Mike Pole

Mike Pole
Nanging Institute of Geology and paleontology, CAS · Paleobotany

PhD

About

97
Publications
22,901
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3,229
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
777 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - August 2007
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Coordinator for Terrestrial Ecology

Publications

Publications (97)
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Looks at Holocene leaf cuticle in rock overhangs and moa coprolites.
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Reducing the uncertainty in predictions of future climate change is one of today’s greatest scientific challenges, with many significant problems unsolved, including the relationship between pCO2 and global temperature. To better constrain these forecasts, it is meaningful to study past time intervals of global warmth, such as the Eocene (56.0–33.9...
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The reorganisation of Earth's climate system from the Oligocene to the Miocene was influenced by complex interactions between Tethyan tectonics, orbital parameters, oceanographic changes, and carbon cycle feedbacks, with climate modelling indicating that pCO2 was an important factor. Oscillating episodes of climate change during the Oligocene-Mioce...
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The Upper Triassic Xujiahe and Lower Jurassic Zhenzhuchong formations of the Sichuan Basin, China, are important sources of plant fossils and windows into the intervening extinction event. However, there is an on-going debate as to whether the environment represented by the Xujiahe and Zhenzhuchong formations was continental or included an importan...
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Two relatively small tridactyl tracks from the Middle Jurassic Xintiangou Formation of northeastern Sichuan are assigned to cf. Anomoepus based on low length/width and anterior triangle ratios, and a relatively short step and inward rotation of the footprint axes. Anomoepus is typical of many Middle Jurassic dinosaur-dominated ichnofaunas from cent...
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This issue of Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology is devoted to papers on Mesozoic ecosystems and is an outcome of the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) 632. IGCP is a joint operation by UNESCO and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), which promote interdisciplinary Earth science research among scientists interna...
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Reliable reconstructions of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) are required at higher resolution than currently available to help resolve the relationship between mass extinctions and changes in palaeo-pCO2 levels. Such reconstructions are needed: 1, at a high temporal resolution for constraining the pre- and post-extinction atmospher...
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Three features of leaf physiognomy: craspedodromous venation, compound teeth and a lobed leaf outline, figure prominently in the Late Cretaceous vegetation of southern New Zealand. These make it distinctly different from typical extant, predominantly evergreen forests and some deciduous vegetation. The physiognomy of the Late Cretaceous vegetation...
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Miocene New Zealand was a small, highly oceanic landmass which makes it ideal for recording terrestrial climate, free of the complications of a continental setting. Fortunately, it has a good Miocene fossil record, both marine and terrestrial. This paper reviews past conclusions about Miocene climate then attempts to derive some key climate indices...
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A late Miocene (6–6.5 Ma; Kapitean and latest Tongaporutuan stages) fossil leaf locality is situated at Mataora in the southern Coromandel Peninsula of the North Island, New Zealand (latitude 37°S). It includes well-preserved remains of a new genus and species of conifer, Mataoraphyllum miocenicus, considered to be a phyllodinous Taxaceae. Other co...
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Sapindaceae is one of the most important plant families in the warmer and, particularly, drier Australasian rainforests, but there are also representatives in more arid regions. The leaf cuticles of a representative selection of Australasian species of Sapindaceae are illustrated with transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy. The family e...
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Mesofossil assemblages from several Cretaceous and Cenozoic units across Australia and New Zealand provide new evidence of insect and annelid behaviour. The earliest scale insects (Diaspididae, Coccoidea) from Australasia are described and represented by three scale morphotypes. The mesofossil assemblages also reveal clitellate annelid cocoon morph...
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Pitt Island, a part of the Chathams Islands group, lies 700 km east of New Zealand. Its geology includes the Tupuangi Formation, dated as Motuan to Teratan (late Albian to Santonian) on the basis of palynology. Samples of Tupuangi Formation mudstone yielded leaf cuticle assemblages dominated by araucarian and podocarp conifers and locally by angios...
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This paper reports the discovery of three of the most iconic New Caledonian endemic genera, Amphorogyne, Paracryphia and Phelline, as dispersed leaf cuticle fossils in the early Miocene of New Zealand. New Caledonia's endemic angiosperm families have given it a reputation as one of the most interesting botanical regions in the world, but unfortunat...
