms that classify or rank foods according to their nutritional composition. An NPM was developed in 2005 in the UK to regulate marketing of foods to children. The model uses a scoring system that balances points awarded for the protein, fibre, fruit, vegetable, and nut content of foods and drinks...
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Background A high-salt diet is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease; therefore, reducing dietary salt intake is a key part of prevention strategies. There are few effective salt reduction interventions suitable for delivery in the primary care setting, where the majority of the management and diagnosis of hypertension occurs....
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Background Adoption of healthy and sustainable diets could be essential for safe-guarding the Earth's natural resources and reducing diet-related mortality, but their adoption could be hampered if such diets proved to be more expensive and unaffordable for some populations. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the costs of healthy and sustainable diets...
Article
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A nutrient profiling model (NPM) was developed in 2005 in the UK to regulate the marketing of foods to children. It was revised in 2018, but the new version has not been finalised. The Eatwell Guide (EWG) is the UK’s official food-based dietary guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the 2005 and 2018 versions of the...
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Background The provision and over-consumption of foods high in energy, saturated fat, free sugars or salt are important risk factors for poor diet and ill-health. In the UK, policies seek to drive improvement through voluntary reformulation of single nutrients in key food groups. There has been little consideration of the overall progress by indivi...
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Food production is a major contributor to environmental damage. More environmentally sustainable foods could incur higher costs for consumers. In this review, we explore whether consumers are willing to pay (WTP) more for foods with environmental sustainability labels (‘ecolabels’). Six electronic databases were searched for experiments on consumer...
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Background Consumption of free sugars in the UK greatly exceeds dietary recommendations. Public Health England (PHE) has set voluntary targets for industry to reduce the sales-weighted mean sugar content of key food categories contributing to sugar intake by 5% by 2018 and 20% by 2020. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the sales-weight...
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Objective To determine changes in household purchases of drinks and confectionery one year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). Design Controlled interrupted time series analysis. Participants Members of a panel of households reporting their purchasing on a weekly basis to a market research company (average weekly numb...
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This review assessed the effects of environmental labels on consumers’ demand for more sustainable food products. Six electronic databases were searched for experimental studies of ecolabels and food choices. We followed standard Cochrane methods and results were synthesized using vote counting. Fifty-six studies ( N = 42,768 participants, 76 inter...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND A high-salt diet is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease; therefore, reducing dietary salt intake is a key part of prevention strategies. There are few effective salt reduction interventions suitable for delivery in the primary care setting, where the majority of the management and diagnosis of hypertension occurs....
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Background Suboptimal diet is the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. Addressing this problem requires context-specific solutions informed by context-specific data collected by context-specific tools. This study aimed to assess the relative validity of a newly developed brief dietary survey to estimate food intake and adherence to the...
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Background Sri Lanka faces the double burden of over- and undernutrition. To tackle this dual challenge, double duty interventions that improve the quality of the Sri Lankan diet in line with national dietary guidelines have been suggested. The success of these interventions depends upon an understanding of the context-specific factors that impact...
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Background Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is positively associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization recommends that member states implement effective taxes on SSBs to reduce consumption. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) is a two-tiered tax, announced in March 201...
Article
Background: In health promotion, Nutrient Profiling Systems (NPSs) are frequently used to classify foods according to their nutritional composition. However, their validity requires further investigation, including their prospective associations with health. The study aimed to investigate the associations of the original Food Standards Agency-NPS...
Article
Background Nutrient Profiling Systems (NPSs), including the UK Food Standards Agency NPS and its variants are used to classify foods according to their nutritional composition for nutrition policies. The prospective validity of these NPSs requires however further investigation. The study investigates the associations of the original Food Standards...
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Objective To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. Design Modelling study. Setting 85 countries. Participants Population of 85 countries. Main outcome measures A graded coding method was developed...
