Mike Hine

Mike Hine

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89
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Citations since 2017
3 Research Items
758 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (89)
Chapter
Paramyxidans are obligate parasites of marine invertebrates. They produce a characteristic delicate spore with one cell within a second cell. In some genera, these are enclosed within a third cell and even a fourth cell. Life cycles are generally unknown. In two Marteilia species that are major pathogens of oysters, there could be an alternate host...
Chapter
Haplosporidian species (phylum Haplosporidia Caullery & Mesnil, 1899) are a small group of four genera of sometimes pathogenic protozoan parasites usually with uninucleated spores. They are widely distributed in marine and freshwater invertebrates, although their status in Africa, much of Eurasia and Central and South America, is largely unknown. T...
Chapter
Paramyxidans are obligate parasites of marine invertebrates. They produce a characteristic delicate spore with one cell within a second cell. In some genera, these are enclosed within a third cell and even a fourth cell. Life cycles are generally unknown. In two Marteilia species that are major pathogens of oysters, there could be an alternate host...
Chapter
Haplosporidian species (phylum Haplosporidia Caullery & Mesnil, 1899) are a small group of four genera of sometimes pathogenic protozoan parasites usually with uninucleated spores. They are widely distributed in marine and freshwater invertebrates, although their status in Africa, much of Eurasia and Central and South America, is largely unknown. T...
Article
The world population is growing quickly and there is a need to make sustainable protein available through an integrated approach that includes marine aquaculture. Seafood is already a highly traded commodity but the production from capture fisheries is rarely sustainable, which makes mollusc culture more important. However, an important constraint...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Bonamia (Haplosporidia) includes economically significant oyster parasites. Described species were thought to have fairly circumscribed host and geographic ranges: B. ostreae infecting Ostrea edulis in Europe and North America, B. exitiosa infecting O. chilensis in New Zealand, and B. roughleyi infecting Saccostrea glomerata in Australia....
Article
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The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exitiosa from New Zealand (NZ), but less so than the o...
Article
Marteilia "type C" was recently identified, by molecular characterization, in the cockle Cerastoderma edule from the Ebro Delta in southern Catalonia (Spain) where it caused high mortalities during the summer of 2008. The present paper provides a transmission electron microscopic morphological description and additional molecular analyses. Specific...
Article
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A new species, Paramarteilia canceri sp. n., is described using light and electron microscopy from the edible crab Cancer pagurus L. captured from the English Channel. No external symptoms were noted, although infected animals were typically lethargic and unresponsive to external stimuli. Organs of infected animals were shrunken and collapsed compa...
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Oyster Ostrea chilensis samples were collected from Quihua Island, Chile, in December 2003 and February 2005, and examined in May 2004, and March, April and July 2005, for an ultrastructural comparison of the Chilean Bonamia sp. with other Bonamia spp. Only uni-nucleate stages were encountered, except in the July sample. The Chilean parasite differ...
Presentation
UNDERSTANDING BONAMIA PARASITES BY EXPLORING THEIR PHYLOGENY, THEIR HOSTS, AND THEIR PAST
Article
Full-text available
We reviewed papers reporting haplosporidian ultrastructure to compare inter-relationships based on ultrastructure with those based on molecular data, to identify features that may be important in haplosporidian taxonomy, and to consider parasite taxonomy in relation to host taxonomy. There were links between the following: (1) the plasmodia of an a...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid increase in aquaculture production and trade, and increased attention to the negative effects of disease, are becoming stimuli for developing national biosecurity strategies for farmed fisheries, for which the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Aquatic Animal Health Code and Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals serve as...
Article
Full-text available
An ultrastructural study was carried out on the tissues of an oyster (Ostrea edulis), heavily infected with Haplosporidium armoricanum, that had been fixed in Carson's fixative. The well-fixed tissues revealed details of sporulation and of the spores, which had not been previously reported from H. armoricanum. These include the initial presence of...
Article
Examination of the oyster Ostreola equestris as a potential reservoir host for a species of Bonamia discovered in Crassostrea ariakensis in North Carolina (NC), USA, revealed a second novel Bonamia sp. Histopathology, electron microscopy, and molecular phylogenetic analysis support the designation of a new parasite species, Bonamia perspora n. sp.,...
Article
The blood granulocyte composition of 10 species of dogfish is given, together with ultrastructural observations made on Etmopterus baxteri Leydig organ and blood, and on spleens of Oxynotus bruniensis, Deania calcea, Scymnodon plunketi and blood of Centroscymnus crepidator. Neutrophilic granulocytes, which were common, had spherical granules that d...