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A plant-fossil bearing sequence at Kakahu, south Canterbury, New Zealand, prob-ably extends from the late Paleocene to the Early Eocene (palynological Zones PM3-MH1).One of the leaf macrofossil assemblages previously published from this locality as Paleocene (J38/f58), is here regarded as coming from very close to, and probably just above the Paleo...
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DISCUSSION Discussion of 'The Waipounamu Erosion Surface: questioning the antiquity of the New Zealand land surface and terrestrial fauna and flora' M. S. Pole comments: In a recent paper Landis et al. (2008) propose that New Zealand was completely submerged in the Late Oligocene–earliest Miocene and therefore, its distinctive terrestrial biota mus...
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a b s t r a c t A fluvial sequence near Cave Stream (north of Castle Hill Village, central Canterbury), New Zealand, contains organically-preserved plant macrofossils (cuticles). The almost ubiquitous presence of Arau-cariaceae macrofossils in the lower part of the section and their stratigraphic disappearance roughly coincident with the appearance...
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New Zealand's Jurassic plant fossils are known from non-marine settings in two terranes: the Murihiku forearc basin and from a small area on the Rakaia Terrane, an accretionary prism. These terranes lay in relatively high latitudes along the Gondwana margin but their precise location, latitude and position with respect to each other is unclear. The...
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Pole, M., December, 2008. The record of Araucariaceae macrofossils in New Zealand. Alcheringa 32, 405–426. ISSN 0311-5518.The Araucariaceae have a long record in New Zealand, extending back to the Jurassic at least, and Araucaria extends back to at least the Late Cretaceous. This paper reviews the macrofossil record of the family and presents new i...
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Seven parataxa of Myrtaceae leaf cuticle and one associated leaf are described from Early Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago, and the Gore Lignite Measures of Southland. These include two or perhaps three species of Syzygium as well as Metrosideros, possibly the extant New Zealand M. diffusa. The most widespread species is a...
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A low-diversity Early Jurassic flora preserved in floodbasin siltstones of the Marburg Subgroup at Inverleigh Quarry in the Clarence-Moreton Basin, eastern Australia, is dominated by Allocladus helgei Jansson sp. nov., a conifer with denticulate leaves tentatively attributed to Araucariaceae. The assemblage also includes Rintoulia variabilis and Ca...
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This paper describes 115 parataxa of dispersed leaf fossil cuticle from 120 sam-ples from the Early Miocene of Central Otago (the fluvial-lacustrine Manuherikia Group) and Southland (the coastal deltaic East Southland Group), New Zealand. The modern affinities include Argophyllaceae (Argophyllum), Atherospermataceae, Casuarinaceae (Gymnostoma), Cun...
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Monocot cuticle is an uncommon component of dispersed cuticle samples in the New Zealand Miocene, a fact most likely due to its generally fragile nature. Neverthe-less, 120 fossiliferous samples from two regions, the interior Manuherikia Basin in Cen-tral Otago, and the paleo-coastal delta of the Southland Coalfield, have produced 17 morphological...
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Early Eocene plant-fossil assemblages (mostly of dispersed cuticle) from Strahan-Regatta Point, Tasmania, Australia, record evidence of mesothermal rainforest (mean annual temperatures between 12 and 20°C) and mangrove vegetation surrounding an estuary, which grew close to the polar circle. Plant taxa represented by cuticle include: Bowenia (Cycada...
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Twenty-five species of Lauraceae cuticle are described from 120 fossil-bearing samples from two Early Miocene basins in southern New Zealand; the St Bathans Paleovalley of the Manuherikia Group, and the Gore Lignite Measures of the East Southland Group. The genera Endiandra and Cryptocarya are identified, which are no longer in the extant flora of...
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Organically preserved plant macrofossils, which accumulated during the period of late Neogene tectonic uplift, were documented from four localities in the South Island. These include Arapito Road (near Karamea), Waitahu River (near Reefton), Tadmor (south of Nelson) and Grey River (north of Christchurch). The assemblages from these localities were...
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One hundred and nineteen samples were investigated from Early Miocene localities of the St Bathans Paleovalley in the Manuherikia Group in Central Otago and the Gore Lignite Measures of the East Southland Group in Southland for their content of conifer and cycad macrofossils. In total, these contained 16 species of conifer in 12 genera. They includ...
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The terrestrial biogeography of Gondwana during Jurassic – Early Cretaceous times is poorly resolved, and the flora is usually considered to have been rather uniform. This is surprising given the size of Gondwana, which extended from the equator to the South Pole. Documenting Gondwanan terrestrial floristic provincialism in the Jurassic – Early Cre...
