Mikael Snaprud¹

Mikael Snaprud¹
Universitetet i Agder | UIA · Department of Information- and Communication Technology (ICT)

About

48
Publications
3,016
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317
Citations
Citations since 2017
5 Research Items
113 Citations
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Publications

Publications (48)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emergency responders lack support to effectively share information and establish a common operational picture (COP), for reaching shared situational understanding of threats and incidents. This challenge is multifaceted: lack of a systematic overview of information elements that are critical to share in different crisis scenarios; no common map int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the INSITU research project initiated to provide a systematic approach for effective sharing, integration and use of information from different sources, to establish a common operational picture (COP) and shared situational understanding among multiple actors in emergency response. The solution developed will provide an interact...
Chapter
In this paper we propose the Public Barrier Tracker (PBT) – a comprehensive solution that supports both filing and handling of user feedback on web accessibility. We give an overview of some existing approaches for gathering user feedback on accessibility barriers and outline the PBT functionality. The PBT can also offer further support for the imp...
Conference Paper
Crisis management depends on efficient communications with professional staff and with people who are affected by the crisis. The correct interpretation of general language and technical terms is crucial to take good actions and to save valuable time. To reduce the risk of misunderstandings we need a well-established crisis management terminology....
Presentation
Full-text available
Harmonisation methodology for Crisis Communication
Presentation
Full-text available
Technology for enhancing an agreed set of terminologies formally issued by the government, public agencies or associations covering different countries, intended to use for harmonising and enhancing crisis management terms.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A System Dynamics model focusing on enabling disabled people to move from welfare to work in Norway was encapsulated in an Interactive Learning Environment (ILE) to contribute in linking ordinary people with policymaking. The ILE and the model behind it are intended to enable people to get a better understanding of the policy options to inform bett...
Conference Paper
Despite advances in the legal framework to assure web accessibility people with disabilities still find barriers hindering websites access. The European Internet Inclusion Initiative (EIII) has delivered methods and tools to carry out large scale evaluations of websites. The tools have been used to carry out 180 million tests on 540, 000 web pages...
Conference Paper
System Dynamics (SD) is a method to build simulation models using computers, to study the behaviour of systems, and apply what-if scenarios aiming at achieving optimal policy design. To have an overview of the current state-of-the-art of SD use in the eGovernment field; we have surveyed related literature. Our main goal is to uncover the possibilit...
Conference Paper
Accessibility is an important aspect of websites generally and public websites particularly. Many ways could be proposed to enhance accessibility, however the impact of selected actions is hard to predict due to diversification and contradiction, in addition to the existence of the time factor. A System Dynamics simulation model including factors a...
Article
A System Dynamics (SD) simulation model including factors affecting the accessibility of Norwegian municipal websites was encapsulated in an Interactive Learning Environment (ILE). Accessibility is an important aspect of websites generally and public websites particularly. Many ways could be proposed to enhance accessibility, however the impact of...
Article
Large scale benchmarking of web accessibility can benefit from human input to complement results produced by automatic evaluation tools. This paper presents a novel method that enables non-experts to provide input on web accessibility. The semi-automatic approach guides the evaluators through a structured process with clear instructions. We present...
Technical Report
This deliverable outlines a first approach towards a methodology to carry out user testing of AV media to evaluate accessibility properties.
Conference Paper
Online interactions have rapidly become the main channel of communication as greater inclusiveness creates efficiencies for both the private and public sectors. In Europe, almost three-quarters of the population is now regularly using the Internet. But the push towards an information society also has unintended consequences as those who are unable...
Conference Paper
The European Internet Inclusion Initiative (EIII) presents a new approach by combining the benefits of automated and user testing in order to improve both the quality and the coverage of evaluation results. This paper provides an overview of the challenges posed by online accessibility assessment and outlines the initial steps towards the combinati...
Conference Paper
Many international e-government benchmarks seek to measure progress towards various versions of a digital society, and in this endeavor include a component of e-government. But because comparable international e-government data are scarce, most reports rely on the United Nations E-Government Development Index, specifically its Online Service Index...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a conceptual analysis of how the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 and its accompanying documents can be used as a basis for the implementation of an automatic checking tool and the definition of a web accessibility metric. There are two major issues that need to be resolved to derive valid and reliable conclusions...
Conference Paper
Despite repeated statements from successive governments in Norway, disabled people employment rate remains unchanged since 2000. A range of studies to describe and analyse the situation qualitatively and quantitatively have been performed, however we have not been able to find any study containing a decision support tool focusing on this issue. Thi...
Conference Paper
A survey on eGovernment user-satisfaction measurement methods was conducted to enable a comparison among them and to facilitate a discussion on good practices. The collected information is related to the methodology properties, tools, followed practices, implementation stage and challenges. The main findings are that the surveyed methods rarely ref...
Conference Paper
Access to public websites is crucial to assure equal opportunities for all citizens to participate in society. Although, a range of studies to analyse the accessibility of websites have been carried out, we have not been able to find any study evaluating the effect of managerial decisions on the accessibility of websites. This paper presents a demo...
Article
Equal access to public information and services for all is an essential part of the United Nations (UN) Declaration of Human Rights. Today, the Web plays an important role in providing information and services to citizens. Unfortunately, many government Web sites are poorly designed and have accessibility barriers that prevent people with disabilit...
Conference Paper
Accessibility benchmarking is efficient to raise awareness and initiate competition. However, traditional benchmarking is of little avail when it comes to removing barriers from eGovernment web sites in practice. Regulations and legal enforcement may be helpful in a long-term perspective. For more rapid progress both vendors and web site maintainer...
Conference Paper
For people who cannot see non-textual web content, such as images, maps or audio files, the alternative texts are crucial to understand and use the content. Alternate texts are often automatically generated by web publishing software or not properly provided by the author of the content. Such texts may impose web accessibility barriers. Automatic a...
