Miguel Baltazar-Soares

Miguel Baltazar-Soares
University of Turku | UTU · Department of Biology

PhD
Postdoctoral researcher

About

49
Publications
6,267
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
381
Citations
Introduction
I am an evolutionary biologist specialized in population genetics and genomics, with a deep interest in the application of evolutionary theory to management and conservation. My research has so far been focused on natural populations of non-model organisms, where I investigate patterns related to connectivity, demography and adaptive potential of endangered species or in the context of biological invasions.
Additional affiliations
December 2016 - December 2018
Bournemouth University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Marie Skłodowska-Curie Research Fellow
January 2011 - February 2015
GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel
Position
  • PhD Student
September 2001 - September 2007
Universidade do Algarve
Position
  • Student
Education
January 2011 - February 2015
Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
Field of study
  • Evolutionary Biology

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
Worldwide, exploited marine fish stocks are under threat of collapse [1]. Although the drivers behind such collapses are diverse, it is becoming evident that failure to consider evolutionary processes in fisheries management can have drastic consequences on a species' long-term viability [2]. The European eel (Anguilla anguilla; Linnaeus, 1758) is...
Article
Full-text available
Present days are often referred to as the 6th event of mass extinction (Leakey and Lewin 1996) because of human activities rapidly impacting biodiversity. This single fact calls for an urgent need for establishing efficient conservation programs. While “conservation” and “evolutionary” biology may appear to be opposing fields, it has been recognize...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions are worldwide phenomena that have reached alarming levels among aquatic species. There are key challenges to understand the factors behind invasion propensity of non-native populations in invasion biology. Interestingly,interpretations cannot be expanded to higher taxonomic levels due to the fact that in the same genus there ar...
Article
Full-text available
Overfishing and rapid environmental shifts pose severe challenges to the resilience and viability of marine fish populations. To develop and implement measures that enhance species’ adaptive potential to cope with those pressures while, at the same time, ensuring sustainable exploitation rates is part of the central goal of fisheries management. He...
Article
Full-text available
1.Biodiversity conservation is a global issue where the challenge is to integrate all levels of biodiversity to ensure the long‐term evolutionary potential and resilience of biological systems. Genetic approaches have largely contributed to conservation biology by defining ‘conservation entities' accounting for their evolutionary history and adapti...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic activities are increasingly threatening aquatic biodiversity, especially anadromous species. Monitoring and conservation measures are thus required to protect, maintain, and restore imperilled populations. While many species can be surveyed using traditional capture and visual census techniques, species that use riverine habitats in a...
Article
Full-text available
Biological invasions via translocations are a textbook case of globalization’s impact on species distributions. Human-mediated transport helps species to overcome natural spatial boundaries and establish populations, often from a small number of individuals, in ecosystems previously unreachable through natural range expansion. The result is a disco...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The impact of human activities on the global environment has increased to such an extent that the current geological era has been coined the Anthropocene. Studies dedicated to understanding the evolutionary consequences of human‐induced selection on all levels of diversity (species, populations, traits, genes) provide direct knowledge abou...
Article
Full-text available
With gradual decline of global finfish resources, fisheries targeting cephalopods expanded. Yet, the stock assessment and management practice are frequently lacking, and existing ones often remain poorly suited for cephalopod unique life-history. In light of increasing ecological disturbances in marine ecosystems worldwide, assessing exploited spec...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change often leads to shifts in the distribution of small pelagic fish, likely by changing the match-mismatch dynamics between these sensitive species within their environmental optima. Using present-day habitat suitability, we projected how different scenarios of climate change (IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5)...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing climatic changes, with predictable impacts on marine environmental conditions, are expected to trigger organismal responses. Recent evidence shows that, in some marine species, variation in mitochondrial genes involved in the aerobic conversion of oxygen into ATP at the cellular level correlate with gradients of sea surface temperature and...