Miguel A. Vadillo

Miguel A. Vadillo
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Basic Psychology

PhD, FPsyS, FHEA

About

180
Publications
92,651
Reads
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3,804
Citations
Introduction
Welcome to my ResearchGate profile. I currently work as a senior research fellow at Universidad Autónoma de Madrid thanks to the generous support provided by the madri+d Science Foundation. My research interests include different aspects of learning, memory and decision making, with a particular focus in the reproducibility of research. You can follow me on Twitter at @mavadillo
Additional affiliations
January 2017 - present
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2014 - December 2016
King's College London
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2014 - present
University College London
Position
  • Honorary senior research associate
Education
September 2003 - February 2008
National Distance Education University
Field of study
  • Anthropology
September 2001 - July 2005
Universidad de Deusto
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1997 - July 2001
Universidad de Deusto
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (180)
Article
Full-text available
Impaired procedural learning has been suggested as a possible cause of developmental dyslexia (DD) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study examined the relationship between measures of verbal and non-verbal implicit and explicit learning and measures of language, literacy and arithmetic attainment in a large sample of 7 to 8-year-old chi...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last century, sporadic research has suggested that people whose hand, eye, foot, or ear dominances are not consistently right- or left-sided are at special risk of suffering academic difficulties. This phenomenon is known as crossed laterality. Although the bulk of this research dates from 1960’s and 1970’s, crossed laterality is becoming...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments examined biases in selective attention during contextual cuing of visual search. When participants were instructed to search for a target of a particular colour, overt attention (as measured by the location of fixations) was biased strongly towards distractors presented in that same colour. However, when participants searched for ta...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that people and nonhuman animals protect their knowledge from interference by shifting attention towards the context when presented with information that contradicts their previous beliefs. Despite that suggestion, no studies have directly measured changes in attention while participants are exposed to an interference treatmen...
Article
It has been suggested that attention is guided by two factors that operate during associative learning: a predictiveness principle, by which attention is allocated to the best predictors of outcomes, and an uncertainty principle, by which attention is allocated to learn about the less-known features of the environment. Recent studies have shown tha...
Presentation
Numerosos estudios sugieren que la mayor parte de los procesos psicológicos básicos pueden operar inconscientemente. Una limitación importante de esta literatura es que los investigadores suelen partir de supuestos cuestionables sobre la medición de la consciencia. El objetivo de este trabajo es doble. En primer lugar, repasaremos brevemente algu...
Article
Full-text available
The study of moral judgements often centres on moral dilemmas in which options consistent with deontological perspectives (that is, emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with options consistent with utilitarian judgements (that is, following the greater good based on consequences). Greene et al. (2009) showed that psychol...
Article
Full-text available
It is usually easier to find objects in familiar contexts that we have seen before. The type of learning that underlies this facilitation, known as contextual cueing, has been understood as an incidental and automatic process given that, among other reasons, it seems to be independent of working memory (WM) resources. This claim has found support i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Many meta-analytic reviews have examined the cognitive benefits of regular physical exercise across the lifespan, with a wide range of inclusion criteria and disparate analytic approaches. In fact, most global health organizations incorporate the purported cognitive benefits as part of their policies to promote regular physical exercise....
Article
Full-text available
An extensive literature has investigated the impact of musical training on cognitive skills and academic achievement in children and adolescents. However, most of the studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, which makes it impossible to elucidate whether the observed differences are a consequence of the engagement in musical activities. Prev...
Chapter
Mental health problems are widely recognized as a major public health challenge worldwide. This highlights the need for effective tools for detecting mental health disorders in the population. Social media data is a promising source of information where people publish rich personal information that can be mined to extract valuable psychological inf...
Preprint
The additional singleton task has become a popular paradigm to explore visual statistical learning and selective attention. In this task, participants are instructed to find a different-shaped target among a series of distractors as fast as possible. In some trials, the search display includes a singleton distractor with a different colour, making...
Article
Full-text available
In studies on probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target among several distractors and report some feature of the target. In a biased stage the target appears more frequently in one specific area of the search display. Eventually, participants become faster at finding the target in that rich region compared to the sparse...