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The 40 km of coastline from Fortrose to Chaslands Mistake (southeastern South Island, New Zealand) comprises sediments that are part of the Early-Middle Jurassic of the Murihiku Terrane. The sediments are dominantly fluvial with some marine beds and alluvial fan deposition, and display an evolution of fluvial style which progresses from perennial f...
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The terrestrial biogeography of Gondwana during Jurassic–Early Cretaceous times is poorly resolved, and the flora is usually considered to have been rather uniform. This is surprising given the size of Gondwana, which extended from the equator to the South Pole. Documenting Gondwanan terrestrial floristic provincialism in the Jurassic–Early Cretace...
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New Zealand has a good Neogene plant fossil record. During the Miocene it was without high topography and it was highly maritime, meaning that its climate, and the resulting vegetation, would be controlled dominantly by zonal climate conditions. Its vegetation record during this time suggests the climate passed from an ever-wet and cool but frostle...
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Known Early-Middle Miocene terrestrial strata of southern New Zealand are represented by alluvial plain and lacustrine sediments. A vertebrate fauna including fish, ducks, and crocodiles populated Lake Manuherikia, with abundant mussels, gastropods, and stromatolites occupying the near-shore areas of the lake. A diverse vegetation covered the surro...
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During the Middle Jurassic, the regional environment of Curio Bay, southeast South Island, New Zealand, was a fluvial plain marginal to volcanic uplands. Intermittent flashy, poorly-confined flood events buried successive conifer forests. With the termination of each flood, soils developed and vegetation was reestablished. In most cases, this devel...
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New Zealand is generally thought to have been physically isolated from the rest of the world for over 60 million years. But physical isolation may not mean biotic isolation, at least on the time scale of millions of years. Are New Zealand’s present complement of plants the direct descendants of what originally rafted from Gondwana? Or has there bee...
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Mid-Cretaceous (latest Albian-earliest Cenomanian) sediment in seven bore cores from the Eromanga Basin (south-western Queensland) was sampled for organically preserved plant macrofossils. Among those recovered, 26 taxa of conifers have been distinguished. Families Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Cheirolepidiaceae were prominent. The Araucariacea...
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Ten types of dicotyledonous angiosperm cuticle are described from bore core samples from the Early Cretaceous (latest Albian-earliest Cenomanian) of the Eromanga Basin, central Queensland. To date, these are the oldest organically preserved angiosperm macrofossils in Australia. Most of this material is found as small dispersed fragments, but two mo...
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Cycadophytes and ginkgophytes are frequent components of maceration residues in mid Cretaceous (Late Albian-Cenomanian) samples derived from bore cores within the Eromanga Basin, central Queensland, Australia. The material, from the Winton, Mackunda, and Allaru Formations, is in dispersed, fragmentary form, although some nearly intact leaves occur....
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Uppermost Cretaceous sediments from the Cretaceous Kaitangata Coal Mine and the Wangaloa coast (south of Dunedin, New Zealand) were investigated for dispersed plant macrofossils. The gymnosperms include two cycads (Macrozamia sp. and Pterostoma sp.), Ginkgo sp., three further possible ginkgophyte taxa, and ten conifer taxa. The conifers include two...
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A tidal platform at Curio Bay near the southernmost point of the South Island, New Zealand, preserves the petrified remains of an in situ Middle Jurassic forest. The forest grew close to the palaeo-polar circle, but data are not precise enough to tell on which side it lay. A mapped portion of the forest floor provides data on tree density and popul...
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Two forms of monocotyledon macrofossil are documented from latest Albian-earliest Cenomanian sediments of the Eromanga Basin, central Queensland, Australia. One form is preserved as strap-shaped leaves with cross-linked parallel venation and epidermal features characteristic of monocots. Its affinities are suggested to be with the Areciflorae and i...
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Evidence from sedimentology is combined with that of palynology and macropalaeobotany to arrive at a general reconstruction of the Early Eocene environment in Macquarie Harbour in western Tasmania and its major vegetation types. The environment is interpreted as estuarine with a range of subenvironments including estuarine mouth bar, fully subtidal...