Article
Health-related claims (HRCs) are statements found on food packets that convey the nutritional quality of a food (nutrition claims) and/or its impact on a health outcome (health claims). Foods carrying HRCs have a slightly improved nutritional profile than foods without HRCs, however, it's unclear whether this translates into dietary improvements. W...
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Objective There are concerns that price promotions encourage unhealthy dietary choices. This review aims to answer the following research questions (RQ1) what is the prevalence of price promotions on foods in high-income settings, and (RQ2) are price promotions more likely to be found on unhealthy foods? Design Systematic review of articles publis...
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The British Nutrition Foundation held a 1‐day roundtable event to gather views from a wide range of stakeholders on the relevance and importance of the concept of nutrient density in supporting and motivating people to make healthier dietary choices. The opportunities and barriers associated with the use of this concept were also explored. The roun...
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Background Dietary sugar, especially in liquid form, increases risk of dental caries, adiposity, and type 2 diabetes. The United Kingdom Soft Drinks Industry Levy (SDIL) was announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018 and charges manufacturers and importers at £0.24 per litre for drinks with over 8 g sugar per 100 mL (high levy category),...
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The provision of simplified nutrition information, in a prominent place on the front of food packages, is recommended as an important element of comprehensive strategies to tackle the burden of death and disease caused by unhealthy diets. There is growing evidence that front-of-pack nutrition labels are preferred by consumers, are more likely to be...
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Background: The consumption of free sugars in the UK is more than double the guideline intake for adults and close to triple for children, with soft drinks representing a significant proportion. The aim of this study was to assess how individual soft drink companies and consumers have responded to calls to reduce sugar consumption, including the s...
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Background Traffic-light labelling (TLL) is a promising front-of-pack system to help consumers make informed dietary choices. It has been shown that adopting TLL in Canada, through an optimistic scenario of avoiding, if possible, foods with red traffic lights, could effectively reduce Canadians’ intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodi...
Chapter
Nutrition and health claims can help consumers identify foods that are healthier. The pan-European CLYMBOL study found that 21% of prepacked foods carry nutrition claims while health claims were found on 11% of foods, mostly in the form of general (non-specific) health claims. However, foods carrying claims had only marginally better nutritional qu...
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Background: High salt intake is a risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Reducing salt intake has been shown to reduce blood pressure. Despite population-level interventions, including product reformulation and public awareness campaigns, adult salt consumption in the UK still exceeds recommendations; this is primarily due to sal...
Article
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Objective: The current paper describes methods of evaluating dietary habits of Sri Lankan adolescents based on the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), which has been used in multiple international studies to describe dietary variety, moderation, adequacy and balance. The paper describes the method for calculating DQI-I scores and examines as...
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Objectives Traditional methods for creating food composition tables struggle to cope with the large number of products and the rapid pace of change in the food and drink marketplace. This paper introduces foodDB, a big data approach to the analysis of this marketplace, and presents analyses illustrating its research potential. Design foodDB has be...
Article
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Objectives To study trends in stroke mortality rates, event rates, and case fatality, and to explain the extent to which the reduction in stroke mortality rates was influenced by changes in stroke event rates or case fatality. Design Population based study. Setting Person linked routine hospital and mortality data, England. Participants 795 869...
Article
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The Nutrition and Health Claims Regulation (NHCR) EC No 1924/2006 aims to provide an appropriate level of consumer protection whilst supporting future innovation and fair competition within the EU food industry. However, consumers’ interpretation of health claims is less well understood. There is a lack of evidence on the extent to which consumers...
Article
Discipline Épidémiologie. Introduction et but de l’étude En Europe, 3 logos nutritionnels en face avant des emballages, 2 mis en place par des gouvernements (Nutri-Score et Feux Tricolores Multiples (FTM)) et l’un créé par un consortium d’entreprises agro-alimentaires (Evolved Nutrition Label (ENL)), sont en discussion. Contrairement au Nutri-Scor...
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Background Health-related claims (HRCs) are statements found on food packets that convey the nutritional quality of a food (nutrition claims) and/or its impact on a health outcome (health claims). The EU stated that HRCs should be regulated such that they can only appear on foods that meet a specified nutrient profile (NP). A NP model has been prop...