Article
Full-text available
Research on goal priming asks whether the subtle activation of an achievement goal can improve task performance. Studies in this domain employ a range of priming methods, such as surreptitiously displaying a photograph of an athlete winning a race, and a range of dependent variables including measures of creativity and workplace performance. Chen,...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive bias modification (CBM), which retrains implicit biases towards unhealthy foods, has been proposed as a promising adjunct to improve the efficacy of weight loss interventions. We conducted a systematic review of research on three CBM approaches (i.e., cue-specific inhibitory control, approach bias modification, and attentional bias modifi...
Article
Background We have previously presented two educational interventions aimed to diminish causal illusions and promote critical thinking. In both cases, these interventions reduced causal illusions developed in response to active contingency learning tasks, in which participants were able to decide whether to introduce the potential cause in each of...
Article
Since Gardner suggested that human beings hold multiple intelligences, numerous teachers have adapted and incorporated the multiple intelligence theory (MIT) into their daily routine in the classroom. However, to date, the efficacy of MIT–inspired methodologies remains unclear. The focus of the present study was to perform a systematic review and a...
Article
Studies of unconscious mental processes often compare a performance measure (e.g., some assessment of perception or memory) with a measure of awareness (e.g., a verbal report or forced-choice response) of the critical cue or contingency taken either concurrently or separately. The resulting patterns of bivariate data across participants lend themse...
Article
Background Mental health problems are widely recognized as a major public health challenge worldwide. This concern highlights the need to develop effective tools for detecting mental health disorders in the population. Social networks are a promising source of data wherein patients publish rich personal information that can be mined to extract valu...
Article
Visual search is faster when it occurs within repeated displays, a phenomenon known as contextual cuing (CC). CC has been explained as the result of an automatic orientation of attention toward a target item driven by learned distractor-target associations. In 3 experiments we tested the specific hypothesis that CC is an automatic process of attent...
Article
As a method to investigate the scope of unconscious mental processes, researchers frequently obtain concurrent measures of task performance and stimulus awareness across participants. Even though both measures might be significantly greater than zero, the correlation between them might not, encouraging the inference that an unconscious process driv...
Article
Full-text available
Habit-like eating behavior is repeatedly pointed to as a key cognitive mechanism contributing to the emergence and maintenance of obesity. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the literature to assess the existent behavioral evidence for the Habit Hypothesis for Overeating (HHO) which states that obesity is the consequence of an imbalance betw...
Article
Project-based learning (PjBL) is becoming widespread in many schools. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the empirical evidence assessing the impact of PjBL on academic achievement of kindergarten and elementa...
Article
Experimental psychologists often neglect the poor psychometric properties of the dependent measures collected in their studies. In particular, a low reliability of measures can have dramatic consequences for the interpretation of key findings in some of the most popular experimental paradigms, especially when strong inferences are drawn from the ab...
Preprint
In studies on probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target among several distractors and report some feature of the target. In a biased stage the target appears more frequently in one specific area of the search display. Eventually, participants become faster at finding the target in that rich region compared to the sparse...
Preprint
As a method to investigate the scope of unconscious mental processes, researchers frequently obtain concurrent measures of task performance and stimulus awareness across participants. Even though both measures might be significantly greater than zero, the correlation between them might not, encouraging the inference that an unconscious process driv...
Article
Full-text available
Project-based learning (PjBL) is becoming widespread in many schools. However, the evidence of its effectiveness in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education. The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of the empirical evidence assessing the impact of PjBL on academic achievement of kindergarten and elementa...
Preprint
Experimental psychologists often neglect the poor psychometric properties of the dependent measures collected in their studies. In particular, a low reliability of measures can have dramatic consequences for the interpretation of key findings in some of the most popular experimental paradigms, especially when strong inferences are drawn from the ab...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last century hundreds of studies have demonstrated that testing is an effective intervention to enhance long-term retention of studied knowledge and facilitate mastery of new information, compared with restudying and many other learning strategies (e.g., concept mapping), a phenomenon termed the testing effect. How robust is this effect in...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluative conditioning is one of the most widely studied procedures for establishing and changing attitudes. The surveillance task is a highly cited evaluative-conditioning paradigm and one that is claimed to generate attitudes without awareness. The potential for evaluative-conditioning effects to occur without awareness continues to fuel concept...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear w...