Article
Eosinophilic granule cells (EGC) are reported among peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of unstimulated and carrageenan-, zymosan-, latex- and Aeromonas hydrophila-stimulated eels, Anguilla australis. At the light microscopy level EGC are large (< 50 μm diameter) and have strongly to moderately basophilic cytoplasm, eosinophilic granules, and often stri...
Article
The peripheral blood granulocyte composition of five species of shark is given together with ultrastructural observations made on the epigonal organ and blood of Mustelus lenticulatus and spleen of Apristurus sp. Three granulocyte lineages occurred in Mustelus. Ultrastructurally, eosinophilic granulocytes contained granules that were very variable...
Article
The leucocytes of three anguillid eels were studied using enzyme cytochemistry. Leucocytes were stained for peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, β-galactosidase, lysozyme, a variety of non-specific esterases, chloroacetate esterase and two proteases. All cells were negativ...
Article
Granulocytes from cranial granulopoietic tissue were studied under the electron microscope, and cytochemistry carried out oncranial and peripheral blood granulocytes of two sturgeons, Acipenser brevirostrum. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils and basophils had homogeneous electron-dense granules similar to those of teleosts and some higher vertebrates....
Article
Peripheral blood neutrophils were studied in eels injected with phosphate buffered saline, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), carrageenan (CAR), LPS and CAR together (CAR/LPS(T)), CAR and LPS 4 days later (CAR/LPS(S)), zymosan and latex beads. All stimuli caused a left shift toward neutrophil immaturity but LPS-elicited neutrophils, particularly i...
Article
Peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE), α-naphthyl butyrate esterase, naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase, acetyl-L-tyrosine-α-naphthyl esterase (ATNE), tosyl-L-lysine-α-naphthyl esterase (TLNE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) were studied in 17 species of elasmobranchs in which granu...
Article
The blood granulocyte composition of seven species of ray is given together with ultrastructural observations made on the epigonal organ and blood of Pavoraja spinifera and the spleen of a deepwater rajid skate. Under the light microscope three granulocyte types, eosinophils, eosinophilic granulocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes could be distingu...
Article
A calcium-dependent lectin (chiletin) was isolated from oyster haemolymph by mannose elution from Sepharose CL-6B followed by anion exchange chromatography. Chiletin was predominantly composed of 12 and 24 kDa bands when examined with SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. Larger molecular weight bands of 36 and 50 kDa w...
Article
Full-text available
A sample of 189 short‐finned eels (Anguilla australis) from four geographical areas in New Zealand were examined for the occurrence of the swimbladder nematode Anguillicola spp. Anguillicola novaezelandiae was found in three of the four localities. Overall, the prevalence was low (<12%) as was the intensity of infection (between 1 and 5 parasites p...
Article
Full-text available
A protozoan parasite with some features of haplosporidians is described from the European shore crab Carcinus maenas. The parasite establishes a systemic infection through the haemal sinuses and connective tissues. Intracellular stages of the parasite were found within reserve inclusion, connective tissue, and muscle cells, while free forms were pr...
Article
A parasite of the dredge oyster Ostrea chilensis Philippi, previously known as Bonamia sp., was recently described and named Bonamia exitiosus, based on ultrastructural and molecular evidence. The rules governing the names of organisms require correspondence of gender, and the name must be changed from B. exitiosus to B. exitiosa.
Article
Full-text available
Microcell-type parasites of oysters are associated with a complex of diseases in different oyster species around the world. The etiological agents are protists of very small size that are very difficult to characterize taxonomically. Associated lesions may vary according to the host species, and their occurrence may be related to variations in tiss...
Article
Full-text available
Two traditional diagnostic methods, namely ventricular heart imprints and histology, and two molecular-based methods, namely in situ hybridisation (ISH) and PCR amplification of a 304 bp region of 18S rDNA, were compared for detecting Bonamia exitiosus infections in a sample of 28 New Zealand flat oysters (Ostrea chilensis). The apparent prevalence...
Article
Full-text available
Oysters, Ostrea chilensis, infected with Bonamia exitiosus were held under stressful conditions for 14 days, and then under normal conditions for 3.5 months, to determine the affects of stress on B.exitiosus infection levels. The stressors used were (1) air exposure for 8 h daily; (2) hot water (25–26 °C), or (3) cold water (7 °C) for 1 h daily; (4...
Article
Haplosporidium sp. is described from rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata Born, 1778 experiencing epizootics on the northwestern coast of Western Australia. All stages were observed as focal infections in the connective tissue of the gills, or as disseminated infections in the mantle and around digestive diverticulae. Haplosporidium sp. occurred betw...
