Mike Hough

Mike Hough
Birkbeck, University of London · School of Law

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226
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Publications

Publications (226)
Article
The policing of young people, especially through stop-and-search, has been rigorously debated in the context of rising violence in the UK. While concepts based on procedural justice theory and perceptions of police fairness are directly relevant to these debates, these have rarely been tested on young people, nor have they taken account of the impa...
Article
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Čini se da gubitak povjerenja čini srž problema s našim političkim institucijama, sa sektaškim i vjerskim sukobima te s nizom financijskih kriza s kojima se Europa suočava. Uzroci tog gubika povjerenja središnji su za aktualnu političku i društvenu raspravu. Stoga ne čudi da su kriminolozi također postali zainteresirani za pitanja povjerenja u pra...
Article
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Monissa Euroopan maissa on havaittu, että kansalaisten luottamus yhteiskunnan keskeisiä instituutioita kohtaan on vähentynyt. Esimerkiksi poliittista päätöksentekoa ja poliittista järjestelmää kohtaan tunnettu epäluottamus on lisääntynyt. On arveltu, että heikentynyt luottamus on ollut yhtenä osatekijänä monissa taloudellisissa, poliittisissa ja jo...
Article
The What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWCCR) in the UK’s College of Policing has a key role in promoting the use of research in policing. Since 2014, the WWCCR has aimed to review – and make accessible – research to better inform and target crime reduction and to build police capacity to identify, evaluate and apply research evidence to practi...
Article
This article results from a series of linked research projects designed to support the development of a Degree Holder Entry Programme in England and Wales, as part of the College of Policing’s Policing Educational Qualification Framework (PEQF). Its aim is to draw out some of the issues that need addressing, and challenges that need solving in the...
Chapter
Book synopsis: This book examines the processes for social integration and social cohesion among young people, drawing on data collected from the International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study, which covered 35 studies.This report examines case studies from 5 selected countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the Unit...
Chapter
Book synopsis: This book examines the processes for social integration and social cohesion among young people, drawing on data collected from the International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study, which covered 35 studies.This report examines case studies from 5 selected countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the Unit...
Chapter
This chapter aims to set out the conceptual framework implicit in the chapters but also provides an introduction to the eight following chapters of the book. Social cohesion depends on a range of societal mechanisms that make individuals feel attached to one another, supportive of public organisations and bonded to a larger imagined community. The...
Chapter
Much comparative research has charted the difficult relationships that often develop between the police and people with migrant backgrounds, especially those from minority ethnic groups. However there is very little research into the ways in which these issues play out with young teenagers. This chapter first examines the relationships between migr...
Chapter
Earlier sweeps of the International Self Report Delinquency Survey (ISRD) made no attempt to cover teenagers’ attitudes towards criminal justice institutions. ISRD3 goes a little way to filling this gap by including a short suite of questions on trust in the police and perceptions of police legitimacy, that sets out to see if well-established insig...
Article
This paper discusses trends in criminal justice and penal policy over the past 25 years. This period has been characterized as a time of penal populism, which originated in the failure of the 1991 Criminal Justice Act, and the competition between the main political parties to be ‘tough on crime’. However, this is not the only trend to be found in p...
Chapter
The concluding chapter discusses why this monograph limits itself to the presentation of methodological findings, on the one hand, and to descriptive findings about offending and victimization, on the other. That is, methodological and descriptive analysis are a necessary precursor to the sort of theory-testing that forms the central ambition of IS...
Chapter
The ISRD has two distinguishing features as a comparative study of youth crime and victimization: (1) the large number and cultural diversity of participating countries and (2) the explicitly comparative design. This chapter provides an overview of the core data features of the ISRD, including listing of participating countries, sample size, respon...
Chapter
This brief chapter reports on how ISRD3 has incorporated a test of the impact of cultural variability on self-report responses to questions about offending. The results show that concerns about cultural variability (in the social desirability related to admitting delinquent behavior) are empirically supported and that caution is warranted when maki...
Chapter
Chapter 4 shifts the focus from young people’s offending to their experience as victims of crime. This chapter presents initial ISRD3 findings on victimization from 27 countries. The chapter presents data for (1) victimization in the previous year and (2) whether the police were notified of this victimization. Patterns of victimization are presente...
Chapter
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This introductory chapter presents a brief background to the third round of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3), an internationally collaborative study of delinquency among 7th, 8th, and 9th graders. The three core objectives of the ISRD are: (1) to measure the prevalence and incidence of offending and victimization; (2) to test...