Article
Full-text available
There is sound evidence about the high prevalence of misconceptions about education among pre-service teachers. This trend continues after students complete the degree in education and once they are in the exercise of their profession. In fact, several studies show that these misconceptions are widespread among in-service teachers. Erroneous ideas...
Article
Full-text available
There is an ongoing debate in the scientific community regarding whether a state of mental fatigue may have a negative effect upon a range of objective and subjective measures of human performance. This issue has attracted attention from several fields, including sport and exercise sciences. In fact, a considerable body of literature in the sport s...
Article
Full-text available
It is usually easier to find objects in a visual scene as we gain familiarity with it. Two decades of research on contextual cuing of visual search show that repeated exposure to a search display can facilitate the detection of targets that appear at predictable locations in that display. Typical accounts for this effect attribute an essential role...
Article
Full-text available
Does mindfulness meditation improve our capacity to manage attention and behavior in a flexible manner toward the achievement of relevant goals? Here, we describe the first meta-analysis assessing the efficacy of mindfulness mediation training as an enhancer for executive control. The study synthesizes 13 randomized controlled trials conducted in a...
Article
Full-text available
¿Mejora la meditación mindfulness la capacidad de dirigir nuestra atención y acciones de forma flexible y eficaz hacia metas relevantes? Describimos a continuación el primer metaanálisis que examina la eficacia del entrenamiento en meditación mindfulness en la mejora del control ejecutivo. El estudio sintetiza un total de 13 ensayos controlados ale...
Preprint
It is usually easier to find objects in a visual scene as we gain familiarity with it. Two decades of research on contextual cuing of visual search show that repeated exposure to a search display can facilitate the detection of targets that appear at predictable locations in that display. Typical accounts for this effect attribute an essential role...
Article
In probabilistic cuing of visual search, participants search for a target object that appears more frequently in one region of the display. This task results in a search bias toward the rich quadrant compared with other quadrants. Previous research has suggested that this bias is inflexible (difficult to unlearn) and implicit (participants are unaw...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to replicate the hypothesis that mental fatigue impairs physical performance. Design: a pre-registered (https://osf.io/wqkap/), randomized, within-subject experiment. Methods: 30 recreationally active adults completed a time-to-exhaustion test (TTE) at 80% VO2max in two separate sessions, after completing a mental fatigue task or watch...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evaluative conditioning (EC) is one of the most widely-studied procedures for establishing and changing attitudes. The surveillance-task (Olson & Fazio, 2001) is a highly cited EC paradigm, and one that is claimed to generate attitudes without awareness. The potential for EC effects to occur without awareness continues to fuel conceptual, theoretic...
Article
Perceptual grouping leads to interference when target and distractors are integrated within the same percept. Cognitive control allows breaking this automatic tendency by focusing selectively on target information. Thus, interference can be modulated either by goal-directed mechanisms or by physical features of stimuli that help to segregate the ta...
Preprint
Full-text available
An extensive literature has investigated the impact of musical training on cognition and academic achievement in children and adolescents. However, most of the studies have relied on cross-sectional designs, which make it impossible to elucidate whether the observed differences are a consequence of the engagement in musical activities. Previous met...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-established that decision makers bias their estimates of unknown quantities in the direction of a salient numerical anchor. Some standard anchoring paradigms have been shown to yield pervasive biases, such as Tversky and Kahneman’s (1974) classic 2-step task which includes a comparative question followed by an estimation question. In con...
Article
Full-text available
People usually become faster at finding a visual target after repeated exposure to the same search display. This effect, known as contextual cueing, is often thought to rely on a highly efficient learning mechanism, relatively unconstrained by the availability of attentional resources. Consistent with this view, experimental evidence suggests that...
Article
Full-text available
In the present article, we explore the influence of undisclosed flexibility in the analysis of reaction times (RTs). RTs entail some degrees of freedom of their own, due to their skewed distribution, the potential presence of outliers and the availability of different methods to deal with these issues. Moreover, these degrees of freedom are usually...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Over the last years, mindfulness meditation has been claimed to be effective in enhancing several cognitive domains, including executive control. However, these claims have been mostly based on findings pertaining to case-control and cross-sectional studies, which are by nature unable to reveal causal relationships. Aiming to address thi...
