Mikael Knip

Mikael Knip
University of Helsinki | HY

About

973
Publications
104,712
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44,024
Citations
Citations since 2016
233 Research Items
19055 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000

Publications

Publications (973)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Participants' study satisfaction is important for both compliance with study protocols and retention, but research on parent study satisfaction is rare. This study sought to identify factors associated with parent study satisfaction in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, a longitudinal, multinational...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis Monogenic forms of diabetes (MODY, neonatal diabetes mellitus and syndromic forms) are rare, and affected individuals may be misclassified and treated suboptimally. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is high in Finnish children but systematic screening for monogenic diabetes has not been conducted. We assessed the prevalence and clin...
Article
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Purpose The aim was to study the associations between dietary intake of fatty acids in childhood and the risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods The prospective Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study included children with genetic susceptibility to T1D born between 1996 and 2004. Participants were foll...
Article
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The gut microbiota is crucial in the regulation of bile acid (BA) metabolism. However, not much is known about the regulation of BAs during progression to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we analyzed serum and stool BAs in longitudinal samples collected at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months of age from children who developed a single islet autoantibody (A...
Article
2. Summary Background & Aims Nutrient status may affect the risk of microbial infections and play a role in modulating the immune response against such infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and serum fatty acids in infancy are associated with microbial infections by the age of 18 months. Me...
Article
OBJECTIVE To distinguish among predictors of seroconversion, progression to multiple autoantibodies and from multiple autoantibodies to type 1 diabetes in young children. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Genetically high-risk newborns (n = 8,502) were followed for a median of 11.2 years (interquartile range 9.3–12.6); 835 (9.8%) developed islet autoant...
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Aims/hypothesis Accumulated data suggest that infections in early life contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. Using data from the Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR), we set out to assess whether children who later developed diabetes-related autoantibodies and/or clinical type 1 diabetes had different exposure to infe...
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Background Anatomic variation or early differences in glucose metabolism have been linked to the development of type 1 diabetes. We aimed to describe early glucose metabolism based on HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and random plasma glucose years before the presentation of type 1 diabetes in five risk groups based on autoantibody combin...
Article
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OBJECTIVE Biomarkers predicting risk of type 1 diabetes (stage 3) among children with islet autoantibodies are greatly needed to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis and facilitate prevention therapies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Children in the prospective The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study (n = 707) with confirmed di...
Preprint
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In many populations, the peak period of incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been observed to be around 10–14 years of age, coinciding with puberty, but direct evidence of the role of puberty in the development of T1D is limited. We therefore aimed to investigate whether puberty and the timing of its onset are associated with the development of i...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis Enteroviral infection has been implicated consistently as a key environmental factor correlating with the appearance of autoimmunity and/or the presence of overt type 1 diabetes, in which pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune response. Genetic predisposition through variation in the type 1 diabetes r...
Article
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Objective: Subtypes in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis have been implicated based on the first appearing autoantibody (primary autoantibody). We set out to describe the glucose metabolism in preclinical diabetes in relation to the primary autoantibody in children with HLA-conferred disease susceptibility. Design and Methods: Dysglycemic markers were d...
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Aims/hypothesis Distinct DNA methylation patterns have recently been observed to precede type 1 diabetes in whole blood collected from young children. Our aim was to determine whether perinatal DNA methylation is associated with later progression to type 1 diabetes. Methods Reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) analysis was performed...
Article
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with no cure, where clinical translation of promising therapeutics has been hampered by the reproducibility crisis. Here, short-term administration of an antagonist to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) protected against murine diabetes at two independent research centers. Treatme...
Article
ABSTRACT Objective: New methods are pivotal in accurately predicting, monitoring, and diagnosing the clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes in high-risk children. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a valuable tool for patients with type 1 diabetes, but there is still a knowledge gap regarding its utility in the prediction of diabetes. The cu...
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The non-HLA loci conferring susceptibility to type 1 diabetes determine approximately half of the genetic disease risk, and several of them have been shown to affect immune-cell or pancreatic β-cell functions. A number of these loci have shown associations with the appearance of autoantibodies or with progression from seroconversion to clinical typ...
Article
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Background Current evidence suggests that the composition of infant formula (IF) affects the gut microbiome, intestinal function, and immune responses during infancy. However, the impact of IF on circulating lipid profiles in infants is still poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how extensively hydrolyzed IF impac...
Article
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Background The INNODIA consortium has established a pan-European infrastructure using validated centres to prospectively evaluate clinical data from individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes combined with centralised collection of clinical samples to determine rates of decline in beta-cell function and identify novel biomarkers, which could...