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the processes that underlie the current distribution of genetic diversity in endangered species is a goal of modern conservation biology. Specifically, the role of colonization and dispersal events throughout a species’ evolutionary history often remains elusive. The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) faces multiple conservation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Here we present an environmental DNA (eDNA) assay to detect ammocoetes burrowed in the sediment. We performed a battery of tests that ensured both species-specificity of the assay as well as the capacity to detect ammocoetes when abundances are low. Experiments on burrowing activity suggested that most of the DNA released into the sediment occurs d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Understanding the processes that underlie the distribution of genetic diversity in endangered species is a goal of modern conservation biology. Specifically, how population structure affects genetic diversity and contributes to a species’ adaptive potential remain elusive. The loggerhead sea turtle ( Caretta caretta ) faces multiple conservatio...
Article
Full-text available
Facilitated by the intensification of global trading, the introduction and dispersal of species to areas in which they are historically non‐native is nowadays common. From an evolutionary standpoint, invasions are paradoxical: not only non‐native environments could be different from native ones for which introduced individuals would be ill‐adapted,...
Article
Full-text available
As biodiversity worldwide is decreasing, to preserve adaptive potential, the importance of maintaining species’ genetic and trait diversities is increasing. An efficient foraging strategy is a critical trait for an organism’s fitness, as it affects its physiology and reproduction. Understanding such strategies is especially relevant for species wit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Philopatry and long distance migrations are common in the animal kingdom, of which sea turtles are flagship examples. Recent studies have suggested sea turtles use the Earth's magnetic field to navigate across ocean basins to return to their natal area; yet the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. If true, the genetic structure at nes...
Article
Full-text available
The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is an emblematic species for conservation, and its decline in the British Isles exemplifies the impact that alien introductions can have on native ecosystems. Indeed, red squirrels in this region have declined dramatically over the last 60 years due to the spread of squirrelpox virus following the introd...
Article
Full-text available
Invasions of freshwater habitats by marine and brackish species have become more frequent in recent years with many of those species originating from the Ponto-Caspian region. Populations of Ponto-Caspian species have successfully established in the North and Baltic Seas and their adjoining rivers, as well as in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River r...
Article
The geographic distribution of migratory species can span thousands of kilometers. Yet, traits that enable large-scale migrations are poorly understood. A recent study demonstrates that juvenile eels use the Earth’s magnetism for their dispersal, with possible implications for their evolution.
Data
Figure S2. Posterior's marginal likelihood probability distributions of the BEAST runs for each matrilineage. The x‐axis represents the posterir while the y‐axis represents the density, or the explored parameter space. The effective sample sizes (ESS) of the posterior parameter of each run were as following: A = 219, B = 456, C = 1249. These plots...
Data
Figure S3. Graphical display of the simulated confidence areas for each of the respective modes of evolution. Blue dots and respective labels correspond to the markers used in this study. This pattern is common to the infinite allele and stepwise mutation modes of evolution and shows all loci behaving as candidate neutral. The x‐axis depicts the ex...
Data
Figure S4. Evanno's ΔK calculated has (ΔK = mean(|L''(K)|)/sd(L(K))(Evanno et al. 2005). The y‐axis represents ΔK from K = 2 to K = 9 (x‐axis). The modal value of the distribution is the most likely number of clusters. Although peaks were observed in K = 2 and K = 4 , it is worth mentioning that the Evanno's method cannot detect K = 1 (Evanno et al...
Data
Table S1. Estimates of null allele frequencies for each locus obtained with Dempster's EM method [1]. Confidence intervals are given. Table S2. Neutrality test on microsatellite data. Table S3. Results of demographic analyses on microsatellites Table S4. F ST values for mtDNA (below diagonal) and microsatellites (above diagonal) considering the...
Data
Appendix S2. Microsatellite allelic frequencies.
Data
Figure S5. STRUCTURE admixture plots for the modal distributions of K = 2 and K = 4 identified as possible K's after (Evanno et al. 2005). Symmetry across both plots suggests that K = 1 is the most likely number of K.
Data
Appendix S1. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND5).
Data
Figure S1. Haplotype network, with all shortest trees considered, with explicit mutation steps and frequencies of each haplotype >2. The coor code for each matriline is the following: A = Black, B = Yellow and C = Red.
Data
Figure S6. Posterior distributions of migrations rates summed over all the loci for each cohort. The direction of migration is shown with the symbol ‐> , while the numbers “1”, “2” and “3” correspond to the matrilineages “A”, “B” and “C” respectively.
Article
Full-text available
The recent increased integration of evolutionary theory into conservation programs has greatly improved our ability to protect endangered species. A common application of such theory links population dynamics and indices of genetic diversity, usually estimated from neutrally evolving markers. However, some studies have suggested that highly polymor...