Article
Histological examination of 6455 oysters Ostrea chilensis from Foveaux Strait south of New Zealand over a 5 yr period showed >85% contained apicomplexan zoites, irrespective of season. Zoites occurred around the haemolymph sinuses and the digestive diverticulae at all intensities of infection; occurrence in the sub-epithelium, Leydig tissue and gil...
Article
Full-text available
Four intracellular prokaryotes are reported from the scallops Pecten novaezelandiae Reeve, 1853 and Chlamys delicatula Hutton, 1873. Elongated (1025 x 110 nm), irregular (390 x 200 nm), or toroidal (410 x 200 nm) mollicute-like organisms (M-LOs) occurred free in the cytoplasm in the digestive diverticular epithelial cells of both scallop species. T...
Article
Full-text available
Uninucleate and multinucleate stages of a protozoan parasite are described from cultured abalone Haliotis iris Martyn, 1784 in New Zealand. The parasite is identified as a haplosporidian by the occurrence of multinucleate plasmodia, mitochondria with tubular cristae, lipid droplets, anastomosing endoplasmic reticulum (aER), multivesicular bodies (M...
Article
Full-text available
Executive summary Objectives 5 (to determine the effect of repeated stress on Bonamia exitiosus-intected oysters), 6 (to use in situ hybridization (ISH) to detect very light B. exitiosus infections), 7 (to purify viable B. exitiosus from infected oysters), 9 (to determine how long B. exitiosus can survive outside the host) and 10 (to determine the...
Article
Full-text available
Bonamia sp. is a pathogenic parasite that occurs in the haemocytes of dredge oysters Ostrea chilensis Philippi in New Zealand. Ultrastructurally it resembles other haplosporidians in the possession of haplosporosomes, haplosporogenesis, persistence of mitotic microtubules during interphase and of the nuclear envelope during mitosis, and occurrence...
Article
Full-text available
An ultrastructural study was carried out on Mikrocytos mackini, the cause of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in western Canada. Three forms were identified, quiescent cells (QC), vesicular cells (VC) and endosomal cells (EC). QC occurred in the vesicular connective tissue (VCT), haemocytes (hyalinocytes), adductor and hea...
Article
Bonamiosis refers to diseases of oysters caused by Bonamia ostreae in the Northern Hemisphere and Bonamia sp. in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, Mikrocytosis usually refers to diseases of oysters caused by Mikrocytos mackini on the west coast of Canada and Mikrocytos roughleyi on the east coast of Australia.
Article
Pteriid oysters (Pinctada maxima, Pinctada margaritifera, Pinctada albina, Pteria penguin), rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata, Saccostrea cuccullata, Saccostrea echinata) and representatives of other taxa (Malleidae, Isognomonidae, Pinnidae, Mytilidae, Spondylidae, Arcidae) from the wild, and 4670 hatchery-reared P. maxima, from northern and Weste...
Article
Studies were conducted to determine the cause of the acute mortality of juvenile turbot Colistium nudipinnis and brill, C. guntheri in an experimental rearing facility. Gross signs of disease included loss of appetite, erratic swimming, distended abdomens caused by an accumulation of clear fluid in the stomach and intestines, and haemorrhagic lesio...
Article
The morphology, tinctorial properties, ultrastructure and some functions of bivalve haemocytes are reviewed in relation to the simple division of these cells into granular and agranular haemocytes, as suggested by Cheng. Whereas granular haemocytes (granulocytes) form a distinct group, agranular haemocytes are heterogeneous in appearance and ultras...
Article
Recently, an increasing number of research teams are engaged in developing DNA-based diagnostic techniques for mollusc pathogens. These techniques are slowly moving from development in specialised laboratories for research purposes, to routine application and are expected to find an increasing use in routine disease monitoring programs in mollusc a...
Article
Veligers removed from brooding Tiostrea chilensis (Philippi, 1845) experienced ~95% mortalities over 3 to 4 d at 16 to 18°C that appeared to be associated with a herpes-like virus. Ultrastructural observations of post-removal veligers showed the presence of early viral replication or putative latent stages at 4 h, all stages of replication at low l...
Article
A species of Haplosporidium is described from 6 of 105 pearl oyster (Pinctada maxima) spat from a hatchery at Carnarvon in north Western Australia. Presporulation and sporulation stages occurred in the connective tissue surrounding the digestive gland and were common in mantle connective tissue, but only light to moderate infections were observed i...
Article
A large-scale epizootic occurred in the Australasian pilchard Sardinops sagax between March and September 1995. The deaths occurred along 5000km of the Australian coastline and 500km of the New Zealand coastline. Affected fish died within a few minutes of clinical signs of respiratory distress and death was associated with hypoxaemia and hypercapni...