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Proteaceae pollen appeared in New Zealand during the Late Cretaceous and increased in diversity until the Early–mid Eocene. Diversity then decreased, reducing to the present two species in the Early Pleistocene. Proteaceae macrofossils extend back to the Early Paleocene. Twelve parataxa of Proteaceae dispersed cuticle are documented. These include...
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Twenty-seven angiosperm taxa and two conifers are described from the Van Diemen Sandstone of Melville Island, Northern Territory. The angiosperms include Brachychiton, Grevillea, Melaleuca, and probable Cunoniaceae. The conifers are Araucaria and an unidentified genus of the Cupressaceae. Floristics and physiognomy suggest the climate was neither m...
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A quantitative palynostratigraphy is presented for the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand Six stratigraphic sections were studied from the northern Manuherikia basin where the relative proportions of six pollen taxa were compared Nothofagus ‘brassu type’, Nothofagus ‘fusca type’, Casuannaceae, Myrtaceae, Arecaceae, Asteraceae, and Chenopodiaceae A cons...
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Thirteen conifer macrofossils and a gymnospermous leaf of uncertain affinity are documented from the early‐mid Paleocene of the Mount Somers coal mine, Canterbury, New Zealand Podocarpaceae are prominent and diverse Two taxa are formally described as new genera of Podocarpaceae, Mumu somerensis gen et sp nov and Tiotio imbricatus gen et sp nov A se...
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Eight genera of conifers in two or three families are documented from Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago, New Zealand They include Acmopyle masonu sp nov , Dacrycarpus dacrydioides Lepidothamnus intermedius, Podocarpus sp ‘Mata Creek’, Prumnopitys taxifoha, and Retrophyllum vulcanense in the Podocarpaceae, an indeterminate ge...
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A Paleocene plant macrofossil assemblage is described from the central South Island, New Zealand This includes a fern, Lygodium sp , and five species of conifer, including a new genus and species of Podocarpaceae, Kakahuia camphellu, and a new species of Prumnopitys, P opihiensis Eighteen angiosperm taxa include five which are considered to be Prot...
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The Little Bay Shale is a poorly consolidated buff to pale grey shale whose estuarine nature is indicated by the presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts, microforminiferal liners and mangrove pollen in the microflora and the mangrove Bruguiera in the macroflora. Palynological evidence places it in the Triporopollenites bellus Zone of latest Early t...
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A fish fossil of Miocene age from the Manuherikia group, from a site near Bannockburn in Central Otago, New Zealand, is described and identified as a galaxiid, probably genus Galaxias. The fish was large, estimated at 383 mm, and thus larger than all extant New Zealand Galaxias except G. argenteus, which is known to reach 580 mm. However, it appear...
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An incomplete indeterminate crocodilian angular from the Miocene Bannockburn Formation, Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand is described. The fossil (probably a new taxon) represents the first undoubted occurrence of a crocodilian in New Zealand. Local palaeoclimatic indicators suggest the crocodilian lived in a temperate climate.
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An assemblage of Tertiary plant fossils is described from Melville Island, Northern Territory, which is in the far north of Australia and currently experiences a monsoonal climate. The leaves examined included probable Cupressaceae, Proteaceae (Grevillea, and forms comparable with the Madagascan genus Dilobia) and Melaleuca (Myrtaceae). They indica...
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A new species of the mangrove palm Nypa, N. australis, is formally described from Lower Eocene sediments from near Strahan, western Tasmania. Fossil material comprises fronds (with cuticle), fruits, and pollen. Coming from a paleolatitude of approximately 65°S, it is the most polar Nypa known.
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Twenty eight taxa of angiosperm fossils are described from the Early Miocene (c. 20 Ma) Foulden Hills Diatomite, not far from Dunedin, New Zealand. Some leaves include cuticle, and this has sometimes facilitated identification. Families confidently identified include Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae, and Smilacaceae, an...
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Six new coniferous fossils are described from the Late Cretaceous of eastern Otago, New Zealand. These include two new species of Araucaria, A. desmondii, for which a new section, Perpendicula is erected, and A. taieriensis. Syntypes of Dammara oweni Ettingsh. and D. uninervis Ettingsh. are illustrated and concluded to be a single species of Arauca...
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Forty-two dispersed cuticle taxa are described from late Middle Eocene drill core samples in the Lefroy and Cowan paleodrainages (Kambalda–Norseman region), Western Australia. They are preserved in fluvial-marginal marine sediments of the Pidinga and Werillup Formations. Thirty-four distinct cuticle taxa occur in the richest sample including Cupres...