Book
This book examines the processes for social integration and social cohesion among young people, drawing on data collected from the International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study, which covered 35 studies.This report examines case studies from 5 selected countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States) to p...
Chapter
This chapter explores the way in which the fear of crime emerged as a policy issue and as a criminological topic in the United Kingdom in the early 1980s. The British Crime Survey (BCS, now CSEW) was the first large-scale survey to attempt to measure fear of crime in the UK. It included questions asking if respondents felt safe out alone at night,...
Book
This Brief presents the first major release of findings from the Third International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD3). ISRD is a major international research collaboration that now covers some 35 countries. It surveys young people aged 12 to 16 in their schools, asking about their experience of crime – both as offenders and as victims – and ab...
Article
Full-text available
The ‘What Works Network’, launched in 2013, is a nationally co-ordinated initiative which aims to “improve the way government and other organisations create, share and use high quality evidence for decision-making”. The What Works philosophy is that good decision-making should be informed by the best available evidence. If relevant or adequate evid...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The Evidence-Based Policing (EBP) movement has intensified in many countries around the world in recent years, resulting in a proliferation of policies and infrastructure to support such a transformation. This movement has come to be associated with particular methods of evaluation and systematic review, which have been drawn from wh...
Chapter
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Procedural justice is receiving increasing global attention both as a way of improving the legitimacy of policing and because styles of policing associated with procedural justice seem to be associated with improvements in community-police relations and reductions in crime. This chapter locates procedural justice theory within a broader framework o...
Article
Background: In recent years Latin American countries have increasingly rejected the traditional prohibitionist paradigm of drug policy, reflecting its failure to reduce either consumption or trafficking. The extent to which these policy trends currently command pubic support is unclear, however. This article goes some way to filling this gap, prov...
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with social scientific – or criminological – research into crime and justice. This sort of research is, of course, by no means the only source of systematic information about crime. The administrative statistics generated by the police and the justice system have provided insights into the topic for at least three centurie...
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This article considers what it means for citizens to trust the police and criminal courts. First, a broad definition of trust is outlined. Four theories of trust formation and reproduction are then used to derive a set of propositions concerning the sources of trust in the legal system and the factors that sustain and/or undermine it. A brief revie...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article considers what it means for citizens to trust the police and criminal courts. First, a broad definition of trust is outlined. Four theories of trust formation and reproduction are then used to derive a set of propositions concerning the sources of trust in the legal system and the factors that sustain and/or undermine it. A brief revie...
Article
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The study that this article is based on examined cases of alleged misconduct involving chief police officers and staff. It described the nature of cases that came to light, examined pathways that lead to misconduct, and suggested ways of mitigating risks. The study was based on interviews with key stakeholders and with investigating officers in chi...
Research
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Between January and December 2015, school children aged 12 to 16 in Glasgow and Edinburgh took part in the UPYC survey. The survey asked young people about their everyday lives and experiences of being a victim of crime and being involved in crime. This booklet presents some of the findings from the study. 841 pupils took part from 10 schools in Gl...
Research
Full-text available
Between September 2014 and December 2015, school children aged 12 to 15 in Birmingham and Sheffield took part in the UPYC survey. The survey asked young people about their everyday lives and experiences of being a victim of crime and being involved in crime. This booklet presents some of the findings from the study. 367 pupils took part from 11 sch...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3) is an international, comparative, self-report survey of school children's experiences of crime and victimisation. ISRD3 is a city-based survey targeting children aged 12 to 16 years. This technical report describes the study's research design and methods and the fieldwork procedures employed i...
Book
Full-text available
Procedural justice is receiving increasing global attention both as a way of improving the legitimacy of policing and because styles of policing associated with procedural justice seem to be associated with improvements in community-police relations and reductions in crime. This chapter locates procedural justice theory within a broader framework o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper considers methods for regulating the trafficking of rhino horn and ivory, seen through the lens of compliance theories. It stresses the importance of the distinction between normative and instrumental motivations. It argues for a balanced set of strategies that include normative levers designed to change the behaviour of poachers, traffi...
Article
This article examines some of the ethical dilemmas associated with research on procedural justice. Most of this research has involved surveys of the public, involving attitude measurement amongst random samples of adults. These tend not to give rise to the more common ethical dilemmas that criminological researchers encounter, to do with coerced co...