Data
Pairwise distance matrix (FST) amongst sample locations Pairwise distance matrix amongst sample locations. Above the diagonal are the values obtained with microsatellites, below the diagonal the ones obtained with mtDNA. Significant pairwise comparisons (p < 0.05) are depicted with *, or ** after correction for multiple comparison after (Narum, 200...
Data
Summary of codon-based tests for selection ω = (dN∕dS), the ratio of non-synonymous (dN) per synonymous (dS) substitutions; LRT, likelihood ratio statistic for β + = α (null or no selection) vs β + unrestricted (alternative or episodic selection).
Data
Sampling locations of individuals screened for the MHC Labels are the same as in the previous picture.
Data
STRUCTURE plot run with k = 26, where 26 are the number of sampled locations
Data
Average distribution of allele frequencies for “silver” and “glass eels” Above is shown the average distributions of allele’s frequency classes for “silver eels” (grey bars) and “glass eels” (open bars). Error bars represents the maximum and minimum number of alleles observed amongst replicates. Values on the Y-axis were obtained by multiplying the...
Data
Density distributions of the three replicate Markov chain runs Both the skyline (A), posterior (B) and likelihood (C) overlap, conferring statistical support for the shape of the Bayesian plots produced with MHC data (Figs. 4 and 5 of the main text).
Data
Estimates of effective population size (Ne) Estimates of effective population size (Ne) for each of the replicates, with respective confidence intervals.
Data
Molecular indices of MHC for the sampled locations - nHap, number of haplotypes; S, segregation sites; Hd, Haplotype diversity; π, nucleotide diversity; k, average number of differences; nr alleles/ind, average number alleles per individual with respective standard error (se); distnt, average nucleotide distance per individual with respective stand...
Data
Sampling locations of individuals screened with neutral markers Sampling sites and respective number of individuals (n) collected for each site and used for mtDNA and microsatellite analyses. Blue dots represent locations where “silver eels” where collected, yellow dots represent locations where “glass eels” where collected and the red dot represen...
Article
Full-text available
Using evolutionary theory to predict the dynamics of populations is one of the aims of evolutionary conservation. In endangered species, with geographic range extending over continuous areas, the predictive capacity of evolutionary-based conservation measures greatly depends on the accurate identification of reproductive units. The endangered Europ...
Article
Full-text available
Many exploited fish species are threatened with collapse and the European eel is no exception. Its abundance has declined dramatically and various reasons account for this, among them the introduction of the invasive swim bladder nematode Anguillicola crassus. For developing an adequate immune response against this parasite, variation at the genes...
Article
Full-text available
A fragment of the mitochondrial control region was used to assess phylogeographic patterns and historical demography of the sand-smelt Atherina presbyter in the North-eastern Atlantic, covering its geographical range. A striking result is the highly marked differentiation between the Canary Islands population and western European ones. A genetic st...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Small pelagic fishes (SPF) have extreme ecological and economical importance in marine ecosystems. Nonetheless, SPF are particularly vulnerable to environmental changes, being ectothermic, their performance is highly dependent on aerobic metabolism and on sea surface temperature. In this project, we will implement a multidisciplinary approach to determine the impact of temperature increment on SPF, using the European pilchard Sardina pilchardus as a model-system. We aim to understand the response of two different populations of sardines in terms of metabolic, physiological, reproductive and behavioural responses to climate change. Several questions will be addressed in this proposal: do sardines from different geographic locations have different metabolic, physiological and behavioural responses at increasing temperatures? Does temperature increments affect reproduction? What are the carry-over and acute effects on sardine larvae when exposed to higher temperatures? How will populations? distribution respond to future climate change projections? The adaptation to changing environments and how organisms will respond to climate change are key discussion topics in contemporary biology and this project will contribute with novel and original findings to the study of the biological and ecological adaptation of marine fishes to ocean warming.
Project
Characterize European-wide genomic diversity on its European distribution. Relate the findings with the distribution of potential hosts in the marine phase. Develop non-invasive techniques to identify the presence of early stages in the sediment (through eDNA). Characterize the use of river habitat by lamprey ammoecetes. The project is within the EU Policy framework for Biodiversity Protection, as this species is endangered in Europe.
Project
Projects aims to design a Mediterranean-based network that relies on robust social framework and cutting edge evolutionary science for future implementation of bottom up approach into fishery management. The overarching goal is to promote knowledge transfer between evolutionary scientists and local fishery stakeholders towards sustainable fisheries management. Funded by Interreg MED Programme