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The present New Zealand flora is popularly seen as a living example of 'Gondwanan' vegetation isolated by sea-floor spreading in the Late Cretaceous. However, living plants on purely oceanic islands give clear evidence of many New Zealand genera which could have arrived this way. The geology of Norfolk, Lord Howe, Fiji and the Kermadec Islands is r...
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Discovery of a single specimen of fossil freshwater crayfish from the Miocene Dunstan Formation in Central Otago, New Zealand, permits description of Paranephrops fordycei n. sp. The specimen, a nearly entire molted carapace and abdomen, represents the first occurrence of this genus, and the family Parastacidae, in the fossil record.
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Two new species of the probable zamiaceous cycad Pterostoma are described from Australia and New Zealand. The Australian species, P. hirsutus, from Early Eocene sediments in western Tasmania, represents the oldest confirmed record of the genus, while the New Zealand species, P. douglasii, from Miocene sediments in the South Island, represents the m...
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Pole. M. S., & Raine. J. I., 1994:03:28. Triassic plant fossils from Pollock Road, Southland. New Zealand. Alcheringa 18, 147–159. ISSN 0311-5518.Sedimentary rocks of the Murihiku Supergroup considered to be latest Triassic (Rhaetian), crop out about 10 m below the Glenham Porphyry, near Glenham, New Zealand. They contain the vegetative macrofossil...
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A macrofloral fossil assemblage from fluvial Taratu Formation sediments of Waipawan to Bortonian (Early to Middle Eocene) age, near Livingstone, North Otago, New Zealand, is described. The assemblage yielded two indeterminate coniferous taxa, thirteen taxa of angiosperm leaves, including Myrtaceae (aff. Eucalyptus, and aff. Rhodomyrtus/Rhodamnia),...
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Pole, M.S., 1994:03:28. Deciduous Nothofagus leaves from the Miocene of Cornish Head, New Zealand. Alcheringa 18, 79–83. ISSN 0311-5518. Nothofagus leaves with plicate vernation, indicating a deciduous habit, are recorded from the Late Miocene of New Zealand. This is the first unequivocal record in New Zealand of deciduous Nothofagus, deciduous spe...
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A stratigraphic sequence of vegetation is recognised from macrofossil assemblages in Lower-Mid Miocene fluvial-lacustrine sediments of the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand. Temperature, water-level, drainage, fire and rainfall were probably the factors that divided the distribution of plant taxa into several distinct communities. These communities ar...
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Three species of Lauraceae are described from Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago, New Zealand. One species is mummified, with anatomical detail, and is placed into the organ-genus Laurophyllum. It is regarded as the same taxon as Cryptocarya longfordiensis Holden, which is removed to Laurophyllum in the absence (for now) of a...
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A new species of Nothofagus, N. azureus, and two new varieties of Nothofagus novaezealandiae (var. obtusus and var. binatus) are described from Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago, New Zealand.
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Twenty two parataxa of fossil leaves and thirteen types of angiosperm reproductive organs are described from Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand. The botanical affinities of none of the leaves are certain, but may include Elaeocarpaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Proteaceae. The reproductive structures include Allocasuarina avenacea, a...
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Three taxa of Myrtaceae leaf macrofossils, including Eucalyptus sp. and Metrosideros sp., are described from Miocene Manuherikia Group sediments of Central Otago, New Zealand. A number of undetermined myrtacean leaves are also illustrated. Two types of Myrtaceae fruiting bodies are described. One of these is identified as Eucalyptus sp.
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Two species of Nothofagus macrofossils, Nothofagus novaezealandiae and N. pinnata, are redescribed from sediments of late Middle Miocene to early Late Miocene age of the Dunedin Volcanic Province, New Zealand. Examination of leaf architecture and cuticular morphology places N. novaezealandiae in the subgenus Lophozonia (producing menziesii-type pol...
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In the Late Cretaceous, New Zealand and Australia were physically attached and shared a flora dominated by podocarp and araucarian conifers and deciduous angiosperms, consistent with growth in a polar latitude with periods of winter darkness. When New Zealand broke away and moved north, a typically evergreen angiosperm-dominated flora developed. Th...
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The Late Oligocene to possibly earliest Early Miocene Berwick Quarry macrofossil flora was first described very early in this century by Henry Deane, but has since been largely ignored. Recent work at the quarry has led to major new collections and a reinvestigation of the flora. Seventeen taxa of macrofossils have been recovered, including Agathis...