Article
Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions are reported from agranular haemocytes and eosinophilic granulocytes of Ostrea angasi (Sowerby, 1871). Ultrastructurally, ovoid to hexagonal capsids 98 +/- 4 nm (range 90 to 105 nm; n = 60) in diameter formed around an ovoid, fine granular inclusion at the periphery of the nucleus. Strands and rod-like configura...
Article
Apparent replication of small DNA-negative virus-like particles (VLPs) is described from digestive and secretory (= basiphil) cells of scallops Pecten novaezelandiae, Reeve, 1853 and toheroa Paphies ventricosum (Gray, 1843) sampled during mass mortalities, and compared with apparently healthy individuals. In scallop digestive cells with putative VL...
Article
The risks of contamination of finfish products with active pathogens largely depend on the type of product concerned and disposal methods of the importing country. Frozen fish used as bait or to feed high-value species present the greatest risk as vehicles of contamination because they are unprocessed. Freezing preserves viral- and some bacterial-p...
Article
Full-text available
A large-scale epizootic occurred in the Australasian pilchard Sardinops sagax neopilchardus between March and September 1995 over more than 5000 km of the Australian coastline and 500 km of the New Zealand coastline. Affected fish died within a few minutes of clinical signs of respiratory distress and death was associated with hypoxaemia and hyperc...
Article
Full-text available
Mass mortalities among pilchards Sardinops sagax neopilchardus occurred around Australia and New Zealand from March to September 1995. The mortalities spread rapidly both with and against currents and usually affected fish longer than 11 cm. Examination showed mortalities to be associated with the presence of replicating herpesvirus in the gill epi...
Article
In Australia and New Zealand, Bonamia sp. causes epizootics in flat oysters (Tiostrea chilensis, Ostrea angasi); Marteilia sydneyi and Mikrocytos roughleyi cause mortality in farmed rock oysters (Saccostrea commercialis); and Perkinsus olseni is pathogenic in abalone (Haliotis spp.). Marteilia lengehi, Marteilioides branchialis, other Marteilioides...
Article
Bonamia is a protozoan parasite of the haemocytes of oysters (Tiostrea chilensis), in which it has an annual developmental cycle between November and August each year. The parasite transmits directly, oyster to oyster, and therefore disease spread is related to host stock density. The Foveaux Strait oyster population experiences large mortalities e...
Article
Full-text available
The degree to which the parasites and diseases of New Zealand fish and shellfish have been studied reflects the commercial importance of the host concerned and the severity of infection. As New Zealand aquaculture is largely based on farmed bivalve molluscs and salmonids, most attention has been given to these groups. However, by far the most serio...
Article
Reticular structures, confronting cisternae (CC), including cylindrical confronting cisternae (CCC), an unusual surface projection, formation of haplosporosome-like bodies (H-LB) and haplosporogenesis are described from Bonamia sp. infecting oysters Tiostrea chilensis from New Zealand, Formation of H-LB began when balls of putative nuclear material...
Article
Samples of oysters (Tiostrea chilensis) collected from February to August, when Bonamia is most abundant, were used in a morphological and ultracytothemical study on the inter-relationships of organelles in this pathogen. Early samples contained intermediate density forms (IDF), but plasmodial forms were present and increased from May onwards.In ID...
Article
The occurrence and functions of granulocytes in fishes varies between and within groups. Primitive groups (agnathans, holocephalans, elasmobranchs) all have eosinophils with homogeneous round granules. Elasmobranchs also have eosinophils with granules containing an axial crystalline rod, which is the sole eosinophil type present in lungfish. Compar...
Article
Ultrastructural observations were made on Bonamia sp. in the oyster Tiostrea chilensis (syn. T. lutaria) from summer (January) to winter (August), when Bonamia is abundant in oyster tissues. From January to April, large numbers of dense forms were produced by repeated growth and binary fission. By June many Bonamia had grown to larger forms interme...
Article
Detailed examination was carried out on 1745 oysters (Tiostrea chilensis syn. T. lutaria) sampled from two pairs of stations, 15 km apart, in Foveaux Strait between September 1986 and May 1989. Occurrence, intensity of infection and parasite stages were recorded in the gills/mantle, kidney, subepithelium, gonad, Leydig tissue and digestive system o...
Article
Full-text available
Peroxidase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, esterases, neutral proteases and PAS reactivity were examined in the peripheral blood leucocytes and peritoneal and melano-macrophages of the Australian lungfish. Eosinophils contained partly cyanide-inhibited peroxidase, and monocytes and blasts showed weak peroxidase staining, but other blood leucocytes...