Chapter
Full-text available
Access to all public websites is crucial to assuring equal opportunities for all citizens to participate in society. Several studies have been carried out to analyse the accessibility of websites. However, we have not been able to find any studies on the factors (other than technical) affecting website accessibility. The purpose of this paper is th...
Article
Automatic benchmarking can provide a reliable first insight into the accessibility status of a web site. The eGovMon project has developed a tool which can assess web sites according to a statistically sound sampling procedure. Additionally, the tool supports detailed evaluation of single web pages. This paper describes the process of data acquisit...
Article
Full-text available
The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) project has developed an observatory for performing large scale automatic web accessibility evaluations of public sector web sites in Europe. The architecture includes a distributed web crawler that crawls web sites for links until either a given budget of web pages have been identified or the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Web accessibility is an important goal of the European i2010 strategy. Several one-off surveys of eAccessibility have been conducted in the past few years. In this paper, we describe an approach to supplement the results of such surveys with automated assessments, that can easily be repeated at regular intervals. The software basis is provided by t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document contains the core documentation of the Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM) version 1.2. For the sake of conciseness and document usability, UWEM version 1.2 has been split in two documents: the core documentation (this document), and the tests per-se. UWEM is a methodology for evaluating conformance of web sites to Web Content A...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document presents the migration approach for the UWEM designed by the WAB Cluster, to tackle the challenges provoked by the incorporation of WCAG 2.0 in the methodology, while maintaining the testing framework for WCAG 1.0. This document responds to a formal request from the European Commission's e-Inclusion Unit and the evaluators of the clus...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document contains the applicable tests of the Unified Web Evaluation Methodology (UWEM) version 1.2. For the sake of conciseness and document usability, UWEM version 1.2 has been split in two documents: the core documentation, and the tests (this document). UWEM is a methodology for evaluating conformance of web sites to Web Content Accessibil...
Conference Paper
The 2002 eEurope Action Plan advocated adoption of the WAI Content Guidelines in public EU web sites. Many of the European countries have performed web accessibility evaluations. Most of the evaluations are based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines from W3C/WAI. Still, a range of different evaluation methodologies and scoring schemes are de...
Conference Paper
Checking of web accessibility can be carried out in several ways along the same international standards and depending on the scale, the quality, availability of tools and the interpretation method that is followed. The Unified Web Evaluation Methodology is developed by European expert organizations and offers test descriptions to evaluate WCAG 1.0...
Article
In large scale web accessibility monitoring the presentation of results is an important issue. The European Internet Accessibility Observatory (EIAO) uses a score function based on web accessibility related properties to aggregate the results in a meaningful way. Apart from the technical evaluation approach, EIAO also pursues a user-centred approac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper covers “soft measures” that can be used in a “stick and carrot” strategy to improve accessibility to web sites. Two examples of benchmarking are presented. The first is the benchmarking of 700 Norwegian public web sites that has been carried out three times the last years, giving experiences on how to carry out the analyses and how to us...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper outlines the architecture of a system designed to demonstrate large scale web accessibility assessment developed in a European research project. The system consists of a set of integrated software components designed to automatically evaluate accessibility metrics for a large number of 1 websites and present results in a common report. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper describes the combination of research topics from two projects focusing on web accessibility testing, and on metamodelling and high-level specification languages. This combination leads to a novel approach to accessibility assessment that will improve the understanding of accessibility issues, and explore the potential for generating exe...
Article
Full-text available
Access to web content is the key to participate in the Information society. Barriers preventing access can often easily be removed or even avoided by raising the awareness among those who are building and purchasing web applications. This paper outlines an Open Source tool that will support large scale evaluation of public web content, to monitor t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction As the information society develops, the "digital divide " grows. On the other hand, appropriate uses of new technologies can bridge the divide and enable new user groups to access information and participate in communication. In particular, people with disabilities may benefit from the development. We propose a tool to monitor the acc...
Article
Modeling tasks and domains of the real world, and especially developing a completely formal representation of the models, is very difficult. However, modeling is a key activity in, for example, object-oriented analysis and in knowledge acquisition. Since premature attempts at formal representation reinforce the problem, we propose to use semiformal...
Article
This paper addresses the issue of supporting knowledge acquisition using hypertext. We propose a way of tightly integrating hypertext and structured object representation, using Artificial Intelligence (AI) frames for the basic representation of hypertext nodes. Epistemologically, a dual view of the resulting space is of interest. One view is that...
Conference Paper
This paper addresses combining hypertext with knowledge representation as used in knowledge-based systems. Hypertext imposes explicit structure on text, whereas certain knowledge representation formalisms of AI are designed for structuring knowledge. We propose a way of tightly integrating hypertext and structured object representation, using (AI)...
Article
The goal of this project is to create a crawler/classifier that downloads the images in a web page and tries to classify the content of each image into different categories, e.g., mathematical formula, logo, buttons, and so on. The focus should be on automatic detection of image usage that reduces the accessibility of a web page. Finally, we accomp...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
The INSITU project will develop systematic support for enhanced situational understanding. The solution will provide a common map interface, integrating harmonisation of terminology and collaboration support for information sharing and synthesis. The enhanced COP will also support evaluation and learning from exercises and incidents
Archived project
To build system dynamics model and interactive learning environment with application areas eAccessibility and eParticipation. Ph.D. project of Ahmed Abdelgawad. I joined as co-supervisor on October 2014 (in the middle of the Ph.D. research project). Ahmed successfully defended his thesis in March 2017.