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A new species of Podocarpaceae is described from the Miocene diatomite in the Foulden Hills, near Dunedin, New Zealand. Podocarpus travisiae sp. nov. is the first record of broad-leaved Podocarpus from New Zealand.
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Three taxa of fossil leaves are described from Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia group, Central Otago, New Zealand. One is identical to the extant New Zealand Ripogonum scandens (Smilacaceae), with which it is identified. The second has leaves larger than, but otherwise similar to, the extant New Zealand Muehlenbeckia australis (Polygonaceae). T...
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The fossil palm Seaforthia zeelandica Ettingshausen from the early Miocene fluvial-lacustrine Manuherikia Group of Central Otago, New Zealand, is redescribed as Phoenicites zeelandica. The redescription is based on new material including fronds, inflorescences and fruits.
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Three ferns are described from lower Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand. One of these is compared with a species in the extant New Zealand Blechnum “procerum/capense/kiokio” complex, B. cf. procerum. Pneumatopteris sp. (distinct from the extant New Zealand P. pennigera (Forst, f.) Holttum, Thelypteridaceae) is recorded. A furth...
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Remains of six conifer taxa are described from early Miocene sediments of the Manuherikia Group, New Zealand. Two of these are new, Retrophyllum vulcanense sp. nov. and Podocarpus alwyniae sp. nov.. The others are Araucaria sp. sect. Eutacta, present as impressions of vegetative shoots and isolated ovuliferous cone scales, shoots of Dacrycarpus dac...
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Portions of fronds, possibly cycads, are described from the Miocene of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago, New Zealand, and possibly equivalent strata at Wharekuri Creek in North Otago.
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Twenty-one taxa of plant megafossils are described from the mid Cretaceous Matakaea Group (Horse Range and Pukehiwitahi localities) and the Upper Cretaceous of the Taratu Formation (Shag Point, Cameron's Pit, and Clutha Mouth localities). One new species, Nothofagus melanoides, is formally described. The vegetation is interpreted as having been mix...
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A cuticular micromorphological study confirms the separate generic status of Afrocarpus, Nageia and Retrophyllum and increases the number of available diagnostic characteristics. A re-investigation of fossil species previously assigned to this complex demonstrates that in all cases the generic designation was incorrect. Foliage characters which are...
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The Mid–Late Eocene macrofloral assemblage from Hasties, north-eastern Tasmania is characterised by a large diversity of conifers. Fourteen species are identified including two species of Araucaria (A. hastiensis Hill & Bigwood and A. annulata Bigwood & Hill) and 12 species of Podocarpaceae: Acmopyle compactus sp. nov.; Lepidothamnus diemenensis sp...
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Legrrme pods, some containing seeds, are described from the early Miocene fluvial_ lacustrine Manuherikia Group of Central Otago, New Zealand. Bipinnate leaves are found in one ofthe pod localities and are c omparedto Paruileguminoph)llumHererl.deen & Dilcher (1990), an organ-genus lbr small leaflets with presumed aflinities to the Leguminosae. Bot...
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A modified terminology for describing leaf architecture is presented, which incorporates lamina development and gives greater emphasis to the patterns formed by groups of venation elements than to their size. Leaf architecture is described using a hierarchy of venation “elements”, which are grouped into “patterns”, which are located in “zones” and...
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Twenty-one taxa of plant megafossils are described from the mid Cretaceous Matakaea Group (Horse Range and Pukehiwitahi localities) and the Upper Cretaceous of the Taratu Formation (Shag Point, Cameron’s Pit, and Clutha Mouth localities). One new species, Norhofagus melanoides, is formally described. The vegetation is interpreted as having been mix...
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Leguminosae fossils are prominent in the Nevis Oil Shale Member of the Manuherikia Group in Central Otago, New Zealand. Valves from legumes up to 74 mm long are found as compressions in laminated mudstone along with other plant macrofossils and freshwater mussels.
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Thirty eight taxa of plant macrofossils are recognised from Early Miocene (Alton ian) sediments of the Manuherikia Group, Central Otago. They include 4 ferns, 4 conifers, 1 palm, 24 “broadleaved” angiosperms and 5 fructifications of higher plants. Identification of leaves is speculative, although specimens comparable in form to Nothofagus and Eucal...