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Background Traditional methods of dietary assessment have their limitations and commercial sources of food sales and purchase data are increasingly suggested as an additional source to measuring diet at the population level. However, the potential uses of food sales data are less well understood. The aim of this review is to establish how sales dat...
Data
Summary table of included papers. Includes title, authors, objectives, data types used, variables measured and key findings. (DOCX)
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Background The consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with increased mortality from chronic diseases, and as a result, it has been classified by the World Health Organization as carcinogenic (processed meat) and probably carcinogenic (red meat) to humans. One policy response is to regulate red and processed meat consumption simil...
Article
Nutrient profile (NP) models, tools used to rate or evaluate the nutritional quality of foods, are increasingly used by government bodies worldwide to underpin nutrition-related policies. An up-to-date and accessible list of existing NP models is currently unavailable to support their adoption or adaptation in different jurisdictions. This study us...
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Background: Offering consumers the opportunity to swap to lower-salt foods while shopping has potential to reduce salt intake. Offering a wider range of alternatives which are much lower in salt could increase the magnitude of salt reduction gained but may interfere with consumers' engagement and willingness to accept swaps. Objectives: To compa...
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The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the...
Article
Background: Sustainable diets are intended to address the increasing health and environmental concerns related to food production and consumption. Although many candidates for sustainable diets have emerged, a consistent and joint environmental and health analysis of these diets has not been done at a regional level. Using an integrated health and...
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In the European Union (EU) three coloured graded Front-of-Pack labels (FoPLs), two endorsed by governments (Nutri-Score and Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL)) and one designed by industry (Evolved Nutrition Label (ENL)) are currently being discussed. This study aimed to investigate the impact of these FoPLs on portion size selection, specifically for l...
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Introduction Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs...
Data
Search strategy. Full search strategy utilized for literature search. (DOCX)
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PRISMA checklist. Reviews compliance to PRISMA guidelines. (DOCX)
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Inclusion criteria. Measurement and outcome criteria for review inclusion. (DOCX)
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Quality assessment. Quality assessment of included papers. (DOCX)
Article
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Background Most food in the United Kingdom is purchased in supermarkets, and many of these purchases are routinely tracked through supermarket loyalty card data. Using such data may be an effective way to develop remote public health interventions and to measure objectively their effectiveness at changing food purchasing behavior. Objective The Fr...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Most food in the United Kingdom is purchased in supermarkets, and many of these purchases are routinely tracked through supermarket loyalty card data. Using such data may be an effective way to develop remote public health interventions and to measure objectively their effectiveness at changing food purchasing behavior. OBJECTIVE The Fr...
Article
The global burden of obesity leads to significant morbidity and has major economic implications. In April 2018, Britain will join a growing number of countries attempting to tackle this using fiscal measures when the UK Soft Drinks Industry Levy is introduced. We review recent evidence from natural experiments of the impact of health-related food a...
Article
Full-text available
Background In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model) is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of t...
Data
Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement. (DOC)
Article
Background: In the UK the FSA-Ofcom nutrient profiling model is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of less...
Article
Objective To prioritise policy actions for government to improve the food environment and contribute to reduced obesity and related diseases. Design Cross-sectional study applying the Food Environment Policy Index (Food EPI) in two stages. First, the evidence on all relevant policies was compiled, through an Internet search of government documents...
Book
Note: Some of the following text has been slightly adapted from the nutrient profile model developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe (1). Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, claiming 2.2 million lives every year, a figure that is projected to increase to more than 3.8 million by 2030 (2...
Article
Background The majority of food in the United Kingdom is purchased in supermarkets, and therefore, supermarket interventions provide an opportunity to improve diets. Randomized controlled trials are costly, time-consuming, and difficult to conduct in real stores. Alternative approaches of assessing the impact of supermarket interventions on food pu...
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Full-text available
Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India’s largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using...