Article
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Duty to obey is central to nearly all definitions of police legitimacy. When people believe that a police force is an appropriate, moral and just institution, they feel a corresponding duty to obey police commands and directives. Authorization and civic responsibility thus sits at the heart of the motivating force of legitimacy. Yet scholars have r...
Article
Purpose of this paper: to report results from a rape trial reconstruction in Ireland Design/methodology/approach: A studio audience of 100 members of the Irish public were selected to attend a TV programme by the Republic of Ireland’s national broadcasting organisation (RTÉ). This involved the examination of the sentencing of a rape case. The aud...
Article
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Key findings This study has examined cases of alleged misconduct involving chief police officers and staff. The aim was to describe the nature of cases that have come to light, examine the perceived pathways that led to misconduct, and suggest ways of mitigating the risks of misconduct. The study is based on interviews with key stakeholders and wit...
Chapter
What do we know about the practice of sentencing in England and Wales? The answer, until relatively recently, was not very much. The explanation for this lack of knowledge lies primarily in the limited statistics and sporadic research record. Although empirical studies have been conducted for many decades now (e.g., Hood, 1962; 1972; 1992), over th...
Chapter
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This chapter looks through the lens of procedural justice theory at arrangements for post-sentence decision-making that bear on the amount of time served by convicted prisoners. As other chapters in this book document, these arrangements vary a great deal from country to country, a key dimension of variation being the degree to which the judiciary...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the contribution that social scientific research has made to our understanding of crime and its control. As a British criminologist, my focus is on Anglophone criminology, which means — largely but not entirely — Anglo-American work. I have attempted not to be parochial in drawing solely on the British experience. As a disci...
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Social scientific research has made a very substantial contribution to specialist academic understanding of crime and its control. This chapter sketches out that contribution that has been made in three areas: our understanding of crime trends; our knowledge of policing and its effects of crime; and the factors that encourage people to comply with...
Chapter
Book synopsis: This volume explores the theory and practice of sentencing in England and Wales, exploring issues such as the role of previous convictions, offender remorse and sentencing female offenders, as well as drawing upon a new and unique source of data from the Crown courts.
Article
This article examines two phases of Jock Young’s work: first, in the 1980s when he was using quantitative criminological techniques in support of his Left Realist agenda; and second, in 2011 when he was offering an exuberant critique of quantitative methods. I consider these two separate and contrasting phases of his work from the viewpoint of some...
Article
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Cet article résume certaines des réflexions et des conclusions empiriques qui sous-tendent un programme d’enquête sur la théorie de la justice procédurale en Europe. Il place la théorie de la justice procédurale au sein d’un ensemble de théories du respect de la loi et en présente les principales caractéristiques, en définissant le concept central...
Chapter
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In this chapter we consider the idea that legitimacy udgments involve two connected beliefs. The first relates to consent and authorization: do people believe that an authority has the right to dictate appropriate behavior? The second relates to moral validity: do people believe that an authority exercises its power in ways that accord with prevail...
Chapter
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This new book brings together some of the leading criminologists across Europe, to showcase the best of European criminology. This Handbook aims to reflect the range and depth of current work in Europe, and to counterbalance the impact of the – sometimes insular and ethnocentric – Anglo-American criminological tradition. The end-product is a collec...
Data
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Este artículo resume algunas de las ideas teóricas y de los resultados empíricos de un programa europeo de encuestas sobre la teoría de la justicia procedimental. El artículo sitúa la justicia procedimental en el marco de las teorías de la conformidad y expone sus principales elementos, definiendo el concepto de legitimidad. Seguidamente presenta l...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The politics of criminal sentencing has recently crystallised around the issue of whether and how a system of structured sentencing should inform judicial approaches to punishing criminals. Increasingly, structured sentencing guidelines are being introduce to frame judicial discretion. This volume is the first to examine the experien...
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This entry to the International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition) addresses the question of how public compliance with the criminal law is cultivated and sustained. We first consider the empirical evidence for instrumental and normative modes of compliance and social regulation. After arguing that normative complia...
Article
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This article presents the findings of focus group research into public attitudes to the sentencing of drug offences. The study was commissioned by the Sentencing Council for England and Wales to inform the development of their new guideline on drug offences. There were two main findings: first, participants’ responses were generally no more punitiv...