Article
Full-text available
Recent debate about the reliability of psychological research has raised concerns about the prevalence of false positives in our discipline. However, false negatives can be just as concerning in areas of research that depend on finding support for the absence of an effect. This risk is particularly high in unconscious learning experiments, where re...
Article
Full-text available
Ego depletion has been successfully replicated in hundreds of studies. Yet the most recent large-scale Registered Replication Reports, comprising thousands of participants, have yielded disappointingly small effects, sometimes even failing to reach statistical significance. Although these results may seem surprising, in the present article I sugges...
Article
Full-text available
According to the mortality salience hypothesis of terror management theory, reminders of our future death increase the necessity to validate our cultural worldview and to enhance our self-esteem. In Experiment 2 of the study 'I am not an animal: Mortality salience, disgust, and the denial of human creatureliness', Goldenberg et al. (Goldenberg et a...
Preprint
According to the mortality salience hypothesis of terror management theory, reminders of our future death increase the necessity to validate our cultural worldview and to enhance our self-esteem. In Experiment 2 of the study “I am not an animal: Mortality salience, disgust, and the denial of human creatureliness”, Goldenberg et al. (2001) observed...
Article
Full-text available
Teachers around the world hold a considerable number of misconceptions about education. Consequently, schools can become epicenters for dubious practices that might jeopardize the quality of teaching and negatively influence students’ wellbeing. The main objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of refutation texts in the correction of err...
Preprint
Teachers around the world hold a considerable number of misconceptions about education. Consequently, schools can become epicenters for dubious practices that might jeopardize the quality of teaching and negatively influence students’ wellbeing. The main objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of refutation texts in the correction of err...
Preprint
Objectives: Over the last years, mindfulness meditation has been claimed to be effective in enhancing several cognitive domains, including executive control. However, these claims have been mostly based on findings pertaining to case-control and cross-sectional studies, which are by nature unable to reveal causal relationships. Aiming to address th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: to replicate the hypothesis that mental fatigue impairs physical performance. Design: a pre-registered (https://osf.io/wqkap/), randomized, within-subject experiment. Methods: 30 recreationally active adults completed a time-to-exhaustion test (TTE) at 80% VO2max in two separate sessions, after completing a mental fatigue task or watchin...
Preprint
Full-text available
The issue of whether a state of mental fatigue have a negative effect upon a range of cognitive and physical indices continues to be debated in the scientific community. This issue has attracted attention in several fields, including the science of sport and exercise. It has been proposed that performing a long cognitive task might deplete internal...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Effective secondary stroke prevention strategies are sub-optimally used, and hence, developing interventions to enable healthcare professionals and stroke survivors to manage risk factors for stroke recurrence more effectively are required. We sought to engage various stakeholders in the design and evaluation of an intervention that ado...
Article
Mental health issues are widely accepted as one of the most prominent health challenges in the world, with over 300 million people currently suffering from depression alone. With massive volumes of user-generated data on social networking platforms, researchers are increasingly using machine learning to determine whether this content can be used to...
Article
Full-text available
Since the term "Neurodoping" was introduced (Davis, 2013; Reardon, 2016), the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has gained popularity in Sports Science within a short space of time, based on the same straightforward logic: if exercise is to some extent determined by brain activity, then stimulating brain areas related to exercis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Much research on moral judgment is centered on moral dilemmas in which deontological perspectives (i.e., emphasizing rules, individual rights and duties) are in conflict with utilitarian judgements (i.e., following the greater good defined through consequences). A central finding of this field Greene et al. showed that psychological and situational...
Article
Shanks et al. (2015) challenged the evidence that various forms of decision making can be influenced by romantic/mating primes. In their comment, Sundie, Beal, Neuberg, and Kenrick (in press) question both the meta-analysis and the 8 studies Shanks et al. reported, and describe an alternative p-curve analysis which they interpret as showing that ro...
Article
West et al. (2018) examined the relationship between implicit learning and reading and language attainment in 7‐ to 8‐year‐old children. The implicit learning tasks had poor reliability and did not correlate with language or reading skills. These findings raise problems for the claim that Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) and Dyslexia are cause...