Article
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Aims/hypothesis Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease of complex aetiology, including a potential role for epigenetic regulation. Previous epigenomic studies focused mainly on clinically diagnosed individuals. The aim of the study was to assess early DNA methylation changes associated with type 1 diabetes already before the diagnosis or e...
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Aims Altered immune functions as well as fatty acid intake and status have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. We aimed to study the relationship between fatty acids and immunological markers in young children with increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes in order to define putative mechanisms related to development of islet...
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Objective: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with genetic predisposition and immunological changes during presymptomatic disease. Differences in immune cell subset numbers and phenotypes between T1D patients and healthy controls have been described; however, the role and function of these changes in the pathogenesis is still...
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Background High gluten intake is associated with increased risk of celiac disease (CD) in children at genetic risk. Objectives To investigate if different dietary gluten sources up to age two years confer different risks of celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in children at genetic risk. Design Three-day food records were collected at age si...
Article
Most screening programs to identify individuals at risk for type 1 diabetes have targeted relatives of people living with the disease to improve yield and feasibility. However, ∼90% of those who develop type 1 diabetes do not have a family history. Recent successes in disease-modifying therapies to impact the course of early-stage disease have igni...
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Objectives: We aimed to further characterize demography and genetic associations of type 1 diabetes "endotypes" defined by the first appearing islet specific autoantibodies. Research design and methods: We analyzed 3277 children diagnosed before the age of 10 years from the Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Register. The most likely first autoantibody...
Article
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The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study enrolled 8676 children, 3–4 months of age, born with HLA-susceptibility genotypes for islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in 1119 children in a nested case–control study design. Telomere length was estimated from WGS data...
Article
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DNA methylation patterns are largely established in-utero and might mediate the impacts of in-utero conditions on later health outcomes. Associations between perinatal DNA methylation marks and pregnancy-related variables, such as maternal age and gestational weight gain, have been earlier studied with methylation microarrays, which typically cover...
Article
OBJECTIVE Previous findings suggest that there are age-related endotypes of type 1 diabetes with different underlying etiopathological mechanisms in those diagnosed at age <7 years compared with those diagnosed at age ≥13 years. We set out to explore whether variation in demographic, clinical, autoimmune, and genetic characteristics of children and...
Article
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Aim: We tested the hypothesis of a more aggressive disease process at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during fall and winter, the colder seasons with consistently observed higher incidence of type 1 diabetes. Methods: Seasonality in the manifestation of type 1 diabetes was examined in 4993 Finnish children and adolescents. Metabolic characteristics...
Article
Objective: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study is uniquely capable of investigating age-specific differences associated with type 1 diabetes. Because age is a primary driver of heterogeneity in type 1 diabetes, we sought to characterize by age metabolic derangements prior to diagnosis and clinical features associa...
Article
Objectives: The association between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genotypes and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well established. This study aimed at examining whether there are differences in the presentation of T1D depending on the HLA genotype. Research design and methods: We divided the study participants (N = 5798) in th...
Article
The composition of human breast milk is highly variable inter- and intra-individually. Environmental factors are suspected to contribute to such compositional variation, however, their impact on breast milk composition is currently poorly understood. We sought to (1) define the impact of maternal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFA...
Article
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Significant progress has been made in elucidating genetic risk factors influencing Type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, features other than genetic variants that initiate and/or accelerate islet autoimmunity that lead to the development of clinical T1D remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that genetic and environmental risk factors can both contribut...
Article
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Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease, characterised by progressive destruction of the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas. One immunosuppressive agent that has recently shown promise in the treatment of new-onset T1D subjects aged 12–45 years is antithymocyte globulin (ATG), Thymoglobuline, encouraging further ex...
Article
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Individuals with multiple islet autoantibodies are at increased risk for clinical type 1 diabetes and may proceed gradually from stage to stage complicating the recruitment to secondary prevention studies. We evaluated multiple islet autoantibody positive subjects before randomisation for a clinical trial 1 month apart for beta-cell function, gluco...
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Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to study the association between duration of breastfeeding and circulating immunological markers during the first 3 years of life in children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of 38 circulating immunological markers (cytokines, chemokines and growth factor...
Article
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Objective Growth-based determination of pubertal onset timing would be cheap and practical. We aimed to determine this timing based on pubertal growth markers. Secondary aims were to estimate the differences in growth between cohorts and identify the role of overweight in onset timing. Design This multicohort study includes data from three Finnish...
Article
Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the earliest manifestations of allergic diseases. Early dietary factors, like maternal diet during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases in the offspring. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of CMA in the offsprin...
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Objective To evaluate the role of autoantibodies to N-terminally truncated glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD65(96–585) (t-GADA) as a marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to assess the potential HLA-associations with such autoantibodies. Design In this cross-sectional study combining data from the Finnish Pediatric Diabetes Register, the Type 1 Diabe...
Article
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In studies following selective sampling protocols for secondary outcomes, conventional analyses regarding their appearance could provide misguided information. In the large type 1 diabetes prevention and prediction (DIPP) cohort study monitoring type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies, we propose to model their appearance via a multivariate frail...
Article
Background Consumption of unprocessed cow’s milk has been associated with a lower risk of childhood asthma and/or atopy. Not much is known about differently processed milks. We aimed to study the association between the consumption of differently processed milk products and asthma risk in a Finnish birth cohort. Methods We included 3053 children f...
Preprint
Previous studies suggest that the human gut microbiome is dysregulated in islet autoimmunity, preceding the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The microbiota of the gut plays an important role in the regulation of bile acid (BA) metabolism. However, not much is known about the regulation of BAs during progression to T1D. Here, we analyzed BAs...
Preprint
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis of a more aggressive disease process at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes during autumn and winter, the colder seasons with consistently observed higher incidence of type 1 diabetes, compared to spring and summer. Seasonality in the manifestation of type 1 diabetes was examined in 4993 Finnish children and adolescents participat...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis The β-cell stress hypothesis suggests that increased insulin demand contributes to the development of type 1 diabetes. In the TRIGR trial we set out to assess the profile of plasma glucose and HbA1c before the diagnosis of clinical diabetes compared to nondiabetic children. A cohort of children (N = 2159) with an affected first-degr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Decreased exposure to microbial agents in industrialized countries and urban living areas is considered as a risk factor of developing immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and asthma. Epithelial surfaces in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and in the skin constitute the primary areas in contact with the environmental mi...
Article
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Objectives: To assess whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF) decreases gut permeability and/or markers of intestinal inflammation in infants with HLA-conferred diabetes susceptibility, when compared with conventional formula. Study design: By analyzing 1468 expecting biological parent pairs for HLA-conferred susceptibility fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Individuals with multiple islet autoantibodies are at increased risk for clinical type 1 diabetes and may proceed gradually from stage to stage complicating the recruitment to secondary prevention studies. We evaluated multiple islet autoantibody positive subjects before randomisation for a clinical trial one month apart for beta-cell fu...
Article
Full-text available
Background Enterovirus (EV) infections, being among the most prevalent viruses worldwide, have been associated with reduced risk of allergic diseases. We sought to determine the association of EVs with allergic sensitization and disease in early childhood. Methods The study was carried out in a nested case-control setting within a prospective birt...
Article
Genes in the HLA class II region include the most important inherited risk factors for type 1 diabetes (T1D) although also polymorphisms outside the HLA region modulate the predisposition to T1D. This study set out to confirm a recent observation in which a novel expression quantitative trait locus was formed by three single nucleotide polymorphism...
Article
OBJECTIVE To combine prospective cohort studies, by including HLA harmonization, and estimate risk of islet autoimmunity and progression to clinical diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS For prospective cohorts in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the U.S., 24,662 children at increased genetic risk for development of islet autoantibodies and type 1 di...
Article
Full-text available
The international Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) tested the hypothesis whether extensively hydrolyzed casein-based versus regular cow's milk-based infant formula reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes. We describe dietary compliance in the trial in terms of study formula intake, feeding of nonrecommended foods, and serum cow's...
Preprint
Full-text available
Distinct DNA methylation patterns have recently been observed to precede type 1 diabetes in whole blood collected from young children. Our aim was to determine, whether perinatal DNA methylation could be associated with later progression to type 1 diabetes. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis was performed on umbilical cord...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The aim of this study was to detect differential methylation in umbilical cord blood that is associated with maternal and pregnancy-related variables, such as maternal age and gestational weight gain. These have been studied earlier with 450K microarrays but not with bisulfite sequencing. Methods Reduced representation bisulfite sequenc...
Article
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Objective: Environmental microbial exposures have been implicated to protect against immune-mediated diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Our objective was to study the association of land cover around the early-life dwelling with the development of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes to evaluate the role of environmental microbial biodiversity in...
Article
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The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is generated in a semistochastic process of gene recombination and pairing of TCRα to TCRβ chains with the estimated total TCR diversity of >10⁸. Despite this high diversity, similar or identical TCR chains are found to recur in immune responses. Here, we analyzed the thymic generation of TCR sequences previousl...
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Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a chronic neurological disorder having a strong association with HLA-DQB1*0602, thereby suggesting an immunological origin. Increased risk of NT1 has been reported among children or adolescents vaccinated with AS03 adjuvant-supplemented pandemic H1N1 influenza A vaccine, Pandemrix. Here we show that pediatric Pandemrix-as...