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FIDUCIA (New European Crimes and Trust-based Policy) seeks to shed light on a number of distinctively 'new European' criminal behaviours which have emerged in the last decade as a consequence of both technology developments and the increased mobility of populations across Europe. A key objective of FIDUCIA is to propose and proof a 'trust-based' po...
Article
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This article summarises some of the thinking and empirical findings behind a programme of survey work on procedural justice theory in Europe. The paper locates procedural justice theory in a framework of compliance theories and sketches out the main features of it, defining the central concept of legitimacy. It then presents the findings from the f...
Book
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This report examines attitudes to, and perceptions of, sentencing and the CJS in England and Wales, drawing mainly on the 2010/11 Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW). The analysis focuses on perceptions of trust and confidence in justice, as well as presenting findings on knowledge about sentencing and crime trends and attitudes toward senten...
Article
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This article draws on a study of differential treatment of young people in the youth justice system to present a typology of styles of policing that contrasts procedural justice with adversarial policing. It considers the factors that can trap police in adversarial styles of policing and offers suggestions about how best to move towards policing gr...
Data
Full-text available
This chapter presents findings on public trust in justice drawn from the fifth European Social Survey (ESS), carried out in 28 countries in 2010/11. The dataset used here covers 26 of the 28 countries, and has a total sample size of almost 51,000 people. The analysis is thus on a large scale, and serves as an exemplar of a particular approach to co...
Chapter
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The police service in England and Wales is facing major challenges in its financing, political oversight and reorganisation of its structures. Current economic conditions have created a wholly new environment whereby cost saving is permitting hitherto unthinkable changes in the style and means of delivery of policing services. In the context of the...
Chapter
This essay considers the nature and importance of legitimacy in the context of policing policy and practice. On what basis is police legitimacy established, maintained and undermined? What are the implications of the extant body of empirical evidence for policing policy and practice? We concentrate on Tyler's procedural justice model, but also othe...
Chapter
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This chapter presents findings from a large-scale empirical test of procedural justice theory, which we (and colleagues) designed using the fifth European Social Survey. The chapter first of all locates concerns about institutional legitimacy within a broader framework of 'compliance theories'. It then sets out its definitional stall in an attempt...
Article
Full-text available
This essay considers the nature and importance of legitimacy in the context of policing policy and practice. On what basis is police legitimacy established, maintained and undermined? What are the implications of the extant body of empirical evidence for policing policy and practice? We concentrate on Tyler’s procedural justice model. But we also c...
Article
This article examines public attitudes to the sentencing offences associated with the rioting which took place in England in August 2011. Findings are based on a nationally representative survey of adults. The study uses a randomized split-sample experimental design to compare sentencing preferences for actual offences committed during the riots wi...
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This is the first of the country-specific European Social Survey topline results reports. Focusing on UK data from the Round 5 module entitled ‘trust in justice,' we link people’s perceptions of police legitimacy to their compliance with the law and their willingness to cooperate with the police and criminal courts. We also extend the existing lite...
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This paper describes the immediate and more distant origins of a programme of comparative research that is examining cross-national variations in public trust in justice and in the police. The programme is built around a module of the fifth European Social Survey, and evolved from a study funded by the European Commission. The paper describes the c...
Chapter
Book synopsis: Questions of legitimacy and issues of compliance lie at the heart of criminal justice systems and policies. Recent years have seen greater recognition and awareness of the essential role of legitimacy, trust and public confidence in underpinning the effectiveness of criminal justice practices and institutions. As such, experiences an...
Article
This paper explores the idea that to confer legitimacy on the police is to feel not only obligated to obey the police but also morally aligned with the values of the police. A national probability survey of adults in England and Wales supports an extended version of Tyler’s procedural justice model of public cooperation with legal authorities. We f...
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Full-text available
Public opinion surveys have long documented public criticism of 'lenient' sentencers. There are two principal perceptions contributing to negative attitudes: a lack of community input and the view that sentencers determine sentence according to their own views. This study embeds an experimental design within a representative survey of respondents i...
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This paper extends Tyler's procedural justice model of public compliance with the law. Analysing data from a national probability sample of adults in England and Wales, we present a new conceptualization of legitimacy based on not just the recognition of power, but also the justification of power. We find that people accept the police's right to di...
Chapter
Book synopsis: The most comprehensive and authoritative single volume text on the subject, the fifth edition of the acclaimed Oxford Handbook of Criminology combines masterly reviews of all the key topics with extensive references to aid further research. In addition to the history of the discipline and reviews of different theoretical perspective...
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