Article
The ultrastructure of eosinophils, heterophils, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and thrombocytes is reported from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri. Eosinophils have an eccentric simple or bilobed nucleus and granules with an axial rod-like core similar to those of elasmobranchs, birds and mammals. Heterophils are polymorphonuclear w...
Article
Ultrastructural observations on the lymphomyeloid tissue of 4 Rhinochimaera paci‐fica, 2 Harriotta raleighana, 4 Hydrolagus sp., and 4 Callorhynchus milii were correlated with blood granulocytes under the light microscope. Rhinochimaera only had fine eosinophilic granulocytes (FG) in blood and orbital tissue, but in Harriotta orbital tissue also co...
Article
Blood films and imprints of orbital lymphomyeloid tissue, spleen, and thymus of six species of holocephalan (Callorhynchus milii, Chi‐maera phantasma, Hydrolagus novaezelandiae, Hydrolagus sp., Harriotta raleighana, Rhinochi‐maera pacifica) were examined for peroxidase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, β‐glucuronidase, non‐specific and chloroacetate...
Article
Peroxidase activity in the granulocytes of eels was investigated using o-tolidine, paraphenylene-diamine-pyrocatechol, and 4-chloro-l-naphthol as substrates, and cyanide, azide and aminotriazole as inhibitors. Most circulating neutrophils of Anguilla australis Richardson, 1848 and A. dieffenbachii Gray. 1842 showed no peroxidase activity at pH 7.6...
Article
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Article for shellfish industry reporting on the discovery of Bonamia in Foveaux Strait with histopathology and TEM.
Article
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Summary A new species of Ergasilus is described and illustrated from the gills of juvenile (c. 70 mm total length) Siganus guttatus raared in a Philippine fish farm. Of 15 fish examined, all were infested and nine had concurrent lymphocystis infections. ac]19820901
Article
Variations in the size and shape of Myxidium zealandicum spores were not related to cyst size or host size, but variation was apparent between host species and individual fish. Spores from Anguilla australis were larger (7.9–15.3 μm long) and more uniform in shape than the small (6.1–11.7 μm long) inegularly shaped spores from A. dieffenbachii. Spo...
Article
Myxidium zealandicum Hine, 1975 was recorded from several tissues in New Zealand freshwater eels. The gills were the most frequent site of infection, but spores also matured on the gill arch, in the skin, and occasionally in the urinary and swim bladders. Thus M. zealandicum is a histozoic species that may have evolved from a coelozoic form.Variati...
Article
Eight hundred and thirty nine short‐finned eels, Anguilla australis Richardson, 1848, and 459 long‐finned eels, A. dieffenbachii Gray, 1842, from the wild from 34 localities around New Zealand were examined for parasites. Thirty parasitic species were encountered, of which 26 were considered common and 4 accidental parasites of eels. Widespread and...
Article
Myxobolus iucundus n.sp. is described from the musculature of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) at Taumutu, Lake Ellesmere. It very closely resembles M. folius Shul'man, 1962 in spore and polar capsule dimensions and spDre structure but differs not only in lacking an intraoapsular process and having a more attenuated anterior apex but also in host...
Article
The genera Nippotaenia Yamaguti, 1939 and Amurotaenia Achmerov, 1941 are redefined; Amurotaenia spp. differ from Nippotaenia as they are hyperapo1ytic, anterior segmeilits are all considerably broader than long, and testes are retained in gravid and ripe proglottides. The genus Amurotaenia Achmerov, 1941 is reinstated with A. percotti Archmerov as...
Article
Two new trematode species, Deretrema philippae and Coitocaecum zealandicum, are described from New Zealand freshwater fishes. Deretrema philippae (from Galaxias divergens Stokell, 1959) is atypical of the genus in the lack of a prepharynx but closely resembles the genus in other respects. It is similar to D. minutum Manter, 1954, but D. minutum dif...
Article
Acanthocephalus galaxii n.sp. is described from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842) in the Waimeha Stream at Waikanae, North Island. It most closely resembles A. falcatus (Froelich, 1789) and A. lutzi (Hamann, 1891) in the number of rows of hooks and hooks per row, but it differs from A. falcatus in size and host group, and A. lutzi in hook size, the...

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Projects (2)
Project
To examine the interplay between haplosporidian parasites and their hosts at the life-cycle, cellular and intercellular levels. Also to identify lipid bodies in host haemocytes as being the centres of pathway signaling particularly with arachidonic acid and eicosanoids.